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Aristotle, Strabo's account of his MSS., criticised, cxxxvii. 59 note

his sound criticism Homer's account of the pursuit of

Hector, cxxxix, 537, and note Arkwright (Sir Richard, 1732-1792),

patent for his Spinning Jenny, cxxi. 598

(Mrs.), her touching lyric songs, cxl. 380; lines on the

seasons, 381 Arles, Council of (314), cxi. 410 Armada, the. See Spanish Armada Armies, moral qualities more valua

ble than numbers, cxxvi. 277; motive force and mechanical power

cf, 285 Armstrong (Sir William, b. 1810),

his system of rifled ordnance, cxix. 412; negative results of experiments with his heavy guns, 483; his first contract limited to fieldartillery, 486; his coil principle imitated, 487 note; success of his field-pieces in China, 487; fundamental error of breech-loading for field-runs, ib.; the shunt principle substituted, ib. ; want of simplicity due to form of projectile, ib.; his system of double fuzes, 488; his theory of windage opposed to that of the French, 490;

his liable to fouling from absence of windage, 491; leaden coating of projectile dangerous to gunners, 4992 ; special characteristics of his field-artillery, 403 ; his vent-piece too complicated for warfare, ib.; his evidence before the Select Committee, 495; over-estimates the value of his invention, 496 ; his system of field-guns based on the enlargement of an ordinary rifle, 498; number of his guns rejected after trial, 504; advocates heavy bursting charges, 509; his evidence on his 100-pounder guns, 514; his coil system criticised, 516; bis appointment to the

Ordnance Committee injudicious,

520 Armstrong (Sir William), his evi

dence against the Patent Laws,

cxxi. 605 Army (British), its weakness during

the American War of Independence, cxvi. 141

improved condition of, in India, cxxxi. 321

expectations of reform, cxxxiii. 207; want of cohesion and unity, 208; defective state of, due to absence of organisation, 209; coustitution of, since 1688, ib.; 'Army Extraordinaries,' ib.; early contracts for recruits, 210; enlistment regulations, ib.; agitations for reform after 1835, 211; old system of departments, 212; changes during the Crimean War, ib.; the new system, 213 ; classification of responsibility, 214; Board of 1866 on transport duties, ib.; the Control Department created, 215; evils of dual government, ib.; want of training in the Militia, ih. (see Militia); recent efforts to form an Army of Reserve, 217; failure ascribed to optional terms of enlistment, 218; the present system mere patchwork, ib. ; remedies proposed, ib.; compulsory ballot for Militia, ib. ; question of exemptions, 219; scheme of annual contingents, 220; present percentage of recruits to the population, ib., note; details of proposed Army-Reserve system, ib., 224; the purchase system doomed, ib.; principle of selection urged in its place, 225 ; together with limitation of regimental command, 226; value of a cadet system, 227; summary of proposals, ib.; need of reserves to replace casualties in war, 229; additions to cavalry and artillery, ib.; Mr. Cardwell's s!ort-service system, 230; district

guns

438;

organisation, ib.; field commissariat,
231 ; Control system condemned,
2:2; evils of over-centralisation,
233; report of Mr. Cardwell's
Committee, 235; new officers of
Finance and Supply, ib.; former
Master-General of the Ordnance,
ib.; new office of Surveyor-General
criticised, 236 ; evils of uniting
finance and administration, ib.;
position of Commander-in-Chief,
238; lis proposed relations with
the Secretary of State, ib.; im-
portance of constitutional safe-
guards, 239; contrary tendencies
of recent changes, 240; military
bureaucracy at the War Office, ib.;
irregular proceedings in Parlia-
ment, 241 ; restrictions in 1832 on

flogging, 310
Army (British), the Guard Corps in,

cxl. 464 (see Grenadier Guarıls);

precedency o various arms, 478
Army Regulation Act (1871),cxxxiv.

574, 576
Army, Standing, controversy on, in

England, cxiv. 307
Arndt (Ernst Moritz, 1769-1859),

Lives and Works of, cxxxii. 414;
his share in effecting German
unity, 415; his Swedish birth,
416; his early Recollections,' ib. ;
divinity studies, 418; travels, 419;
professor at Greifswald, ib.; mar-
ries, ib.; growth of his political
views, ib.; his hatred of the French,
421 ; his “History of Serfdom
in Pomerania and Rügen,' 423;
visit to Sweden, ib.; his "Spirit
of the Age,' ib. ; his appeals to
German patriotism, 425; his duel,
ib.; takes refuge at Stockholm, ib.;
returns in disguise to Germany,
ib.; visit to Berlin, 426 ; resumes
his Professorship, ib.; his escape
from Sweden to Prussia, 428;
summoned by Von Stein to St.
Petersburg, 429; origin of his war-
songs, 431; specimens, 432, 435;

his devout spirit of patriotism, ib.;
his « Catechism,' ib.; his unselfish
recognition of honour, 436; re-
moves to Bonn and remarries,
437; his papers seized by the
Prussian Government, ib.; his
trial, ib.; restored to his office,

elected Rector of Bonn Uni-
versity, ib.; his ninetieth birthday,

ib.; death, ib.
Arneth (Ritter von), his edition of

Marie Antoinette's letters, cxxiii.
423; his account of his materials,

424; evidence of handwriting, 425
Arnold (Thomas, D.D., 1795–1812),

his scheme of a liberal Theological
Review, cxiii. 463

his defence of the authen-
ticity of St. John's Gospel, cxix.
587

on the authenticity of Cæsar's
Commentaries, cxxiv. 403

his sound principles of State
and Church, cxl. 449
Arnold (Matthew), his bureaucratic

idea of State Education, cxiv. 11;
on the cost of education in France,
27

on the grand style,' in
translating Homer, cxxi. 138; on
the rapidity of Ilomer's diction,
140

critical works of, cxxix. 480;
his correct sense of intellectual
truth and beauty, ib.; accused of
being an elegant trifler,' 457;
his defects of exposition, 488; on
Hebraism and Ilellenism, ib.; on
Hellenic sweetness and light, 489;
practical mistakes of his criticism,
493 ; his strictures on periodical
literature and the Divorce Court,
ib.; advocates restraints on indi-
vidual freedom, 494; and reticence
in public discussion, 19.5; on the
superiority of French literature,
496; his admiration of the Parisian
Academy, 499; bis poverty of de-
finition, 500; his glorification of

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the Grand Style, ib.; his loose re-
marks on the Ballad Style, 502 ;
denounces the ballad metre for
Homeric translation, ib.; his slo-
venly treatment of his subjects,

503
Arnold (Matthew), his ‘St. Paul and

Protestantism,' cxxxiii. 399; polemics provoked by his book, ib.; his argumentinopposition to M. Renan, 400; bis division of Calvinists and Lutherans, 401; on Nonconformist tendencies to political dissent, ib.; on their abandonment of original Puritanism, 402; Mr. Dale's reply, 403; on historic Churches,' 406 ; on the doctrinal causes of Dissent, 422; on the . Epistle to the Romans,' 423; contrasts Puritanism with St. Paul's doctrines, 424; his views on Pauline teaching

criticised, ib. Arnold (Mr.), his Report on the

British and Foreign Training

School, cxi, 354 Arnold (Mr., Police Magistrate), his

articles in • Fraser' on the alleged

Shakspeare forgeries, cxi. 456 Arnolfo del Cambrio, his position

among Tuscan sculptors, cxxi.

526; his works, 527 Arras, Treaty of (1435), exix. 537 Art, its practical connexion with Science, cxrüi. 502

effect of theological opinions on, cxxi. 444

intolerance in judgments on, cxxii. 77

galleries of, cxxiii. 57. See Exhibitions of Art and Science

controversy as to expression in, cxl. 171; imaginative power of

Association, ib. Art, Christian, the term explained,

cxx. 98, 99; its growth coincident with the progress of Christianity, 108; idea of the purifying effects of physical pain represented in, ib.

Sacred, travesties of sacred

subjects by great painters, cxxiv.

349 Artesian wells, proposed scheme of,

for London, cxxiii. 413, 414 Arthur (King), early English ro

mances of, cxxv. 246; “Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight,' 247; Breton legends of, 248; growth of his romances, 250

Mr. Cox's theory of the tradition of, cxxxi. 504 note; popularity of, as a national hero, 505;

growth of the tale, ib. Articles (the Thirty-Nine), invalu

able as a bond of union, cxiii. 9; qualified subscription to, recommended, ib.; their silence respecting biblical inspiration, 491

origin of, cxv. 582; subscription not obligatory at first, 585; mischief of plenary assent, 603; deferential declaration of allegiance suggested, 606

their cautious language on inspiration, cxxi. 160

ratification of, cxl. 438 Artillery, advantages of riflemen

over field-batteries, cxix. 481;
two systems of rifling, 482 (see
Rifled Ordnance); vent-pieces
(see Armstrong, Sir William);
objections to breech-loading field-
guns in warfare, 495; publicity of
experiments in, confined to Eng-
land, 496; nominal weight of
projectile no index to size of the
gun, 508; two classes of field-guns
in England, 509; inferior bursting
charges of British shells, 510;
purposes of heavy ordnance, ib.;
effect of iron-plating on marine
artillery, 511; American mania
for huge guns, 512; their doubt-
ful value, 529

use of, in warfare (see War, Art of); in naval tactics, cxl. 16, 19 Artists, their need of corporate ac

tion, cxviii. 485; social characteristics of, ib.; attempt in 1755 to

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found an academy in England, 487 troversy respecting, cxxxv. 14;
(see Academy, Royal); self-educa- the George Ludwig MS.,' ib., 18;
tion of, 493

Eastern Turkestan, 20; early
Artois (Count d'). See Charles X. Christian communities in, 23-27;
Arts, Society of, first exhibition of sorceries and jugglery, ib.; media-

British painters in 1760, cxviii.487 val legends, 30
Arundel (Thomas Howard, Earl of,

prospects of Russian com-
d. 1646), his collection of gems, merce with, cxxxix. 325, 326;
cxxiv. 519, 520

English trade with, viá India, 327,
Arundell of Wardour, Lords, family 330. See Toorkistan, Eastern

names preserved in London streets, Asóka (d. B.C. 220), his history
cxxxi. 183

illustrated by Buddhist inscrip-
Aryans, their place in Indian eth- tions, cxxii. 379; Sir E. Perry's
nology, cxxx. 496

history of, ib. 382
Aryan language, the term explained, Aspirate, the, misuse of, on early

cxv. 85; stages in the growth Christian epitaphs at Rome, cxx.
of, 94

235
mythology, Mr. Cox's work Assam, discovery of tea-plantations
on, cxxxii. 330; the compara- in, cxix. 102; the “ Assam Com-
tive theory criticised, 333; con- pany' formed, 103
nexion of, with Greek myths, 341 ; Assaye, battle of, the battle-field
the theory applies to Othello,' described, cxxii. 375
347

Assent, definitions of, by Dr. New-
Asceticism, its idea of the spiritual man and Locke, cxxxii. 397, 398;

efficacy of physical pain, cxx. 108 compared with Inference, ib.;
Ascham (Roger, 1515-1508) on the

absolute character of, 399
study of grammar, cxx. 178; and Assi, Communist leader in 1871,
of Latin composition, 179

cxxxiv. 535; his character and
his sketch of Charles V., antecedents, 536
cxxxii. 77

Assignats, extravagant issue of, by
Asconius Pedianus (Quintus, first the French Convention, cxviii.

century), MS. of, found by Poggio, 132 ; the “Maximum,' ib.
cxxxvii. 72

Assignment, convict system of, in
Ased (d. 828), his character, cxvi. Australia, cxxi. 353

360; commands the Mussulman Assisi, Giotto's frescoes at, cxxii. 89
expedition to Sicily, 364; his Assurance (Life), effects of deprecia-
death before Syracuse, 366

tion of currency on, cxii. 29
Ashantees, the, Mr. Bowdich's mis- Assyrian Empire, the, inconsistencies

sion to, cxxxviii. 575; article in the history of, cxi. 56; rela-
thereon in vol. xxxii. referred to, tions with Babylonia, 61; date of
ib. ; the treaty of 1817, ib.; Coo- its commencement, 62; removals
massie at that time, ib.; present of the capital, 63; the Babylonian
war with, 576, 588. See Gold revolt, 64
Coast

Assyria, astrological system derived
Asia, irregular geographical know- from, cxvi. 99
ledge of, cxii. 313

Assyrians, Mr. Rawlinson's conjec-
- disturbing effects of European tural history of, cxxv. 114; union
intervention in, cxxii. 177, 179 of the Chaldæan kingdom, ib.;
Asia (Central), geographical con- restoration of ancient monarchy

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at Babylon, ib.; fictitious chronology of Berosus, 120; royal names, 123; imperfect evidence of inscriptions, 125, 126; M. Gutschmid's method of chronology, 127, 128; Greek historians of, 141; rise of the Empire, 142; chaotic state of subsequent annals, 143; inscription of Tiglathpileser I., 144; his successors, ib., 149; Scythian irruption, 150; traditions of the fall of the empire, 151; extent of their

civilisation, 153 Astbury, reveals the secret of Eler's

pottery-work, cxxvi. 211; bis

improvements in pottery, 212 Astrology, Assyrian system of, cxvi. 99

Italian belief in, in the sixteenth century, cxxx. 32 Astronomer Royal, origin of the

office, cxl. 94; various holders thereof, ib.-98; long average

length of service, 99 Astronomy, different views of the

science of, cxvi. 80; its bearing on ancient chronology, 82; theories in ancient Greece, 91; speculative views of, opposed by Socrates, 92. See Lewis, Sir G. C.

its precedence in Comte's hierarchy of sciences, cxxvii. 327

bearings of recent researches in, on geology, cxxxi. 54; doctrine of elemental identity of heavenly

bodies, 63 • Atavism,' recent theory of, in rela

tion to heredity, cxxxii. 119 Athanasian Creed, permissive read

ing of, advocated, cxiii. 20;' Essays

and Reviews' on, 494 Athanasius (Saint, of Alexandria,

296-373), persecution of, by the Arians, cxiii. 467

impulse given by him to monasticism, cxiv. 329 Athanasius (made Patriarch of Con

stantinople in 1289), his quarrel

Atlantic telegraphs, hasty construc

tion of the first cable, cxiii. 127; unsuccessful attempts to lay it, 128; the expedition renewed in 1858, 130; the Queen's message to the President, 132 ; causes of failure, 133

early history of,cxxxii. 229, 233; recovery of the 1865 cable,

234, 236. Atomic theory, the foundation of

modern chemistry, cxxxiii. 156; its method of research, ib. -158; new modes of analysis, ib.; applied

to gases, 159 Attainder, Acts of, early instances of,

cxxv. 88 Atterbury (Francis, Bishop of

( Rochester, 1662-1731), his attempted vindication of Convocation as a spiritual Parliament, cxl.

430 * Auchterarder Case,' the, cxl. 277 Auckland (William Eden, 1st Lord,

1745-1814), his “Journal and Correspondence,' Vols. I. II., cxiii. 360; confidential adviser of Lord North, 367 ; his daring change of Irish policy, ib.; active part in the Coalition, 369; vice-treasurer of Ireland, 370; his knowledge of finance, ib. ; negotiates the commercial treaty with France, 371;

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