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his free-trade principles, 372;
ambassador at Madrid, 373; ap-
pointed to the Hague, 378; his sub-
ordinate position in the ministry,

384; character of his letters, 385
Auckland (Lord), his · Journal and

Correspondence,' Vols. III. IV.,
edited by the Bishop of Bath and
Wells,cxvi. 113; conduct regarding
Miss Eden and Pitt, 119; on Tithe
Commutation, 130; his scheme
for the partition of France, 140;

his Irish intrigues, 150
Audley (Sir Thomas), his house in

London, cxxxi. 175
Audran (Gerard, 1640-1703), his

work on the proportions of the

human figure, cxl. 185, 186
Audubon (John James, 1780-1851),

Life and Adventurers of, edited
by Mr. Buchanan, cxxxii. 250;
his personal appearance, ib.; paren-
tage, ib. ; early love of nature,
251; bird collections in youth,
252; at Mr. Bakewell's, ib.; his
marriage, 254; sojourn at Louis-
ville, ib.; meeting with the poet
Wilson, 255 ; removal to the Mis-
sissippi, 256; adventures with
Indians, 257 ; business troubles,
258; devotion to hunting and
birds, ib. ; introduced to Rafin-
isque, 259; his fluctuating for-
tunes, 260; interview with Lucien
Buonaparte, 262; turns dancing-
master, 263 ; his kind reception at
Liverpool, ib. ; his pictures ex-
hibited, ib.; at Edinburgh, 264;
loss of his ringlets, 265; meeting
with Sir T. Lawrence, ib.; in
London, ib.; visit to Paris, 266;
Cuvier's eulogy of his · Birds,
267; returns to America, ib.; re-
visits England with his wife, 268;
again returns to America, ib.; hur-
ricane off Florida, 269; birds of
Labrador, 271 ; relations with
Rothschild, 272; his last"

journey' to the Western Prairie,

I. II.,

on the importance of study.
ing the meaning of the Gospels,

cxix. 588.
Augustus (Cæsar, Roman Emperor,

B.C. 63-A.D. 13), his share in the
reconstruction of society, cxxix.
85; survey of the empire in his
time, ib.; bis uncontrolled power,
87; his system necessary for the
time, 93

his palace at Rome, cxxxv.
Aumale (Duc d'), his . Histoire des

Princes de Condé, pendant les
XVI. et XVII. Siècles, Vols.

cxxx. 355 ; arbitrary
seizure of his proof-sheets, ib. ;
his patriotic spirit, ib.; literary
merits, 350 ; unconscious partisan-
ship in the Huguenot insurrection,
366; reflections on Coligny, 371;
his estimate of the first Prince of
Condé, 377; his sketch of Henry
1. of Conde, 383; estimate of
Henry IV. in 1610, 388; his mas-

terly narrative, 389
Aurelius Antoninus (Marcus, Roman

Emperor, 121-180), his simple

habits, cxix. 56
Aureole, early use of, round the

head of saints, cxxxi. 225
Aurignac (France), sepulchral care

discovered at, cxviii. 283; cxxxii.

Aurora Borealis, its connexion with

magnetic disturbance, cxxxvi. 420

Aurungzebe (Emperor of Hindoos-

tan, 1614-1707), his burial-place,
cxxii. 374



Austerlitz, battle of (1805), Napo

leon's pride in his victory, cxxiii. 113, 114; Baron Ambert's account of, ib. ; later influence of French

tactics at, 115 Austin (John, 1790-1859), his ‘Pro

vince of Jurisprudence determined,' cxiv. 456; his quiet and solitary career, 460; his wide grasp of mind, 461; his original design unfinished, ib. ; vastness of his scheme, 462; definitions of leading terms, 463 ; his precision of thought, 467 ; on the four branches of law, ib.; definition of Right,' 468; on the notion of Sovereignty, 470; on Liberty and Justice, 472 ; his work compared to Butler's · Analogy,' 473; laborious exactness of his style a difficulty to readers, 474; his analytical method, 480

his lectures at the London University, cxviii. 152; his 'Lectures and Fragment on the Study of Jurisprudence,' 439; his power of precise thought, ib.; educational value of his labours, ib. ; his genius compared with that of Bentham, 440; the logic of law his special subject, 441 ; supplementary character of his present work, ib.; his treatment of positive law compared with that of Mr. Maine, 442, 413; his principles founded on the Roman law, 415; clearness of his juristical conceptions, 448; his lectures incomplete, ib.; his first drafts and finished performances, ib. 449; tension of mind required by his precise style, ib.; his “Prorince of Jurisprudence' a definition of Law, ib.; on the Laws of God, 450; on the notions involved in Duties and Rights, 452 ; bis definition of a legal right, ib. ; his negative detinition of Rights criticised, 453; on fiduciary rights, ib.-455;

his definition of Wrongs, ib, ; on the sources of Law, 456, 457 ; on the fallacies attached to customary law, ib.; on the Jus Gentium, 459; on the origin of the term Equity, 460; on statute and judiciary law, 463-467; on the evils of judicial legislation, ib.; on codification, ib., 470; on the Law of Persons and of Things, 471 ; his detinition of quasi-contracts, 473; division of Rights into Primary and Sanctioning, ib. 474; outline of his distribution of the field of law, ib. ; his treatment of Property and Easement, ib.; his ground work of Rights criticised, 476; objections to bis distribution of Wrongs and Remedies, 477; incompleteness of his labours, 480; his language clear and vigorous, ib., 481; harsh epithets not due to acrimony, ib.; his appreciation of

great qualities in other writers, 482 Austin (John), his return to London

from Bonn, cxxxix. 116; influence of German literature and society, ib. ; progress of toleration and definite faith in his later years, 117

(Mrs., wife of preceding, 1793-1867), her kindness to J. S.

Mill, cxxxix. 116 Australia, gold-fields of, cxii. 8; first

English settlers in, 326; ignorance of its interior, 327; existence of a central desert, 10.; will probably remain a Coast empire, 328; settlement on the northern coast desirable, ib.

difficulties of Church union in, cxiij. 6

military defence of, cxv. 110; prospects of cotton culture, 482

narratives of expeditions in, cxri. 1 : rapid progress of occupation, 3; first settlements, 4; want of water, ib. ; river explorations, 5; theory of an inland sea, 5; Captain Sturt's expedition, ib. ; the Mur



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Australia, effect of human agency on

animal and vegetable life in, cxx.

496, 497


rumbidgee explored, 6; discovery
of the river Murray, 7; settlement
of South Australia, 8; Major
Mitchell's expeditions, 9; the
south-east group of settlements,
10; mountain ranges, ib.; Count
Strzelecki's explorations, ib.; Swan
River Settlement, 13; Captain
Grey's expedition, 14; occupation
of Australia Felix, 17; Mr. Eyre's
Northern Exploring Expedition,
18; exploration of the interior,
27; Dr. Leichhardt's expedition,
35; Sir T. Mitchell, 36 ; question
of an overland route to the Gulf
of Carpentaria, 37; tragedy at
York peninsula, 38; disaster on
the Victoria River, 40; efforts of
Adelaide at extension, 43; pro-
blems of expioration, ib.; charac-

ter of Central Australia, 45
Australia, its coast-range described,

cxvii. 90; volcanic action in, 97;
gold-mining operations, 105. See

intercolonial jealoueies in,
cxviii. 307; rival claims of New
South Wales and Queensland,
308; proposed colony of Capri-
cornia, 310; extension of local
self-government, 311 and note;
protest against threatened renewal
of transportation to, 312; its capa-
bilities for cereal crops, 314, 315
note; winding course of its rivers,
317; its water-system vindicated,
318; Australian and American
squatters compared, 320; sources
of society in, 321; progress of
sheep-farming, ib.; squatting re-
gulations, 323 ; immense conces-
sions to squatters, 324; their
monopoly of land, ib.; discovery
of gold, 325; changes in the land
system, 330; auction system abo-
lished, ib. ; recent progress of ex-
ploration, 331 ; salubrious climate
of, 334; white and coloured labour

physical features
pared with America, cxxi. 350;
early convict settlements in, 351;
military despotism in, 354; the
squatter class, ib.; growth of aris-
tocratic government, 355; the
franchise, 356, 357; immigration
for gold, ib.; popular grievances,
358; representative government
introduced, 359; vote by ballot,
360; constitution of the Upper
House, 364; impediments to popu-
lar legislation, 365; primary edu-
cation, 366; rivalry under the
denominational system, 367 ; libe-
rality of the Legislature, 368;
uniformity introduced, ib.; high
school system, 369; universities,
ib. ; public works, 370; telegraphic
system, 371; water-supplies, 372;
the Civil Service, 373; home-
defence, 374; prosperity of the
gold-fields, 375; increase of reve-
nue, ib.; sources of income, 376;
want of unpaid officials, 378;
constitutional home-ties, 379;
question of independence, 380;
tendencies adverse to Federation,
ib. ; value of home connexion,
381; position of the Governor, ib.;
experiment of self-government,382

the Irish in, cxxvii. 524, 525

first visits to, by Europeans,
cxxviii. 232

Mr. Dilke on the physical
condition of Europeans in, cxxix.
465; Protectionist policy in, 466;
resistance to Chinese immigration,
468; scarcity of women in, 472 ;
healthy vigour of political life in,
473 ; love of social enjoyment, ib.;
attachment to English forms and
fashions, 474

Mr. Huxley's theory of a
primäeval Australoid' race, cxxxiv.

in, 335

224, 227

in, ib.; scheme of Federal mon-
archy suggested, 560

mediation of, during tho
Crimean War, cxxxiii. 268; de-
signs of imperial aggression in
Germany ascribed to, 464 ; oppo-
sition of Frederick the Great, 469

Russian designs against,
cxxxiv. 40; not equal to the con-

test, ib.


Australia, types of old English squires
in, cxxxviii. 9

(South), extent of the
colony, cxviii. 311; condition of
squatters, 3:30

(Western), gigantic propor-
tions of the colony, cxviii. 312;

prospects of disintegration, ib.
Austria, her cession of Venetia,
cxi. 533

blunder of the Venetian
occupation, cxiii. 281

declaration of, in favour of
the allies in the Crimean War,
cxvii. 332; her policy of neu-
trality, ib.

her unprincipled attack on
Denmark in 1864, cxxiv. 281;
overtures to, by Bismarck against
Italy, 289; war declared by Prus-
sia against, 291 ; suddenness of the
campaign, ib.; anticipations of her
success confounded, 292; causes
of her defeat, 293; her surrender
of Venetia, ib.; origin of her rivalry
with Prussia,553,554; her object in
the Seven Years' War, 557 ; aban-
dons her claims to Bavaria, 561 ;
humbled by Frederick the Great,
562; temporary alliance with
Prussia in 1791, 564; unites with
Russia against Napoleon, 567;
her resources in the war of 1866,

casualties in the war of 1866,
cxxy. 385 note. See Prusso-Aus-
trian Iar

her exclusion from the North
German Confederation, cxxviii.
240; abrogation of the Papal
Concordat, 283, 284

final exclusion of, from Ger-
man affairs since 1866, cxxx. 454

taxation in, from 1702 to
1830, cxxxi. 380

difficulties of, after Sadowa,
cxxxii. 557; hopeful prospects,
558; consequences of the war of
1866, 559; altered views thereof

horse-breeding establish-
ments in, cxxxviii. 435
Austria,' steamship, loss of, cxv.

166 note
Authentic, the word distinguished

from genuine, cxxxvii. 92
Authors, private characters of, illus-

trated, cxxiv. 313 ; anecdotes of
their personal qualities, 379, 380

moral and literary characters
of, contrasted, cxxxii. 151; social
relations of, in the reign of Anne,

541 ; evils of overwork, 546
Autochthony, popular belief in, cxi.

Autographs, alleged specimens of,

ascribed to remote antiquity,cxxiv.
316; collection of Mucianus at
Rome, 351; alleged autographs of
Cicero, Virgil, &c., ib.; the word
first used by Suetonius, ib.; auto-

graphs of Chinese emperors, 359
Autos-da-, savage celebration of, in
Spain, cxxix, 35, 36

prohibition of, in Portugal,
cxxxvi. 190
Autun, symbolical Greek acrostic on

epitaph found at, cxx. 2:38, 239
Avebury, stone monuments at,

cxxxviii. 188; theory of Mr.

Fergusson, 189
Avignon, secession of the Papacy to,

cxii. 115; seized by Louis XIV.,

Avila (Don Luis de), his commenta-

ries translated into English,cxxxii.
86; bis account of the battle of

Mühlberg, ib. 89
Avila (Spain), the town' described,

cxxii. 158; Gothic architecture at,

Avitabile (M.), Italian officer in the

Sikh service, cxxxiv. 385, 387;
his character by Sir H. Lawrence,
ib.; his unscrupulous rule, 388;

atrocities of, 389
Ayala (Don Pedro de), his account

of James IV. of Scotland, cxxi.

212; his Scotch negotiations, 213
Aytoun (Professor), his attempted

vindication of Claverhouse, cxiv.

Azim Khan (Prince of Affghanistan),

his personal appearance, cxxv. 18;
his loyal conduct in Mutiny,

ib.; swears fealty to Shere Ali,
19; failure of his rebellion, 20;
joins Abdool Rehman, 26; cap-
tures Cabul, 27; his attempts to
alienate the British from Shere
Ali, 31 ; his overtures to Sir John
Lawrence, 33; exaggerates the

designs of Russia, 41
Azim Khan, his overtures to Sir J.

Lawrence, cxxviii. 247 ; his per-

appearance, ib. note; his
system of oppression, 249; con-
flicts with Shere Ali, 253, 260;

assumes the title of Ameer, ib.
Azores, the, early knowledge of,

cxxxviii. 207



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BAAL-PEOR, Moabite worship of,

cxxv. 358
Babington (Anthony, executed 1586),

his conspiracy against Elizabeth,

cxxxi. 27 ; letters to Mary, 30
Babrius (1st century B.c.), Fables of,

cxiii. 524; editions of, ib.; dis-
covery of the first part, 528; the
latter probably spurious, 529; cor-
ruptions of the transcript, ib. ; its

worthless contents, 530
Babylon, description of, by Hero-

dotus, cxi. 46–48; question of its
antiquity, 59; relations with As-
syria, 61
Mr. Rawlinson on its origin,

Greek traditions
thereon, ib.; criticisms of Sir

Cornewall Lewis, ib. 120
• Back-water,' phenomenon of, ex-

plained, cxxx. 437
Bacon (Francis, Lord Verulam, 1561-

1626), bis experimental Zoologi-
cal Garden in the New Atlantis,'
cxi. 161

his character defended by
Mr. Dixon, cxiii. 311; his early
services in Parliament, 312; in-
stances of his double-dealing, 314;

his relations with Essex, 315; his
* Declaration ’denounced, 322; in-
sincerity of his views on tolera-
tion, 324; his adulation of James,
327 ; mouthpiece of the Commons
in the Great Petition, 328; his
conduct as attorney-general, ib. ;
abets the king's misgovernment,
3:1; his conduct in the cases of
Peacham and St. John, 333 ; sanc-
tions judicial torture, 335; his
lenient prosecution of Somerset,
338; liability to the charge of
judicial corruption, 339; impar-
tiality of his trial, 342; confesses
his guilt, 343 ; his character sum-

marised, ib.
Bacon (Francis, Lord Verulam), his

account of Perkin Warbeck, cxxi.
205, 206; on the murder of the
Princes in the Tower, 207; his
power of imagery, 304; Mr. Taine's
literary sketch of, 305

enters Cambridge at thir-
teen, cxxv. 59

his share in the inductive
method, cxxvii. 323 note

bis advice on foreign travel,
cxxxviii. 487




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