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Australia, types of old English squires
in, cxxxviii. 9

(South), extent of the
colony, cxviii. 311; condition of
squatters, 330

(Western), gigantic propor-
tions of the colony, cxviii. 312;

prospects of disintegration, ib.
Austria, her cession of Venetia,
cxi. 533

blunder of the Venetian
occupation, cxiii. 281

declaration of, in favour of
the allies in the Crimean War,
cxvii. 332; her policy of neu-
trality, ib.

her unprincipled attack on
Denmark in 1864, cxxiv. 281;
overtures to, by Bismarck against
Italy, 289 ; war declared by Prus-
sia against, 291 ; suddenness of the
campaign, ib.; anticipations of her
success confounded, 292 ; causes
of her defeat, 293 ; her surrender
of Venetia, ib.; origin of her rivalry
with Prussia, 553, 554; her object in
the Seven Years' War, 557 ; aban-
dons her claims to Bavaria, 561 ;
humbled by Frederick the Great,
562; temporary alliance with
Prussia in 1791, 564; unites with
Russia against Napoleon, 567 ;
her resources in the war of 1866,
590

casualties in the war of 1866,
cxxv. 385 note. See Prusso-Aus-
trian Tar

her exclusion from the North
German Confederation, cxxviii.
240; abrogation of the Papal
Concordat, 283, 284

final exclusion of, from Ger-
man affairs since 1866, cxxx. 454

taxation in, from 1702 to
1830, cxxxi. 380

difficulties of, after Sadowa,
cxxxii. 557; hopeful prospects,
558; consequences of the war of
1866, 559 ; altered views thereof

horse-breeding establish-
ments in, cxxxviii. 435
Austria,' steamship, loss of, cxv.

166 note
Authentic, the word distinguished

from genuine, cxxxvii. 92
Authors, private characters of, illus-

trated, cxxiv. 343 ; anecdotes of
their personal qualities, 379, 380

moral and literary characters
of, contrasted, cxxxii. 151; social
relations of, in the reign of Anne,

541; evils of overwork, 546
Autochthony, popular belief in, cxi.

356
Autographs, alleged specimens of,

ascribed to remote antiquity,cxxiv.
346; collection of Mucianus at
Rome, 354 ; alleged autographs of
Cicero, Virgil, &c., ib. ; the word
first used by Suetonius, ib. ; auto-

graphs of Chinese emperors, 359
Autos-da-, savage celebration of, in
Spain, cxxix. 35, 36

prohibition of, in Portugal,
cxxxyi. 190
Autun, symbolical Greek acrostic on

epitaph found at, cxx. 238, 239
Avebury, stone monuments at,

cxxxviii. 188; theory of Mr.

Fergusson, 189
Avignon, secession of the Papacy to,

cxii. 115; seized by Louis XIV.,

125
Avila (Don Luis de), his commenta-

ries translated into English,cxxxii.
86; bis account of the battle of

Mühlberg, ib. 89
Avila (Spain), the town' described,
cxxii. 158; Gothic architecture at,

159
Avitabile (M.), Italian officer in the

Sikh service, cxxxiv. 385, 387;
his character by Sir H. Lawrence,
ib. ; his unscrupulous rule, 388;

atrocities of, 389
Ayala (Don Pedro de), his account

of James IV. of Scotland, cxxi.

212; his Scotch negotiations, 213
Aytoun (Professor), his attempted

vindication of Claverhouse, cxiv.

300
Azim Khan (Prince of Affghanistan),

his personal appearance, cxxv. 18;
his loyal conduct in the Mutiny,

ib.; swears fealty io Shere Ali,
19; failure of his rebellion, 20;
joins Abdool Rehman, 26 ; cap-
tures Cabul, 27; his attempts to
alienate the British from Shere
Ali, 31 ; his overtures to Sir John
Lawrence, 33; exaggerates the

designs of Russia, 41
Azim Khan, his overtures to Sir J.

Lawrence, cxxviii. 247 ; his per-
sonal appearance, ib. note ; his
system of oppression, 249; con-
flicts with Shere Ali, 253, 260;

assumes the title of Ameer, ib.
Azores, the, early knowledge of,

cxxxviii. 207

B

BAAL-PEOR, Moabite worship of,

cxxv. 358
Babington (Anthony, executed 1586),

his conspiracy against Elizabeth,

cxxxi. 27; letters to Mary, 30
Babrius (1st century B.C.), Fables of,

cxii. 524; editions of, ib. ; dis-
covery of the first part, 528; the
latter probably spurious, 529; cor-
ruptions of the transcript, ib. ; its

worthless contents, 530
Babylon, description of, by Hero-

dotus, cxi. 46-48; question of its
antiquity, 59; relations with As-

syria, 61

his relations with Essex, 315; his
• Declaration ' denounced, 322; in-
sincerity of his views on tolera-
tion, 324; his adulation of James,
327 ; mouthpiece of the Commons
in the Great Petition, 328; his
conduct as attorney-general, ib.;
abets the king's misgovernment,
331; his conduct in the cases of
Peacham and St. John, 333 ; sanc-
tions judicial torture, 335; his
lenient prosecution of Somerset,
338; liability to the charge of
judicial corruption, 339; impar-
tiality of his trial, 342; confesses
his guilt, 343 ; his character sum-

marised, ib.
Bacon (Francis, Lord Verulam), his

account of Perkin Warbeck, cxxi.
205, 206; on the murder of the
Princes in the Tower, 207; his
power of imagery, 304; Mr. Taine's
literary sketch of, 305

enters Cambridge at thir-
teen, cxxv. 59

his share in the inductive
method, cxxvii. 323 note

his advice on foreign travel,
cxxxviii, 487

CXX.

Mr. Rawlinson on its origin,
119;

Greek traditions
thereon, ib.; criticisms of Sir

Cornewall Lewis, ib. 120
• Back-water,' phenomenon of, ex-

plained, cxxx. 437
Bacon (Francis, Lord Verulam, 1561-

1626), his experimental Zoologi-
cal Garden in the New Atlantis,'
cxi. 161

his character defended by
Mr. Dixon, cxiii. 311; his early
services in Parliament, 312; in-
stances of his double-dealing, 314;

Bacon (Lord Verulam), his theory

of Greek mythology, cxxxix. 428;
his definition of natural theology,
442 note

(Sir Nicbolas, 1510-1579),
his advice to Elizabeth against
Scotland, cxxiv. 498
Bactria, or Balkh, the earliest capital
in Central Asia, cxxxv. 12; pri-

mitire epithet of, ib.
Bactrian Greeks, sculptures by, in

the Punjab, cxxx. 503; their reign
in Orissa, 504; conquest of Cut-

tack, 507
Badeau (Colonel), his military his-
tory of General Grant, cxxix. 230-

256
Babadoor (Sir Jung), his offer of
Nepalese animals to the Zoological

Gardens, cxi, 166
Baillie (Joanna, 1762–1851), her
play on the passion of Hate, cxix.

336

Bailly (Jean Silvain, 1736-1793),
his calm demeanour before his
execution, cxxv. 313
Bain (Alexander), his confused use

of psychological terms, cxxxvii. 501
Paker (Sir Samuel White, b. 1821),
his exploration of the Albert Ny-
anza, cxxiv. 151; his literary
powers, ib.; his intrepidity, 152;
chivalrous character of his narra-
tive, 154; preliminary travels on
the Atbara and Blue Nile, 155;
from Khartoum to Gondokoro,
157; his escort mutinies, 158;
meets Speke and Grant at Gondo-
koro, ib.; his object to explore
the lake Luta N'zigé, 159; dis-
corers the Albert Nyanza, ib.;
the real discoverer of the source of
the Nile, ib. ; his journey to Ma-
gungo, 160; disarms the muti-
neers, 161; description of the La-
tookas, 164; threatened night
attack, 165; his low estimate of
African character, 166; sketch of
the Makkarikas, 167; the Obbo

country, 168; first news of the
Albert Nyanza, ib.; reaches the
Victoria Nile, 169; his crossing
described, 170; reception at
Unyoro, ib.; his wife demanded by
King Kamrasi, 173; march from
M'rooli to Vacovia, 174; his wife
dangerously ill, ib.; canoe coast-
ing on the Victoria Nyanza, 176 ;
arrives at Magungo, 177; journey
back to Khartoum, 179; passage
of the Cataracts, 180; his sum-
mary of his researches, 181 ; Sir
R. Murchison's theory of a central
plateau confirmed, 182; general
results of his enterprise, 183; on
the suppression of slave-traffic,

ib.
Balduccio Giovanni, his monument

of St. Peter Martyr at Milan,

cxxi. 529
Baldwin I. (Emperor of Constanti-

nople, 1172-1205), bis coronation,

cxxi. 484
Bale (John, 1495–1563), his reputed

drama of 'Kynge Johan,' cxxiii.
171; on the trial of Sir John Old-

castle, 173, 174
Baliol (John, d. 1314), his sur-

render to Edward I., cxx. 322;
his renunciation of allegiance,
ib.

his claim to the Scottish
throne, cxl. 329
Balk, use of the word in Shakspeare,

cxxx. 109-112
Ball (Mr. J.), his Alpire Guide,'

cxxx. 118; value of his work for
mountaineers, 122; bis account of
the Macugnaga Glacier, 125; on
the Central Alps, 129; sparing
notice of the Engadine, 130; on
the Adamello district, 132; on the
Eastern Alps, 133; his valuable
maps, 134; his scientific industry,

bis ascents in the Dolomite
region, 136
Ballads, Political, the best ones
found on the losing side, cxii

135;

88;

their small historical value,
89; allusions often insignificant,
90; chief repositories of, 91; their
coarseness from Charles II. to
George I., 92 ; their insipidity and
want of humour, 93; their per-
fection under George III., ib.;
growth of the political ode, 96 ;
imperfect power of language under
Charles I., 97; lampoons of the
Restoration, 99; superiority of
the Jacobite poems, 107 ; they owe
their existence to tradition, 110;
many of them not authentic,

111
Ballanche (M.), his intimacy with

Madame Récamier, cxi. 234; his

personal appearance, ib.
Ballarat (Australia), prosperity of

the town, cxvii. 105; deep-sinking
system of gold-mining at, 107
Ballinahinch, defeat of the Irish

rebels at, cxxxix. 504
Ballot, the, decreasing importance

of the question of, cxii. 266 ; ill-
founded pretensions to novelty,
267; classical references to, 268
note; its practical results discussed,
ib.; bribery by results, 270;
possible methods of indirect cor-
ruption, 271; viewed as a remedy
for coercion, 272; only a very
small minority require protection,
274; scrutiny by Parliament im-
possible, ib.; secrecy of voting
nugatory with public discussion,
278; dangers of political apathy
among voters, 282; bribery in
America not prevented by, 283;
electoral abuses of, in France, 284;
isolation of the individual caused
by, is destructive of popular
liberty, 286; public opinion the
cure for electoral corruption, ib.;
bribery should be punished crimi-

tralia, cxxi. 360 ; its working ex-

amined, 361-364
Ballot, popular misconceptions of,

cxxxi. 540; usage in Illinois, 541;
no provisions for scrutiny at New
York, ib.; Mr. IIankel's evidence
as to South Carolina, 542 ; secrecy
not contemplated by Americans,
544; corruption possible with
secret voting, 546 ; personation in
America, 547 ; summary of the
system there, ib. ; British notions
of, unknown in America, ib.; com-
mittee of 1870 on, ib.; loose cus-
tody of ballot-boxes in France,
551; M. Chevalier on, ib. ; in
Germany and Italy, 552; secrecy
evaded in Greece, 553; recent
test ballots in England, 554;
secrecy not yet secured, ib.; ques-
tion of official honesty, ib.; ama-
teur ballot-box, 555; no evidence
of votes without publicity, 557 ;
committee insist on complete
secrecy, ib.; Mr. Leatham's Bill,
558 ; futility of attempted secrecy
in Ireland, 560; promotes no se-
curity but that of lying without
detection, 561; prospects of cor-
ruption, 562 ; would conflict with
national habits, 563; the refuge
of defeated Toryism, 565; retro-
grade character of, ib.; failure of
repressive legislation, 566

evils anticipated from, in
Ireland, cxxxiii. 520

the Bill of 1871 rejected by
the Lords, cxxxiv. 583; present

need of, examined, 584
Baltic Provinces, the, cxxxii. 46;

early history of, 47; connexion
with Sweden, 48, 49; Baltic Con-
federation restored, 50; prosperity
under Alexander I., ib.; climate
and population, ib.; character of
peasantry, 51 ; fertility of Curland,
ib.; description of Riga, 52; ob-
stacles to progress in Esthland, 54;
vicious system of Nicholas, 54;

nally, 287

Sir G. C. Lewis's statement
of arguments on, cxviii. 144

introduction of, into Aus-

early reforms of Alexander II., 55;
Livonian Diet of 1862, 56;

Kat-
koff, 57; Muravieff's system, 59;
attacks by the Moscow party, 61 ;
intolerant enactments, ib.; delud-
ing promises to the peasants, 62;
misplaced proselytism to the Greek
Church, ib. ; law of mixed mar-
riages, ib.; insults to Lutherans,
63; anti-German school-system,ib.;
forced introduction of the Russian
language, 64; foreign intervention
hopeless, 65; Moscow crusade
against heterodox boundary pro-
rinces, 66; Schirren's answer to
Juri Samarin, ib.; petition of Diet

of Livland refused, 67
Balzac (Honoré de, b. 1799), Goethe's

remark on his novels, cxv. 257
Bamberger (Herr), his excellent

biography of Bismarck, cxxx. 418
Bamboos, cultivation of, in England

recommended, cxxx. 474
Banana-tree, recent cultivation of,

for fruit, cxxx. 469; the Musa

Ensete, ib.
Bancroft (Richard, Archbishop of

Canterbury, 1514–1610), his col-
lection of the Book of Canons,
cxl. 439; bis sacerdotal theories,

440
Bank of England, returns of clearing-
house in 1839, cxii. 12

Paterson's scheme of, cxv.
25

Pitt's suspension of cash pay-
ments in 1797, cxvi. 148.

its mode of retaining gold by
checking the demand, cxxi. 211;
M, Pereire's criticism of the Bank
Act, 245; objections to increased
issue of notes, 246

excess in its note-currency
in 1867, cxxvii. 251; its gold re-
serves in that year compared with
those of the Bank of France,

254
Bank Charter Act (1844), fallacies

respecting, cxxi. 225-248; effect

of its suspension, 249; objections

thereto, 250
Banking. See Currency
Bankruptcy Act (1861), the, cxx.

588
Bankes (W. J.), his evidence in

favour of German frescoes at

Westminster, cxxiii. 11
Banks (Sir Joseph, 17-43-1820), his

connexion with the Royal Institu-
tion, cxxxv. 330-339; described

by Sir C. Bell, 411
Banks (Federal general), his scheme

for reducing Louisiana, cxxi. 265
Bannatyne Club, the, cxii. 495 note

its publications reviewed,
cxv. 1

average number of its im-
pressions, cxxv. 232
Bannockburn, battle of (1314), a

touchstone of national sentiment,
cxv. 5

Bernard de Linton's Latin
poem on, cxx, 323
Baptism, the sacrament compared

with the Eucharist, cxxxvi. 283
Baptismal Controversy, the, cxxxviii.

48; false assumptions therein, ib.
Baptismal Service, the, objections to,

cxiii. 24; optional use of office of
private baptism recommended, 27

the most fruitful cause of dis-
sent, cxxvi. 505; proposed change
in the Rubric, 506 : objections
to the Sponsorial system, ib.;
vicarial professions not adopted in
the Eastern Church, 508 and
note; option of service for private

baptism recommended, ib.
Baptists, their ground of dissent,

cxxxvii. 201; their past services

to the Church of England, 213
Bar, Duchy of, cession of, to France,

cxii. 75; Leopold of Lorraine
renders homage for, 80

plained, cxxxvi. 369
Barbadoes, condition of negroes in,

cXV. 43

E

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