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in Périgord, 451; in Belgium and
England, 454; at Aurignac, 460;

use of, as burial places, 462
Cavelli (Marchesa Campana de),

her history of the Stuarts at St.
Germains, cxxxvi. 47; ber valu-
able research, ib.; her visit to the

Château, ib.
Cavour (Count, 1809-1861), his ne-

gotiations with France respecting
Nice and Savoy, cxi. 535

on the separation of Church
and State in Italy, cxiv. 263; his
death a national calamity, 269;
his character, 270; his insight into
English thought, 273; his sagacity
during the Crimean War, ib.; con-
stitutional principles, 274; won-
derful power of work, 275; uni-
versal grief at his death, 276

his deep sense of responsi-
bility, cxxviii. 246; his advocacy

of Free Churches, 283
Cecil (Sir Williain). See Burleigh,

Lord
Cellini (Benvenuto, 1500-1570), his

works in cinque-cento, cxxi. 551;
his statue of Perseus, ib.; his de-
sign for bronze gates for the

Duomo, ib. 552
Celsus (Epicurean philosopher), his

remark on the personal appearance

of Christ, cxxiv. 349
Cenis (Mont), use of, as an Alpine

pass, cxxii. 123; engineering roads
into Italy, 124; Mr. Fell's railway
over, 125 note; idea of a tunnel
objected to, 126 ; French prize
poem thereon, 127; line chosen
for the tunnel, ib., 128 ; ascending
and descending gradient for drain-
age, ib.; progress of early negotia-
tions, 129; machines for rock
piercing, ib. ; employment of com-
pressed air, 131; choice of ex-
tremities, 131 ; the Grand Vallon,
not M. Cenis, pierced by the tun-
nel, ib.; terms of the Convention,
132; the route mapped out, 133;

length of the tunnel, ib.; manu-
facture of compressed air, 134–
136; the conduit pipe, 137; per-
forating rods, ib.; plan of opera-
tions, 138–141; rate of progress,

ib.; importance of the work, 142
Census, impolicy of applying it) to

religious denominations, cxxxvii.

208
Centralisation; over-government on

the Continent, cxv. 324; reaction-
ary movement in France, 325; its
relations with moral and material
progress, 331 ; assisted by local
authority, 351; jealousy in Eng-
land of, 352; promotes place-

hunting, 354
Cephalus and Procris, explanations

of the myth, cxxxii. 343
Ceuta, Portuguese capture of, from

the Moors, cxxviii, 204
Ceylon, Buddhist literature of, cxv.
386

introduction of the Chin-
chona plant, cxviii. 520,

Singalese temples in, cxxv.
348 note
Chaibhar (Arabia), captured by

Mahomet, cxxiv. 41
Chaillot, Monastery of, cxxxvi. 54
Chaillu (Paul B. du), his "Adven-

tures in Equatorial Africa,' cxiv.
212: his field of discovery, 213;
crowned king of the Apingi tribe,
216; his truthfulness questioned,
219; his geography must be tested
by internal evidence, 220; contra-
diction of dates in his narrative,
222 ; his explanation, 223; incon-
sistencies of detail, 225; his jour-
nals probably mistranscribed, 229;

importance of his travels, 230
Chalcedony, varieties of, cxxiv. 250;

its porous nature, 253
Chaldæa, early monarchy of, cxi. 58;

evidence of civilisation in Lower

Chaldæa, 61
Chaldæans, Mr. Rawlinson's con-

jectural history of, cxxv. 114; bis

theory of the Ethiopian origin of
the monarchy, 117; views of
Heeren, Mannert, and Grote, 118;
first use of the title, ib.; worth-
less testimony of Berosus, 120;
alleged Median conquest, 131 ;
dynasty of Nimrod, 132; King
Urukh, 133 question of two
Kudurs, 134; later monumental
kings, 135, 137; theory of
Arabian invasion, 139; the
monarchy merged in the Assyrian

Empire, 142
Chaldæans, date of the foundation of

the empire examined, cxxxii. 160;

views of M. Lenormant, ib.
Chalmers (Dr. Thomas, 1780-1847),

his services to the Evangelical
party in Scotland, cxiv. 423

his
vague

notions of Church
Establishments, cxxviii. 256

his oratory described by
Lord Cockburn, cxl. 272; pro-
posals respecting Church patron-

age, 276

age, ib,; prelates and Chancellors
under the first Stuarts, 54, 55;
Commissioners under Cromwell,
ib.; office renewed at the Restora-
tion, ib.; Eustace and Boyle, 56;
upright career of Sir C. Porter,
57 ; his successors, 58; Sir R.
Cox, 59; 'English' Chancellors
under the House of Hanover, 61;
straining of the Penal Code, 62;
Anglo-Irish Conservatives after
1760, viz. Lords Bowes and Lif-
ford, 63; the Bar at that time, 64;
squalid site of the Four Courts,
ib.; Lord Clare, 65, 67; Tory
Chancellors after the Union, ib.;
their sectarian prejudices, ib.;
George Ponsonby a bright excep-
tion, 68; Hart and Plunket, ib. 69;
evils of dominant system of rule

reflected in, 70
Chandragupta (d. B.C. 291), his

history illustrated by Buddhist

inscriptions, cxxii. 380
Chanzy (General), his Deuxième

Armée de la Loire,' cxxxv. 149;
on the causes of French defeat,

165
Charcoal, its employment in iron

manufactures superseded, cxvi.

206
Charing-Cross, etymology of, cxxxi.

178 and note
Charlemagne (742–814), his charter

for the Republic of Andorre,
cxiii. 351

his theory of polygamy, cxv.

his love of national poetry,
359; his legendary character, 362;
his history distorted in romance,
365; the type of feudal royalty,
368

-his treaty with King Achains,
cxviii. 238

Histoire poétique de,' by
Gaston Paris, cxxv. 229

- wrong notions of his system
in modern school-histories, cxl.
203

Chamberlayne (Edward, 1616-

1703), his Angliæ Notitia,
cxxxviij. 492 ; his valuable sketch
of England, ib.; preservation of

his writings, 493
Chamier (Daniel), Huguenot pastor,

his interview with Henry IV. of
France, cxxiv, 101 ; his Diary

published, 102 note
Champ des Émigrés, the, cxxviii. 300
Champollion (Jean François le

Jeune, 1790–1832), on Egyptian

hieroglyphics, cxvi. 104
Chancellors (Irish), O'Flanagan's

Lives of, cxxxiv. 44; their origin
and early jurisdiction, 47; position
compared with English Chancel-
lors, 48; their decline as the Pale
increased, 49; early instances of
note, ib.; limited notions of Equity,
50 ; changes in the fifteenth cen-
tury respecting, ib.; Tudor policy,
51; the King's Inns,' 52; time-
serving Chancellors of the Tudor

206;

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Charles I. of England (1600–1649),

(1600

tion of heretics, 185; Strafford and
his conduct previous to the Grand his Irish army, 188; Declaration
Remonstrance, cxii. 465; his im- of the Scotch nation, 190; the
peachment of the Five Members, Lords' Remonstrance, ib.; petition
480; his military precautions in of the City of London, 191; dread
the City a measure of self-defence, of Irish papists, ib.; attempts to
ib.; menacing conduct of the mob,

screen his conduct, 193; contrition
481; their illtreatment of the for his guilt to Strafford, 194
Bishops, 482 ; his attempted ar- Charles II. (1630–1685), his letter
rest of the Five Members not a to the Presbytory of Edinburgh,
preconcerted coup d'état, 484; evi- cxviii. 5; restoration of Episcopacy
dence of Madame de Motteville, in Scotland, 6
ib.; complicity of Hyde and Falk-

his importation of foreign
land not proven,' 485

mares for breeding, cxx. 139; his
his statue at Charing Cross, Start' from Perth, 330
cxv. 550

tenacious respect for law at
his patronage of art, cxvii. the Restoration, cxxiv. 409
140; his hospitality to Rubens,

tyranny of his Scottish ad-
141

ministration, cxxxiv. 118; at-
his patent to the Museum

tempted vindication thereof, 125
Minerva, cxviii. 486

easy achievement of the
his speech on opening his Restoration, cxl. 472
first Parliament, cxx. 10; his con- Charles V. (Emperor of Germany
flict on religion with the Com-

and King of Spain, 1500–1558),
mons, 11 : demands supplies, 12; his study of Cæsar's campaigns,
meets the two Houses at Oxford, cxxiv. 420
15; his first Parliament dissolved,

his first interview with Don
16, 17; protests of bis second

Carlos, cxxvii. 4; compared with
Parliament, 17; impeachment of

Philip II., 16
Buckingham, 18; his illegal levies

M. Bergenroth's documents
of money, 19; general forced loan,

relating to his reign, cxxxi, 357;
ib.; the four resolutions, 22; con- alleged unfilial conduct to Doña
ference of Lords and Commons,

Juana, 365
23; trimming resolution of the

portraits of, collected by
Lords, ib.; his message on the Heemskerck, cxxxii. 69 ; anecdote
Petition of Right, 24; his asser- of "The Eagle, 73; personal
tions of Divine right, 25; his eva- Devices of, 74; the Plus Ultra, ib.;
sive form of assent to the Petition

grandeur of his title as Emperor,
of Right, 26; Eliot's motion for a 77; bodily infirmities, ib.; appear-
Remonstrance, ib.; his assent re-

described by Marillac,
newed in proper form, 27; dis- Ascham, and Cavalli, ib. 78; in-
claims the doctrine of ministerial terview with Coligny, 79; his
responsibility, 33; his distraints fame not increased by his military
for tonnage and poundage, ib. talents, 84; tradition of his early
bis treatment of the Church

love of sports, ib. note; anecdote of,
in Scotland, cxxxiv. 114

exhumed by Sir W. S. Maxwell,
State Papers relating to ib.; contest with the Protestant
events in 1639-41, cxxxvii. 182; League, 85; capture of John
dissolution of 1640, 183; persecu-

Frederick of Saxony, 86; his arro-

ance

gant use of power, 90; his ahdica-
tion described, 93; contemporary
accounts thereof, 95; Spanish
ballad thereon, translated, ib.;
alleged reservation of income not
confirmed, 97; funeral rites of, 98;
monument on the Escorial, 99;
traditionary worship of his me-

Court life, ib. 27; sudden death of
the Queen, 29; his torpid habits,
30; his ghastly appearance, ib.;
his sepulchral fancies, 31; his con-
duct regarding the Spanish Suc-
cession, ib. ; successive degenera-
tion of his race, 33; brutal
character of the people during
his reign, 34, 37; the embebecidos,

mory, ib.

ib.

Charles the Bald (of France, d. 877),

his usurpations in Andorre, cxiii.
352

his grant of hereditary count-
ships, cxxvii. 85, 87
Charles V. (of France, 1336–1380),

his surname of the Wise,' cxix.
535

M. Wolowski's eulogy of,
cxxiii. 88; his principles of cur-

rency, 89, 90

Charles VI. (of France, 1367–1422),

his lunacy and disastrous reign,

cxix. 535
Charles VII. (of France, 1402–1461)

concludes the convention of Arras,
cxix. 537; his son Louis takes
refuge with Philip of Burgundy,
538; nicknamed the Monarch of

Bourges,' 539
Charles IX. (of France, 1550-1574),

story of, at the massacre of St.
Bartholomew, cxxiv. 95; his share
in the death of Coligni, 97, 98 ;

his miserable last years, ib.
Charles X. (of France, 1757-1837),

his triumphal entry into Paris as
Comte d'Artois, cxxv. 324; his
graceful demeanour, 326; his
character by M. Beugnot, 328

his conduct to the Martagnac
Cabinet, cxxxv. 359
Charles I. (of Spain). See Charles V'.

Emperor
Charles II. (of Spain, 1661-1700),

his delicate infancy, cxxix. 14;
Regency of the Queen-Mother, 15;
interference of Don Juan, ib.;
marriage with Marie Louise
d'Orléans, 16, 20; monotony of

Charles III. (of Spain, 1716-1788),

his idle and useless life described

by Mr. Eden, cxiii. 376
Charles IV. (of Spain, 1748-1808),

his court reforms at the beginning

of his reign, cxiii. 377
Charles (Archduke of Austria b.

1771), his brilliant military genius,

cxxii. 103
Charles Emmanuel I. (of Savoy),

his attempt to surprise Genera,

cxi. 540
Charles Edward (Prince, 1720-1788),

his early promise, cxiv. 147; for-
cibly expelled from France, 149;
his connexion with Miss Walk-
ingshaw, ib.; marries the Countess
of Albany, 152; his brilliant wel-
come at Rome, 153; residence at
Florence, 154; outburst of bru-
tality to his wife, 160; her divorce
from him, 166; acknowledges his

natural daughter, 167
Charles the Bold (Duke of Burgundy,

1435-1477), the typical represen-
tative of feudalism, cxix. 5:30; his
disputes with his father, 539;
their reconciliation after the affair
of Rubemprè, 542; hends the
coalition against Louis XI., ib.;
recovers the towns of the Somme,
543; his campaign against Liège,
547; pillages and burns Dinant,
548; his accession to the dukedom,
549 ; his 'Joyous Entry' into
Ghent, ib.; rejects the proposals
of Louis XI., 551; retakes Liège
after a revolt, ib.; his serere pun-
ishment of that town, 552; his

treaty with Louis at Péronne, 555; his third capture of Liège, 557; his vengeance on the town, ib. ; abrogates the charter of Ghent, 559; offered the title of King of the Romans,' ib.; overtures of Si. gismund of Austria to, ib.; he renews war against Louis, 562; his dreams of empire, 563 ; anachronism of his career, 564; his impetuous ambition, 565; he usurps the Duchy of Gueldres, ib.; his meeting with the Emperor of Austria at Trêves, 567; his encroachments in Lorraine, ib.; takes possession of Alsace, 568; his collision with the Swiss, 569; his parliament at Malines, 570; his vengeance on the

Alsatians for their revolt, 571 Charles Theodore (Elector Palatine

1724-1799), his character, cxxxvii. 541; his relations with the Papacy,

ib. Charles III. (of Lorraine, d. 1608),

his beneficent rule, cxii. 62 Charles IV. (of Lorraine, d. 1675),

his character, cxii. 65; his treacherous conduct to France, 68; abdicates, 69; his bigamy, 71; returns to Lorraine, ib.; a soldier of fortune, 72; alliance with Spain, 73; cedes Lorraine and Bar to France,

75; his fall and death, 76 Charles V. (of Lorraine, d. 1690),

the 'good genius' of Lorraine, cxü. 77; a candidate for the throne of Poland, 78; generalissimo of the Austrian army, ib.; his campaign against the French, 79; his

premature death, 80 Charlesworth (Dr.), his claims as re

former of the insane, cxxxi. 423 Charlotte (Princess, 1796-1817),

Miss Berry's description of, cxxii. 324, 325

her marriage, cxxxvi. 379; her unfilial remark on her parents, ib.; rupture of her intended Dutch

marriage, ib.; her death described

by Stockmar, 381 Charlotte (Queen, d. 1818), her ap

pearance described by Stockmar, cxxxvi, 380

accused by the Opposition of feigning a belief in the King's re

covery, cxxxix. 193 Charm, the word applied to sound,

cxxviii. 80 Charolais (Madame de), contrives to

find a mistress for Louis XV., cxxv. 480; her dissipations at

Paris, 481 note Charpentier (M.), his dilatation

theory of glacier motion, cxiii.

231 Chartists, their agitation a hindrance

to electoral reform, cxxiii. 282 Chartres, the Cloaked Peace' of

(1568), cxxx. 374 Chateaubriand (François Auguste,

Vicomte de, 1769-1848), his dignified resistance to Buonaparte's tyranny, cxi. 232; his friendship

with Madame de Récamier, 233 Châteauroux (Duchess of, previously

Madame de la Tournelle), mistress of Louis XV., cxxv. 490; her court intrigues, 491; thwarted by Maurepas, 493; with Louis at Metz, 494; her dismissal, 495;

her recall and death, 496 Chatham (William Pitt, Earl of,

1708–1778), opposes the peace of 1763, cxxvi. 13; influence of his memory, ib.; sent for to replace Grenville, 18; made Privy Seal under the Duke of Grafton, 21; his popularity in America, 40

his talents as a War Minister, cxxvii. 568 ; his fervent patriotism, 569

his

way of speaking described by Grattan, cxxxiii. 293 Chatillon, Conferences at, in 1814,

cxii. 250 Chattanooga, battle of, brilliant

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