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ployment does not arise from any em
In parts of Ireland a systematic opposition barrassment of commerce. It is found in has been made to the payment of tithes, atagriculture as well as in commerce; it tended in some instances with afflictiny rearises from a transfer of property from sults; and it will be one of your first duties to farmers, manufacturers, and traders, to inquire whether it may not be possible to effect loanmongers, Jews, and other usurers, improvements in the laws respecting this sub. who suck up the products of industry ject, which may afford the necessary protection through the channels of taxation ; and to the Established Church, and at the same this sucking up arises from the measure time remove the present causes of complaint. of that fine young statesman, Peel's- But in this and every other question affecting Bill Peel: and this evil can never be Ireland, it is above all things necessary to look cured but by my thirteen Manchester to the best means of securing internal peace propositions.
and order, which alone seeni wanting to raise It is with great concern that I have ob. a country, blessed by Providence with so many served the existence of a disease at Sunder- natural advantages, to a state of the greatest laud, similar in its appearance and character prosperity. to that which has existed in many parts of
The and is again unnecessary, and Europe. Whether it is indigenous, or has the which has an equivocal reference. been imported from abroad, is a question in- The subject of this para nph of the volved in much uncertainty, but its progress speech is important beyond description. bas neither been so exteusive nor so fatal as In another Register Í shall examine on the Contiueut. It is not, however, the less what Mr. STANLEY said upon the subject. necessary to use every precautiou agaiust the Here I have only room to observe, that further extension of this malady; and the it is utterly iinpossible to effect the two measures recommended by those who have objects propounded, if it be meant by had the best opportunity of observing it, as protection to the church, to take nothing most effective for this purpose, have been from that church. It is very true that adopted.
no good is to be done to Ireland, nor to The is ought to have been be, and England either, without securing inthe has, have, according to common ternal peace and order ; but, then, alas !
to the rules of that peace and order, in Ireland at any grammar. As to the subject-matter rate, are wholly incompatible with the of this part of the Speech, it gives existence of an establishment which has not the least alarm to us who have the kept that at once fine and miserable happiness to live in the city of London, country in a state of continual turmoil, seeing that we have 6s Charley ” Pear- from the barbarous reign of Elizabeth to son, the chairman of our Committee of the present day. Health, who sends us round his rescripts, The conduct of the Portuguese Governcommanding us 'to white-wash our ment, and the repeated injuries to which my houses, scour our water-courses, wash subjects have been exposed, have prevented a our hands and face, keep our persons renewal of my diplomatic relations with that clean, and to abstain froin over-drink- kingdom. The state of a country so long ing, from keeping bad hours, and par- united with this by the ties of the most intiticularly from the use of ardent spirits mate alliance must necessarily be to me an to excess! Seeing “ Charley” in cor- object of the deepest interest ; and the return respondence with the Privy Council upon to Europe of the elder brauch of the illustrious this subject, and perceiving that our house of Braganza, and the dangers of a dispaternal Lord Mayor nas committed the puted succession, will require iny most vigilant keeping of our health to Charley's attention to events by which not only the safety care, for ourselves, we are perfectly at of Portugal, but the general interests of Europe, ease, but naturally entertain an anxious may be affected. solicitude for our unfortunate fellow- The arrangenient which I announcel to you subjects, on whom the Government and at the close of last session, for the separation constituted authorities do not appear to of the States of Holland and Belgium, bas. have bestowed such peculiar care. been followed by a treaty between the five
Powers and the King of the Belgians, which police of the kingdom, in the more effectual I have directed to be laid before you as soon protection of the y ublic peace against the reas the ratifications shall have been exchanged. currence of similar commotions. A similar treaty has not yet been agreed to by the King of the Netherlands; but I trust the
I always said that we should have a
Bourbon GENDARMERJE; and now I period is not distaut when that Sovereign will see the necessity of accediug to an arrauge- about it, however ; it cannot last long,
suppose we shall have it. I care nothing ment in which the plenipotentiaries of the five and while it does last, it will be a curious Powers have unanimously concurred, and which have been fra.ned with the most care ercise itself upon.
spectacle for political philosophy to exful and impartial attention to all the interests concerned. I have the satisfaction to inforın Sincerely attached to our free constitution, you that I have concluded with the King of I never can sanctiun any interference with the French a convention, which I have di- the legitimate exercise of thiose rights whic” rected to be laid before you, the object of secure to my people the privilege of discussing which is the effectual suppression of the and making known their grievances ; but in African slave trade; this convention, having respecting these rights, it is also my duty to for its basis the concession of reciprocal rights prevent combinations, under whatever pretext, to be mutually exercised in specified latitudes which in their form and character are incomand places, will, I trust, enable the naval patible with all regular government, and are forces of the two countries to accomplish, hy equally opposed to the spirit and to the provitheir combined efforts, an object which is felt sious of the law; and I know that I shall nut by both to be so important to the interests of appeal in vain to my faithful subjects to second humanity.
my determined resolution to repress all illegal Regarding the state of Europe generally, proceedings by which the peace and security of the friendly assurances vbich I receive from my domiuions may be endangered. Foreign Powers, and the union which subsists
This is what the French call a bonné between me and my Allies, inspire me with a
bouche; that is to say, a sweet little ! confident hope that peace will not be inter
niorsel kept for the last. However, I | rupted.
must say, that if the Ministers only mean These are matters of no importance to prevent or avert organization for to us, except the slave-trade affair, arming, I think, too, that that is incon. which will only make the merchants sistent with any-thing worthy of the and planters of France hate LouisPhilippe and his Ministers, and that is a clude all volunteer arinings; for, to
name of Government; but, then, I in. good thing
suffer the rich to make a display of arms Gentlemen of the House of Commnions, against the working people, is not only I have directed the estimates for the ensu. a villanous thing in itself, not only odiing year to be prepared, and they will in due ous and detestable in its very 'nature, time be laid before you. I will take care that but is SURE to produce a total shifting they shall be framed with the strictest regard of property from hand to hand; a total to economy, and I trust to your wisdom and breaking up of the community, preceded patriotism to make such provisions as may be by bloodshed, and followed by sufferings required for the public service.
which no tongue can describe: but this My Lords and Gentlemen,
is a large subject, which I shall treat of The scenes of violence and outrage which hereafter. In the meantime, I express have occurred in the city of Bristol, and in my decided dissent from what is consome other places, have caused me the deepest tained in General Cockburn's letter to affliction. The authority of the laws must be Lord Grey, and from all those who talk vindicated by the punishment of uffences about NATIONAL GUARD, and who ap. which have produced so extensive a destruc- parently forget what that National tion of property, and so melancholy a loss of Guard was which drove the Prussians life. I think it right to direct your attention out of France, and brought so many to the best means of improving the municipal haughty despots upon their knees. The
present National Guard in France is un- Jamės May is a more athletic man, of wiry
He worthy of the name; it ought to be make, and firm determined countevance. called the Fundholder Guard ; and we handkerchief, and appeared to his arraignment
was dressed in a fustian jacket with a yellow shall see, by-and-by, how these pot- with a rather compressed lip and stern counbellied fellows will run to corners when tenance. once.the real National Guard shall make The appearance of the prisoners as they were
called up amongst a batch of other prisoners, its appearance.
showed do emotion which could indicate that they were charged with a more heinous offence than the pickpockets and housebreakers
around them. TRIAL
The Court was by this time nearly filled
with fashionably-dressed persons, particularly of the monsters, who murdered a boy females. in order to sell his body to those who
The counsel engaged for the prosecution
were, Messrs. Adolphus, Clarkson, and Bode deal in dead bodies to cut up.
kin ; for the prisoners, Messrs. Curwood and
The indictment charged that they, John TRIAL OF JOHN
Bishop, Thomas Williams, and James May, BISHOP, THOMAS
being malicious and evil-disposed persons, aud WILLIAMS, AND JAMES MAY, FOR THE MURDER OF THE ITALIAN but being under the instigation of the devil,
not having the fear of God before their eyes, BOY.
did, on the 4th of November last, in and upon At an early hour on Friday morning the the body of Charles Ferrari, otherwise called cuurts of the Old Bailey were almost in a Carlo Ferrari, in the parish of St. Matthew, state of siege. Every approach to it was so Bethual-green, feloniously and maliciously, crowded as to render the effecting an entrance aud of malice aforethought, commit an asby those who had business a matter of con- sault; and that they with a certain wooden siderable difficuliy at half-past seven o'clock. staff of oo value, there the said Charles Ferrari, The galleries, it was stated by the officers of otherwise Carlo Ferrari, did strike and beat on the Court, had been completely taken over the back of the neck, and that they did by night by members of the nobility, and a guinea such striking and beating, feloniously, wilfør a seat was said to bave been repeatedly fully, and maliciously, give to the said Carlo refused, Mr. C. Phillips was expected to baie Ferrari divers wounds and contusions, of conducted the defence, but having cases in the which wounds and contusions the said Carlo other Court, we understasid that he decliued, Ferrari theu and there did die. They were in consequence of this trial being likely to also indicted for another murder of a male occupy the Court till ten o'clock at night. person, whose name was unknown. Thirty-one witnesses were subpevaed for the The clerk of the arraigns then asked, “John prosecution, and twenty-two for the defeuce. Bishop, are you guilty or not guilty?” Bishop The whole of these parties were in attendance answered, without any emotiou, "Not guilty,'* at eight o'clock, and conducted to a private as did also the others. room. One persun, named Mortimer, wbu The prisoners were then told, that if they was to be a witness for the prosecution, cut his objected to any of the jurymen, they must do throat, and now lies in a very ciangerous state. su befüre they were sworn. The names of the
At ten o'clock Lord Chief Justice Tindal jurymen were theu called over, and none of (who came expressly to try this case), Mr. them ohjected tu. Baron Vaughan, aud Mr. Justice Littledale, At a few miuutes after ten the Lord Chief entered the Court, with the Lord Mayor aud Justice of the Common Pleas entered the Sheriffs. The bench was instantly crowced Court with Mr. Baron Vaughan and Mr. with nobility and gentry, amoug whom we Justice Littledale. The Jury were then perceived bis Royal Highness the Duke of charged, and Mr. Boukin opened the pleadSussex. The prisoners then beiug again placed ings for the prosecution. at the bar, the Jury were charged with them. Mr. Adolphus, in detailing the circun
John Bishop was dressed in a smock-frock, stances, said the jury could not but be aware and presented nearly the same appearance as that this was a case of great importance, from an agricultural labourer, except that his ex- what had taken place for many days past; he pression of countenance, if we may so express was
that no person could be unit, was more tipged with inetropolitan cuu- acquainted with the foul crime with which niog.
the prisoners were charged, but he implored Thomas Williams was dressed in a fustian the jury to remove fruni their minds all that jacket, with a brown haudkerchief. He is they had previously heard respectiug it, and rather a simple-looking nian, under the to deliver the prisoners as they would deliver middle size, and of extremely inoffeusive ap- their consciences; aud he hoped they would pearance. He seemed to be as litle affected not allow their minds to be biassed by what as any of the spectators.
they had heard or read out of duo.s. He obo
served that in this case no revenge, none of the declined that and left them. He returned in usual incentives to commit crime, had iuflu about a quarter of au hour or twenty miuutes." enced the unbappy prisoners in committing The men remained. Mr. Mayhew had in the the murder, if it should appear they did com- interim got a body of police and apprehended mit that offence. It was solely a desire to them. Wher wiiness was leaving the room. possess themselves of a dead body, in order to Bishop said to him privately, “Pay me in dispose of it to the surgeons.
presence of Williams only eight guineas, and Wm. Hill examined by Mr. Clarkson-He give me privately the other guinea, avd I will stated that he was a porter at the dissecting give you half-a-erown." The body was taken: room of King's College; on the 5th of No. to the police-office by Mr. Thomas ; it had vember last the bell of the gate rang at about not heen laid out, as there was no saw-dust ou a quarter-past twelve o'clock; found Bishop the back of the head. and May at the gate. Had known then be- Cross-examined by Mr. Curwood--Williams fore. When witness opened the door, Nay did not appear, and these conversations were asked him if he wanted any thing; wituess in the presence of May and Bishop aloue. said, Not particularly. Asked him what he had By Mr. Clarkson - The conversation about got. He said a male subject. Witness asked the 501. note was before Williams. of what size, and what price. He said it was Mr. Richard Partridge, demonstrator of a boy of 14, and that he wanteil 12 guineas for avatomy at the King's College, was there on it. Witness said be did not want it much, but Saturday, the 5th of Nov. His atteution was he would see Mr. Partridge, the demonstrator, first called to the hudy hy Hill. Examined the who came down to see the body. Witness took external appearance of the body, and found. them to the room appropriated to them, and suine marks and circumstances of suspiciou. Mr. Partridge joined them. They did not then These were the swollen state of the jaw—the produce any body. There was a difference at blood-shot eyes-the fresliness of the bodyfirst about the price, but witness afterwards rigidity of the limbs. There was likewise a cut agreed with them. May said they should have over the left temple. Looked at the lips, it for ten guineas. Mr. Partridge then left which were swollen. Noticed nothing else in witness alone with them. Wituess went to the appearance of the body. Witness weut to Mr. Partridge to know whether he would the police before the 501. note was produced. decide upon having it. When witness re- On his return witness showed May and Bishop turned, he told them that Mr. Partridge would a note, at the bottom of the stairs leading to give them nine guineas for it. May said he the anatomical part of the college. Proposed would be d-d if it should come in for less that change should be got of the 501. nute, with than ten; he was tipsy at the time. May a view to detaiu them till the police came. Saw went outside the door. Bishop then said to the boily afterwards, when in the ciratody of witness, “Never mind May, lie is drunk; it Mr. Thomas, in compauy with Mr. Beaman shall come in for nine, in half an hour." May and other gentlemen. The muscles were then was near enough to hear him. They then rigid. The wound on the temple was super went away, and returned in the afternoon, all ficial, and did not injure the hove. That was three together, with the porter Shields, who the only appearance of external injury; at least has been discharged. When witness saw them there was uo other external mark. Between the hamper was on the head of the porter. the scalp and the bone there was some blood They were received in a roon, and May and cougealed. On opening the body the whole of Bishop took the hamper into another roun, the contents of the chest and abuumen were in where they opened it; the body was in a sack; a healthy condition. Did not kuow what were May and Bishop said that it was a very fresh the contenis of the stomach, which was filled. ope; May was tipsy, and turned the body The spinal part of the brain at the back of the carelessly from the sack; saw that the body head and the whole brain were also examined; was fresh; but saw something else about it the brain was perfectly healthy as far back as which induced him to go to Mr. Partridge; the spise; in cutting through the skin and he asked them what the body had died of; muscles of the neck there was discovered a May said that that was no business of theirs great deal of coagulated blood, aud upon re or of witness's; it was not in such a form as moving the back part of the bouy caual which bodies usually are when taken from a cuffin; concludes the spine of the back, a quantity of the left arm was bent, aud the fingers were cougealed blood was also found in that; that clenched; witness told Mr. Partridge what he was opposite the place where the blood had had seen, and what he thought'; Mr. P. been found in the muscles of the neck; un. returned and saw the body, without seeing cougealed blood was also found in the rest of them; he examined the body, and weut to the the spine; the spinal marrow or cord apo secretary.' He returned to May and Bishop, peared perfectly healthy; thought that those and showed them a 501. nute, telling them marks of violence were sufficient to have that he must get that changed and he would caused death. That vivlence had been exerted pay them. Bishop, seeiug that Mr. Partridge which had affected the spinal cord. Believed had some gold in his purse, said, “ Give me that those appearances had been caused by what money you have in your purse, and I some violence on the back of the neck. Bewill call for the rest on Monday.” May also 'lieved that a blow from a stick would have offered to get change for it, bur Mr. Partridge, produced similar effects. Could not say whe
ther that would produce instant death, but to examine the spinal marrow, a quantity of it certainly would have produced a rapid one. coagulated blood was lying in the canal,
Cross-examined-Saw nothing in the ex- which, by pressure in the spinal marrow, must ternal appearance that indicated a violent have caused death. There was no injury to death. Spoke from belief, which was more the bone of the spine. All these appearances, than suspicion. Did not think that any other and the death, would have followed the blow of applications of force than a blow would have an obtuse instrument of any kind. The chest produced those appearances. A fall would have and the cavity were minutely examined. There been a blow. Thought that it could not have was about an ounce of blood in the spinal been caused by a violent pressure of the knee canal. The heart was empty, which is very or hand.
unusual, aud denoted sudden death ; meant Re-examined by Mr. Bodkin-The heart was nearly instantaneous death, in two or three empty and the face flush.
minutes, and not longer. The stomach conBy the Court. These appearances indicated tained a tolerably full meal, which smelt that a person had died rai her suddeuly, aud in slightly of rum, and digestion was going on many cases, of a natural death.
at the time of death. Should think that death Mr. G. Beaman (hy Mr. Adolphus), Sur- occurred about three hours after the meal, geon, of James-street, Covent-garden-First from the appearances. Removed the stomach. saw the body on the 5th of November, at 12 The centre of the stomach appeared perfectly o'clock at night. Examined it carefully. It healthy. Ascribed the death of the boy to a appeared to have died very recently. The wea- blow on the back of the neck, from the whole ther was then favourable to the preservation of of his exanination, and verified by precisely bodies. By his judgment the body had not the same appearances as witness had seen on been dead more that 36 hours. The face ap animals. peared swollen ; the eyes full, prominent, and Cross-examined by Mr. Barry-Did not. blood-shot ; the tongue swollen, and protruded think the body was dirty; did not cleanse any between the lips; the teeth had all been ex other part than the back of the neck; if a tracted; the gums bruised and bloody, and stick or beavy staff had been used on the back portions of the jaws had been broken out of the veck, it would have left some mark or with the teeth. There were also appearances external contusion, unless the boy had lived ofhlood having issued from the gums. Thought some time; believed that the emptiness of the that the teeth must have been taken out heart and the flush state of the face might within two or three hours after death. Exa- have appeared after a natural death; had mived the throat, neck, and chest, very particu- never before seen the heart empty after death, larly ; no marks of violence externally apparent No blow on the top of the head could have there. Saw a cut on the forehead; it was a from any accident, such as from the fall of wound over the left eyebrow, about three timber or a stonė, produced those appearances. quarters of an inch long, through the skin to If a person had fallen in apoplexy by accident the bone. Pressed the part, and a small quan on the ground, he thought it was hardly postity of blood oozed from the wound. Blood sible to have caused such appearances, except inight have issued from the wound if the latter the person fell on some projectiug substance, had been caused by throwing the body out of a Could not swear to two or three hours, in sack after death. It was serum, tinged with speaking of the time the teeth had been reblood. Saw the body again at two o'clock on moved. Could not positively swear that they the Sunday afternoon. The limbs were de- had been removed within 12 hours. cidedly still on the Saturday night, but not Re-examined by Mr. Adolphus-According so stiff on the Sunday ; should think that it to the best of his judgment they must have had not been laid out. It was lying on a board been taken out within three or four hours. irregularly placed when witness first saw it Had seen no marks on the brain that would in Covent-garden church-yard, near the station indicate apoplexy. There was nothing to inhouse. Soon afrer eight on that evening, dicate a predisposition to apoplexy. Persons witness with Mr. Partridge and other gentlemen have died of apoplexy without marks on the further examined it. He cleansed with a sponge brain. If the subject had died within a few the neck and chest; found no scratch or any minutes there would have been no external other mark of violence there. He then removed mark, and there was no mark in this case. the scalp, with the top of the skull. They The foregoing testimony was corroborated by detected a patch of blood, of the size of a F. Tyrrel, Esq., one of the surgeons to Sie crown-piece. This appearance must have been Thomas's Hospital, John Earl Rogers, an ins caused by a blow given during life. The braiu spector of police, spoke to the identity of the was next examined, and its appearance was body; and John Wilson, a policeman, dea perfectly healthy; the body was then turned, scribed the apprehension of the prisoners. for the purpose of examining the spinal mar- Joseph Sadler Thomas, the superintendent row, and on removing the skin from the back of police-On the 5th of November received part of the neck a considerable quantity of information at the station-house which induced coagulated blood (witness thought at least four bim to dispatch a party of police to the King's ounces) was found, among the inuscles : that College. They brought back with them Bishop blood must have been effused while the subject and Shields, and a't 'rwards May and Williams. was alive. Ou reinoving a portion of the spine Shields has been di charged. When the body