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tion of the Supreme Court, 570;
theory of the sovereignty of the
people, 571 ; desirability of sepa-
ration discussed, 574 ; hostility to
England ascribed to Southern
policy, 576; despotism of the
Washington government, 578;
Northern hatred of England ex-
plained, 580; progress of the war,
582; its increasing atrocity, 584;
financial policy of the North, 585;
improbability of re-union, 586 ;
futility of foreign recognition of

the South, 590
American War of Secession, three

degrees of recognition open to
England, cxvii. 298; historical
precedents, 299; the question one
of expediency, not of principle,
304; ill-timed proposal of the
French, ib.

European contempt of Ame-
rican strategy, cxxi. 252; McClel-
lan's Anaconda strategy, 253, 254;
capture of Vicksburg, ib.; Grant's
relief of Rosencrans, 256; his
brilliant tactics at Chattanooga,
ib.; he defeats Bragg at the
Clouds,' 257 ; opening of the 1864
campaign, 259; gloomy prospects
of the Confederates, ib.; Federal
transport of supplies, 261, 262;
Sherman's expedition to the Ala-
bama frontier, 263; demeanour of
the slaves, 264; Federal forces
concentrated, 265, 266; double
operations against Richmond, ib.;
battle of Pleasant Hill, 267; the
Confederate ram. Albemarle,' ib.
and note; routes to Richmond,
268; different views of McClellan
and Lincoln thereon, ib. 269;
triple plan of invasion by Grant,
272, 273; simultaneous Federal
advance, ib.; first contest with
Lee, 274; normal character of
battles in the war, 275; Federal
use of breastworks, ib. 276; battle
of the Wilder ness' continued

ib. ; Lee adopts the defensire,
277; series of skirmishes, 278;
value of the Sanitary Commission,
281 and note; battle of Cold Har-
bour, 283; siege of Petersburg,
ib. ; results of the Virginian cam-
paign, 284; Sherman's capture of
Atlanta, ib. 286; and of Saran-
nah, 287, 288; cruel treatment of
prisoners by the Confederates,

415 note
American War of Secession, intro-

duction of tirailleur practice from,
cxxiii, 117; cause of indecisive
battles in, ib.; use of mounted in-
fantry, 124; and of fieldworks,
125; its military lessons, 127; its
unexpected result, 524; questions
decided by the contest, 529; con-
sequent diminution of State-rights,
531; Mr. Johnson's terms of re-
admission to the Seceded States, 536

importance of the navy in,
cxxiv. 185; failure to relieve
Fort Sumter, 186; the 'Merri-
mac' seized by the Confederates,
192; Confederate privateers, 195;
mixed operations in Albemarle
and Pamlico Sounds, 196; Du-
pont's services at the mouth of
the Savannah, 197; Farragut's
operations against New Orleans,
198–209; importance of its cap-
ture, ib.; the Confederate iron-
clad Arkansas,' 211; attack on
Vicksburg, ib. ; the battle of
Hampton Roads, 213; Federal
failure against Fort Sumter, 216;
victory of the Weehauken' over
the Confederate · Atlanta,' 219,
220; action in Mobile Bay, 221;
surrender of the Tennessee,' 223;
the ram

Albemarle' sunk by a
torpedo, ib.; Porter's success
against Wilmington, 224; Con-
federate piracy, ib.

the battle of Belmont, cxxix.
236; new phase of, in 1862, 237;
the spring campaign of that year,


ib. ; their interest in the study of

the English language, 145
Amethyst, an alleged antidote to

wine, cxxiv. 237
Amphictyonic Council, the, origin of,

cxii. 392
Amravati, the Tope of,—the Mack-

enzie marbles of, in the Indian
Museum, cxxx, 484; discovery
of the ruins of, 506; Sir W. El-
liot's excavations, 507; Græco-
Bactrian colony at Amravati, ib.;
Mr. Fergusson on the age of the

Tope, 508

238; position of the Confederates,
ib. ; Federal capture of Fort Donel-
son, 239, 240; battle of Pittsburg,
24+-247; desperate nature of the
war thereafter, ib.; Confederate
scheme of Northern invasion, 248;
Grant's capture of Vicksburg, 250–
252; investment of Chattanooga,
253; unfinished work of Colonel
Badeau on, 256; the affair of Cold
Harbour, 260; Lee's position at
Richmond, 263; Confederate de-
sertions, 264; surrender of Rich-

mond, 268. See Grant, General
American War of Secession, Ameri-

can claims against England
ing out of, cxxxv. 550 (see Genova
Arbitration); the contest not an
ordinary ipsurrection, 555

battle of Bull's Run, cxxxvii.
374; its unimportant results, 375;
McClellan in Western Virginia,
ib.; Federal

programme in the
spring of 1861-2, 376; battle of
the Seven Pines, 377; Lee's vic-
tory on the Chickahominy, 380

Mr. Grote's views on,
cxxxviii. 243

frightful mortality of the
Confederates, cxxxix. 135; Fede-
ral employment of runaway ne-
groes, 137; demoralising effects

of, on society and public life, 150
Americans, their passion for tracing

Old World pedigrees, cxx. 189;
instability of their social life, 468

their genuine attachment to
the mother country, cxxix. 456

causes of French sympathy
with, cxxx. 63

their humour of exaggera-
tion accounted for, cxxxii. 282

instance of their pride of
English pedigree, cxxxv. 389

Continental tourists,
CXxxviii. 497

foreign influences on their
language, cxl. 144; distinctive
features of Anglo-American speech,

Amsterdan, Bank of, cxv. 24
Anacreon (6th century B.c.), the

reputed author of light lyrical

poetry, cxl. 356
Anästhetics, use of, in surgery,

cxxxvi. 490
Analogy, argument of, applied to

geology, cxviii. 258
Anaximander (b. B.C. 610), his

notions of Transcendentalism,

cxxiii. 301
Anaximrenes (d. about B.C. 546), his

theories of the universe, cxvi. 91
• Anchor Ice,' cxiii. 77
Ancona, suppression of its municipal

rights by Clement VII., cxii. 122
"Ancren Riwle,' the, early English

text, cxxv. 236
Andaman Islands, curious skeleton

discovered in, cxvi. 172.
Anderson (Dr.John), his 'Expedition

to Western Yünan,' cxxxvii. 295–

Andorre, Republic of, its history,

compiled from original records,
cxiii. 345; antiquity of its inde-
pendence, 347; simple form of
government, ib.; evidences of tra-
dition, 349; genuineness of Char-
lemagne's charter, 351; War of
Independence, 352; its constitu-
tion finally settled, ib.; primitive
life of the magnates, 354; general
ignorance of the people, 355; their
field sports and religious fêtes, 357


André (Bernard), his account of

Perkin Warbeck, cxxi. 205; his

merits as an historian, 222
André (John, 1751-1780), story of

his being jilted by Miss Sneyd,

cxxvi. 462
Andrews (Dr.), his recent researches

in chemical science, cxxxiii. 161
Andronicus II. (Palæologus the Elder,

Emperor of Constantinople, 1260-
1322), his quarrel with Athana-

sius, cxxi. 482
Angarville (Richard, alias de Bury,

Bishop of Durham 1287-1345),

his book collections, cxxxix. 14
Angel, use of the word, by Shak-

speare, cxxx. 97, 98
Angelico (Fra Giovanni da Fiesole,

1387-1454), character of his

paintings, cxxii. 91
Angelo (Michael de Buonarotti,

1474–1564). See Michael Angelo
Anglesea, etymology of, cxi. 361
Anglican Rubric. See Rubric, An-

Anglican Synod, proposal of, for Sep-

tember 24, 1867, cxxvi. 121;
doubtful advantage of the scheme,

Anglo-Saxons, the phrase criticised,

cxxi. 37 ; M. Taine's description of,
295, 296

influence of Northern cos-
tumes on, cxl. 251, 254; their

meagre literature, 255
Angus (or Forfar), County of, cxx.
309; interest attached to,

dustrial revolution in, 310; early
accounts of, ib.; four natural di-
visions of, 311; the Braes of
Angus, ib. ; Strath Mohr, Sidlaw,
and the maritime district from
Gowryburn to the Northesk, 312;
geology of, 313; the Forfarshire
Fishbed, 314; supposed Druidical
remains, 315; ancient human ha-
bitations, 316; early fortalices, ib.;
Roman antiquities, 317; sculp-
tured stones, ib.; Cathedral Church

of Brechin, 318; history of the
town of Forfar, 319; the borough
of Montrose, 320; Abbey of Ar-
broath, ib.; legendary notice of
Dundee, 321; condition of, in the
time of Bruce, 323; the battle of
Harlaw, 324; lords of the soil in,
326; Norman and foreign pro-
prietors, ib.; effects of the Refor-
mation in, 327 ; scholars exiled
from, 329; condition of, under the
Covenanters, 330; fines imposed by
Cromwell on the gentry of, 331;
tranquil during the Restoration,
ib.; occasional Highland raids in,
ib.; effects of the Revolution,
332; confiscations after the two
Rebellions, 333, 334; industrial
history of, 335; linen trade with
the Low Countries, 336; spinning-
mills in, 339; architectural fea-

tures of, 344
Animals, acclimatisation of, cxi. 161;

scientific value of menageries,
162; rare additions to domesticated
animals since the Christian era,
163; primary objects of the Zoolo-
gical Society, ib.; the Societé
d'Acclimatation, ib.; the vivaria at
Paris, 164; importation of foreign
deer to England, 165; and of
elands, 167, 169; the koodoo, ib. ;
the spring-bok, 170; the hippopo-
tamus, 174 ; chimpanzees, 177;
successful introduction of giraffes,
179; death of bisons from pleuro-
pneumonia, 180; acclimatisable
birds, 181; gallinaceous varieties,
183; the black-necked swan, 184;
varieties of geese, 186; the sala-
mander at Amsterdam, 187 ; pre-
sent infancy of domestication as a
science, 188

belief in creation of, from
mineral sources, cxxv. 389

intermixture of, during the
Quaternary period of geology,
cxxxii. 445

faculty of reason among the


higher grades of, cxxxiii. 172 ; their sense of humour, ib. ; qualities shared by man, ib. ; borderland

between reason and instinct, 173 Animals, structural identity of, with

man, cxxxiv. 197; physical differences, 201; emotions shared in common, 209; their faculty of imitation, 210; other intellectual qualities of, . (see Man); theory of

sexual selection, 229, 234 Animal life, forms of. See Zoology Animism, supposed primitive belief

in, cxxxix, 435 Anjou, publications respecting,cxxvii.

77; traditions of the English occupation, ib.; etymology of the word, 79; prehistoric monuments, ib.; the dolmen of Bagneux, 80; conquered by the Romans, 81; their colony Egada, ib.; Christianity introduced, 82; monastic system in, 83; conquered by Chilperic the Frank, ib.; fragmentary knowledge of, under his successors, 84 ; the dowry of Charlemagne's sister, Bertha, ib. ; creation of hereditary countships, 85; ravages of the Norsemen, 86; their evacuation of Angers, ib. ; their colony in Anjou, ib.; Ingelgerian Counts of, beyond the Maine,' 87; Foulques II., ib.; Wars of Foulques Nerra, ib., 88; Geoffrey Martel, ib.; relations with Rome, ib.; rise of Benedictine convents, 89; monks of St. Maur, ib.; Abbey of Fontevrault, 90; Foulques V., ib.; his son Geoffrey, ib.; secured by treaty to IIenry IL, ib.; bis government, 91; relations of Richard I. with, 92 ; siege of Angers, ib.; struggle between feudalism and monarchy, 93; Louis IX. and his brother Charles, ib. ; glories of the house of Anjou-Sicily, 94; the Duke Réné, 95; later royal dukes of Anjou, 96; wars of religion in, 97; the Reformation in, ib., 98;

massacre at Monsorenu, 99; Jesuit College at La Flêche, ib.; interval of religious toleration, ib., 100; Huguenot persecutions in, 101 ; republican sympathies punished by the Vendean bands, ib.;

prospects of prosperity, 101, 102 Anna (Empress of Russia, 1693

1740), her quarrel with Marshal Saxe, cxx. 519, 520; her accession,

525 Anne (Queen of England, 1664

1714), her love of gossip and mystery, cxviii. 414; her critical state of health in 1713, 425; her death, 427

Earl Stanhope's History of her reign, cxxxii. 519; Jacobite acquiescence in her succession, 530; relations with Parliament, 531 ; conduct to the Pretender, 532; religious reaction against the Jacobites, 534; collapse of Tory policy, ib.; condition of society, 535; monied and professional classes, 537; decrease of population, 538; unfavourable conditions of life, ib.; ignorance of science, 539; weavers' strikes, 541 ; literary aspect of her reign, ib.; compared with present literature, 545; habits of authors, 548; sketches of her Court by Burnet and Lord Chesterfield, 553 ; epigram as

cribed to, ib. note. Anne of Cleves (Queen of Henry

VIII.), Holbein's portrait of, cxxv.

436 Annenkoff (M.), his Commentary on

the Franco-German War, cxxxv.

151 Ansell (G. F.), his improved safety

lamp for mines, cxxv. 559-561 Anselm (Archbishop of Canterbury,

born about 1034, died 1109), his doctrine of the internal evidence of Revelation, cxiii. 485

- his religious character, cxxi. 39, 40


Antarctic Pole, theory of a continent

at, cxii. 311; discoveries of Sir

James Ross, ib.
Antelopes, adapted to English

climate, cxi. 167; the eland, ib,
Anthropological Review,' absurd

illustration of hereditary influ-

ences in, cxxxii. 106
Antichrist. See Apocalypse ; Rénan,

Antigua, prosperity of planters in,

cxv, 48
• Anti-Jacobin,' the, unequal charac-

ter of, cxxxv. 475; perplexing his-

tory of, ib.
Antioch, Church of. See Melitius
Antonello (da Messina, Italian pain-

ter, 1414–1493), cxxxv. 140; intro-
duces oil-painting from Flanders,

Antoninus, the wall of, cxii. 516
Antwerp, siege of, by the Duke o
Parma, cxiii. 186

associations of Rubens with,
cxvii. 117; Dürer's account of, in

1520, 121; guild of painters at, ib.
Apes, Anthropoid, discoveries of,

cxvii. 543. See Man
Apingi, the, African tribe of, cxiv.

Apocalypse, the, theological study of,

in England, cxl. 485; in France
and Germany, 486; peculiar value
of, 488; internal difficulties as to
its authorship, rb.; theory of M.
Rénan, 489; question of its date,
491; Nero the Antichrist, 493 ;
parallel passage in Tacitus, 495;
its Hebrew and anti-Pauline cha-
racter, 496 ; enmity in, to Rome,
497 ; works known to the author,
499; the true peroration of the
New Testament, 511; the term
explained, 512; failure of, as a

prophecy, 513
Apocryphal Gospels, the, recent

works on, cxxviii. 81; neglect of,
by divines, 82 ; M. Douhaire's the-
ory of their origin, 84; early his-

tory of, 85; Papal condemnations
of, i8.; neglected after the thir-
teenth century, 87; Gospel of
Nicodemus, 88; collations by Fa-
bricius, ib.; later commentators
and contributors, 89; translated by
Voltaire, 2b.; Dr. Thilo's Codes, ib.;
Protevangelium of James, 93;
Gospel ascribed to St. Thomas, 95;
stories of the infancy of Christ, 96 ;
Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, 97;
the Gesta and Acta Pilati, ib.;
episode of the Descent to Hell, 98;
fragments of real tradition con-
cerning Christ, 100; probable ob-
ject of their composition, 102;
their poetic value examined, 103;
not written in the spirit of impos-
ture, ib.; animating motire of,
104; their inferiority to the Canon-
ical Gospels, 105; important dis-
crepancies of the text, 107; exag-
gerated French estimate of, ib.;
their useful purposes, ib.; Mr.
Row's sensible remarks on, '108;
their degrading picture of Christ,

Apellicon (of Teos), his alleged res-

cue of Aristotle's MSS., cxxxvii.

59 note
Apollo, Greek statue of, found at

Tegea, cxl. 169
Apollonius Pergæus (of Alexandria)

his doctrine of Epicycles, cxvi. 95
Apostolic Age, the, controversies on

Christianity in, cxxxi. 492
Appeals, Statute of (24 Hen. VIII.

c. 12), cxl. 433
Appian (2nd century), on the topo-

graphy of ancient Carthage, cxiv,

80, 91
Aquinas (Thomas, about 1224-

1274), his hymn Lauda Sion,'

cxxxvi. 284
Arabia, scanty geographical know-
ledge of, cxii. 319

traditional division of the
population, cxvi. 349; stringency
of the family bond, 351 ; dethrone-

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