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other emoluments now paid out of the taxes, them in their old age. We know that except for such public services as, upou a very the law sends a man to jail and to hard : scrupulous examiuation, shall be found fully to merit them; and to reduce all salaries to labour and bodily punishment of the the American standard.

most degrading kind if he will not work

to maintain his wife and children. We If any one will look into the Pension might ask how a labouring man is to list and the list of sinecures, he will lay by any thing, when the magistrates find that, generally speaking, they have in Hampshire and Wiltshire do not albeen granted to persons who it is im- low him enough barely to find bread for possible can ever have rendered any himself and his family. The magistrates public service whatsoever. A great of Hampshire, of which Sir THOMAS part of them are females: and whole BARING was one, fixed a scale of wages families of them, male as well as female, which would not give half enough of stand on the Pension List. Lord Al- bread for the maintenance of a labourer THORP, some time ago, said that these and his family, to say nothing of meat pensions were gifts of charity. Cha- and drink and clothing and lodging and rity! Good God! When the Catholic fuel. Church made its institutions of charity But in the few cases which, in this in this country, it acted on the principle state of things, enables a man to get tolaid down by the apostle ; namely, that gether, by extraordinary good luck, that it was men's duty to give to the combined with almost more than mortal needy ; but to give out of their own exertion, some little bit of property, a property, and even out of their own bit of ground or a cottage, how does the carnings; for, says he, “ We worked law deal with him and with his property? “with our own hands that we might have Let me rélate a fact. An old man, all “ to give to him who needed.” Our Go- his life-time a hard labourer, and then vernment has proceeded upon exactly at an age touching four-score, possessed the contrary principle; for it has taken two tenements worth fifteen pounds a the bread out of the mouth of the year or thereabouts. Upon the rent of working man, to give it to persons who these cottages, and upon the labour that did not need, in order to keep them in he was able to perform, he, at that exluxury and without work. He who treme age, kept himself from the parish, will not work shall not eat,says the and hoped to do so for the remainder of

but our Government says, by its his life. Now mark, he had had a son acts, He that will not work shall eat, who had had several children, and who and have plenty, and lie that will work was dead, leaving the widow and these shall be half starved. Upon the Pen- children. The poor fatherless children sion-list there are two women of the were able to work and did work for the name of RicketTS: there is, besides, a farmers of the parish, and their earnings Ricketts who is the Collector-General were sufficient to maintain them. Now, for the county of Hants, with a large pray mark : the farmers gave them a salary. I want to know why we should certain portion of their wages in the keep these two women of the name of shape of wages; but, according to the RICKETTS ; and can discover no reason custom which has long prevailed in the other than that they are related to Lady South of England, gave them part of NORTHESK and to Lady MILDMAY, their weekly pay out of the poor-rales ; whose son has married one of the Ba- which, according to the law, made them RINGS, and one of whose sons is a Mem- pauper3. Being paupers, the law comber for Winchester. Lord ALTHORP pelled the grandfather to maintain them says that these are gifts of charity. Let if he had the means! And the parishus see, then, how this principle is ob- officers, by order of the magistrates, served in the treatment of the working went and demanded from the poor old classes. They are everlastingly re- grandfather a repayment of that money proached for not laying by something which they paid the children weekly of the earnings of their youth to keep out of the poor-rates. This money a.


mounted to a great deal more than the many as are actually in employ? How amount of the rent of the poor grand- comes it that we have about four-scorefather's tenements. Aye,” said the ambassadors and consuls in our pay, magistrates, “ but you can sell the te- when about a quarter part of the numnements !!! " Yes," said the grand- ber is all that we have in employ, and father, " but then I must, at last, come which quarter part it is perfectly evidentto the parish myself.” “ We cannot to me receive ten times as much money. help that,” said the magistrates! and as they ought to receive for their serthey were right enough. The law au- vices ? Upon what principle is it that. thorized them to do this thing : the law men are to be paid for life for having authorized them even to strip the old served, for an adequate salary at the grandfather of his last stick of property least, during a part of their life? When to keep even his grand-children ; but a commissioner, a clerk, an officer in the law has not prevented our Govern- any service, ceases to be employed in ment from keeping the families of the that service, aye, and when a common aristocracy and their relations and de- soldier ceases to be a soldier, why is he pendents out of taxes imposed even still to be paid ? If, indeed, he have, in upon this poor grandfather and his mi- a hazardous service, been deprived of his serable grandchildren.

sight, or of any of his limbs, or bave With regard to this class of persons, suffered any permanent grievous bodily not another word need be said : the harm, this is the last nation upon earth injustice of compelling the people at that would withhold from him the prolarge to maintain them is so monstrous, tećtion due to his crippled state. But, especially while the working classes are otherwise, what pretensions has he to a thus dealt with; it is so monstrous, that single shilling of pay after his services the very thought of it really half de- have ceased? Where, in the practice of prives one of one's senses. If such a men in general, do we find any analogy thing were proposed in the United to justify this species of expenditure of States of America, even in one single the public money? When a merchant, instance, the whole country would be a manufacturer, any tradesman or farin an uproar; and, if attempted to be mer, no longer requires the services of acted upon, it would tear up the go- an individual, he ceases to pay him. If, vernment, root and branch, in a week. indeed, these public servants were com

So much for pensions, sinecures, pelled to become such; were compelled grants, and all money given to people to give up pursuits of life in which they with a notorious want of any services were engaged, and to go into this new whatever to recommend them. But pursuit by the imperative commands of there are what are called allowances and ihe law; then it would not only be just half-pay, whether civil, military, or to make them an allowance when their naval.

We have a prodigious army, a services were no longer wanted in their great navy, monstrous taxing and other new state of life; but it would be unjust: civil establishments; but I very much not to make an ample provision for themt question whether all the officers of the for the rest of their lives. But, observe, army and navy and of those establish- these persons have not only voluntarily ments, who are in employ, take so much entered into the several services; but money in the year as those who have have sought for the services, and have been in those services or offices, and obtained them in general by means not have retired from them, or have ceased of the brightest description. What now to be in them. Otherwise, how claim have they, therefore, to any alcome we with three generals to every lowance, or any half-pay, or any penregiment of foot and of horse, with two sion, when their services are no longer adinirals to every ship of the line, and required ? They have lost, it will with, perhaps, four times as many com- be said, their habits and their fitness missioners and clerks now in pay, at for the ordinary pursuits of life, but some rate or another; four times as that is not the fault of the 'public:

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they knew that they must lose those thing like this were to be made by any habits and that fitness before they en- man in the United States of America, he tered into the service.; and the answer must instantly flee the country. But, to them is, that they should now set to Gentlemen, electors of Manchester, work to re-acquire the necessary habits, when we have taken a view of the milor, that they should have saved, out of | lions a year which this dead-weight their salaries and pay, a sufficiency to swallows up; twice as many millions, maintain them during the rest of their observe, as are required to carry on the lives; or, at any rate, to give them a start whole of the twenty governinents of the in some useful pursuit.

United States of America, including their Mark, I beseech you, what is said to army and militia ; including their great the working people. They are ever- navy, and including also the interest of lastingly told to lay by, in the days of their remaining debt, which they have their youth and strength, the means of reduced to a mere nothing because they sustaining them; aye, and even their had dead-weight;" besides the children and grand-children, when that money which this costs ; besides the youth and that strength shall have been intolerable burden which this imposes supplanted by age and by feebleness. upon us in the present day, do pray To induce the working classes to do consider the scourge which it is provid- ; this, what bales of Acts of Parliament ing for our children that are now in the have been passed to encourage cradle. Friendly Societies," parochial and This “ dead-weight;" these alloweven county Friendly Societies; to in- ances, half-pay, and other things of the duce them to put even their farthings sort, have, since the peace was made, into that precious place of deposit called cost us nearly about one hundred and a Savings' Bank. Handbills, dirty fifty millions of money; and unless we be tracts, even sermons, have been poured resolved legally to put an end to this out upon them to induce them to put by system, this particular department must their pennies, at the expense of both continue to cost us at this rate. Montheir bellies and their backs; to the strous as this is, however, in this imconstant pinching of the former, and the mense cost, and in the oppressions that ; constant exposure of the latter to the arise from it, we see but a part of the cold. What audacious insolence is this ! evil. The persons who are maintained With what contempt must these ad. in this manner amount in number to visers view the intellects of the working more than twenty thousand. They have people; while their earnings are taken been encouraged to marry by a provision from them to furnish allowances and having been made beforehand for their half-pay to those who have lived like wives and children ; and with regard to lords during the days of their active the army, there the half-pay people employment, and in order to furnish have been allowed to sell their half-pay, them with those means of living in their and thus to perpetuate the burden by old age which they ought to have saved continually putting young men in the out of their salaries and pay.

place of old men. All these people are This class of persons is that to which at work breeding gentlemen and ladies Castlereagh gave the name of the for us to keep; for as to work, that one dead-weight;" but far is this weight soul of them never will. See what a from stopping with the officers them- burden here is preparing for this devoted selves : it extends to their widows and nation! Three times twenty thousand their children, who are also maintained widows and children, perhaps, at this out of the sweat of the people; and very moment! At a hundred a year upon thus, while everlasting efforts are made an average, here is six millions a year to check the breeding of the working in store for us to pay ; besides the pay classes, here is a high premium tendered to the officers themselves. Nay, the

for the breeding of swarms of gentlemen evil by no means stops here ; for, byand ladies. If a proposition to do a and-by, there will arise a necessity, an

absolute dire necessity, of taking every hold this in complete independence farthing of allowance from this dead- the Government, and not at all depena weight of every description; and what ent on their future conduct, be it what is then to become of these unoffending it might, except they were guilty of children? Common humanity shudders felony. There ought to be an excepat the thought of the consequences to tion, also, in the case of very extraorthem. Even as it is, great as the costs dinary services, whether shown in inis to us, it is inadequate to the wants stances of valour or of skill. But, with which false rearing up has rendered real these exceptions, I would lop the whole wants to these people. London, and off; and I should be glad to hear stated, every great town and city, swarms with under the name of the person who will the poor things looking out for ladylike state them, any argument against such and gentlemanlike employment. The lopping off. poor creatures lead lives of misery not With regard to salaries, my proposi. to be described ; the boys looking down tion is to reduce them to the American upon journeymen and labourers without standard; and I shall, for this once, having a sixpence in their pocket, or notice what Mr. Prentice here says shalf enough to eat. The poor girls be- with regard to this part of my address, coming, or wanting to become, teachers, He says that he trusts that no elector artists of some sort or other; and, with for a candidate who will not the outward show of gentility, not go as far as I do as to this matter; but, having, perhaps, a second change of says he, “ we know not, however, why linen, and longing for the dinner that " we should take the American standard the saucy housemaid rejects. No man “ of salaries, for there are many offices that knows any-thing of the situa-" the duties of which are paid for in the tion of the country in this respect will " United States, which might be per say that this picture is overcharged;" formed here gratuitously. The falla, and humanity will, at last, call upon " cies put forth in defence of high offithe nation, if nothing else does, to put " cial pay were admirably exposed, an end to the ruin and the misery arising “ twenty years ago, by Mr. Bentham, in from this source: ruin and misery to “his reply to Burke and Rose, and if the receivers of the money, as well as to “ Mr. Cobbett puts the arguments therein those who pay it. To be idle, to be " contained into his own popular lan slothful, even to be unemployed, used "guage he will do great public service." to be the shame: the present vicious When CHARLES the Second had an system has removed the seat of the offer made to him by one of his Parliashame; and how the fashion is to be ments to do for him (I' forget what) ashamed of nothing but honest labour. something very gracious, and which he

It remains for me to speak under this saw was intended to do him mischief head of the exception to this rule of in the end, he answered, in verse : lopping off. I know it would be just

Charles, at present, having no need, to take away every penny of what is

Thanks you as much as if he had. called the half-pay, and to do it at once, but this would be exercising a Bad rhyme, to be sure, but excellent degree of severity of which I think this reason ; and I beg leave to offer the nation is not "capable. In cases, there- samé to Mr. Prentice. Besides that, fore, where men had served in the army I do not need to be furnished with

any and navy for a great many years, had arguments upon this subject by anybeen abroad a considerable part of the body; I have a particular objection to time; had endured very great hard-the appropriating to my own use of any ships, or were greatly advanced in years, thing that comes from this source; for, I would be ready to agree that they amongst my efforts, would be that of should have a sufficient maintenance for making Mr. BentIAM" refund that the rest of their lives, as a reward for pretty round sum of the public money, their past services, and that they should which he got from Pirt and the Parlia

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aent for projecting the Mill-bank Peni- unless they can live in a style that the
tentiary, which has already cost the richest peers are enabled to live in, and
people of this nation more than all the do live in. How does this square with
new churches put together, and which, the practice of common life? Do rich
as stated in the House of Commons, merchants and bankers think it neces-
had cost more than a million of money śary to make their managing clerks as
when the managers of it could pretend rich as themselves and to live in the
to have reclaimed only eight prostitutes! same style? Does a great manufac-
Never was there a more flagrant job on turer, amongst whose people it is neces-
the face of this earth ; never was any sary to sustain regular discipline, and
thing more wild in its scheme; never who lives himself in a country house, or
was squandering of money more obvi- in London, think it necessary to enable
ous ; never was a thing more impolitic his overseer to ride in his earriage too!
than to add to the population of this Does a lord think it necessary that his
overgrown place by the expending of steward should keep fox-hounds as well
this million and a half of money upon as himself, and be able to give dinners
it, and thereby adding more or less to prepared by French cooks? But to go
the poverty of the industrious classes in from private life to the Government,
every part of the kingdom.

the salaries of which I take as my
No: having no taste for either standard ; do the American people
crotchets or conundrums, I have, at think it necessary that even their
present, no need, but thank Mr. Peen- President, let alone their secretaries and
TICE just as much as if I had. I am for ambassadors, should be able to vie iti
low salaries for two reasons ; first, be expenditure with the great merchants
cause they would not be a temptation of that country? By no means. They
for rich fools to crowd themselves into have had seven Presidents, I think it is;
places of power ; and, second, because and the salaries, joined to the private
this standard would be a rule for all income, of no three of them would have
public pay, every description. Some enabled one of them to vie in expense
will say that, if you have low salaries, of living and of show with any one of
you must have men of little talent; one thousand merchants of that country.
men comparatively poor, and, therefore, Let it not be pretended, then, that great
not trustworthy. Indeed! What, then, heaps of money in the way of salary are
Pitt, Dundas, and all the Prime Minis- necessary to command the use of great
ters, in short, have shown great wisdom, talents and great integrity. BINGHAX,
have they, and singular integrity of Philadelphia, the real original
CANNING's fourteen thousand a year as BINGHAM, could spend more, and did
Ambassador to Lisbon insured us won- spend more than all the seven Presidents
derfully wise negociations there! The put together could spend, in a year;
enormous salaries to our finance Minis- that is to say, taking a year out of each
ters have insured us wonderful clever- Presidentship, and putting the seven
ness with regard to taxation and the together. But did this diminish the
currency. The wagon-loads of money dignity either of their station or their
heaped upon the CASTLBREAGAS and deportment ? Did WASHINGTON or
the WELLESLEYS have secured us sur- Adams, both of whom lived in the same
prising respect and power upon the city, ever condescend to dine at the
continent. In short, look at our present table of BINGHAM; and did their wives
situation, in all respects, and look at ever attend any of the assemblies or rouia
poor Ireland, and say if you believe that of his wife?
statesmen with Is. 6d. a day could have Oh, no! it is not the salary that can
brought this nation to a worse state than give weight to the station of the man:
that in which it now is.

it is the opinion which the people enSome will pretend that Ministers tertain of his talents and of his integrity; cannot be respected, and have a pro- and if their opinion of these be low, all per degree of influence and authority, the millions of the loanmongers will not



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