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with which this duty has been performed, and my of the custom-house buildings at San Francisco, folk, Virginia; Ocracoke, North Carolina; Cleveconfidence in the results thus reached.

in California, and Pittsburg, in Pennsylvania; and land, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; Pittsburg, PennsylvaIt has been an arduous and responsible duty, re the buildings will be prosecuted to completion | nia; Louisville and Paducah, Kentucky; Natchez, quiring in each case a personal examination, and with the utmost possible dispatch. The restric- Mississippi; New Orleans, Louisiana; Mobile, in many cases accurate surveys of the localities. tions imposed upon the Department by limited Alabama; and Key West, Florida. AppropriaMuch valuable information has also been furnished appropriations in the various acts authorizing the tions have been made, and buildings authorized in connection with the river and harbor improve erection of custom-houses and post offices, forbid to be erected at Napoleon, Arkansas; St. Louis, ments, greatly expediting the plans for prosecu- in many the erection of fire-proof buildings, or the Missouri; San Francisco, California; Evansville, ting these works, and making available the results adoption of plans embracing a style or material, Indiana; Portland, Maine, and Vicksburg, Misof the surveys and the personal examination of comparable with many of the local public or pri- ; sissippi. the superintendents to this branch of the public vate buildings in the same places.

Estimates of appropriations for the completion service.

Within these limited appropriations in many of the buildings at St. Louis, and for the fencing In view of the very extensive correspondence cases accommodations must be provided for the and heating of buildings, and work necessary for which necessarily appertains to such extended and custom-house, post office, United States courts, their protection at Chicago, in Illinois; Cleveland, varied operations, it is respectfully recommended offices for United States marshal, and clerks of the in Ohio; Pittsburg, in Pennsylvania; Louisville, that the same authority as to receiving or sending United States courts. The great value of the pa in Kentucky; Paducah, Napoleon, and Natchez, official communications connected with the survey, pers which must necessarily collect within the have been submitted. now exercised by the several bureaus of this De buildings embracing the above-mentioned offices, These estimates are based upon a careful calcupartment, may be extended to the Superintendent demand that every precaution should be taken on lation of the amount and quantity of work to be of the Coast Survey, and to the assistant in charge the part of the Government to prevent their de done, and are deemed indispensably necessary for of the Survey Office, the Superintendent being struction by fire. Some of the appropriations at the buildings and grounds referred to. necessarily absent in the field much of his time. the control of the Department have been reduced A contract has been made for the buildings at The duties of franking now thrown upon this De by the purchase of the necessary site, or were San Francisco, and those at Napoleon and St. partment are extremely onerous, while it pro originally so limited as to render it doubtful if the Louis are nearly completed; that at St. Louis has duces delay incompatible with that prompt dis contemplated buildings, with proper accommoda- | been delayed, awaiting a further appropriation. patch of the business of the Survey always to be tions, can be erected without additional appropria A site has been purchased at Evansville, but the desired.

tions being made. Special communications in re balance of the appropriation is not sufficient to MISCELLANEOUS.

lation to some of these will be made to Congress erect a suitable building, and an additional appro

as soon as specific information can be obtained. priation of $20,000 is respectfully submitted. In pursuance of the act of 31st August last, au The contract for the extension and reorganiza A site has been selected for an hospital at Portthorizing the formation of a Light-house Board,

tion of the Baltimore custom-house building has land, Maine, but the Department has not yet taken one officer of engineers of the Army, and one of been concluded, in conformity with the act of the final action on the report of the cominissioners apthe Topographical Engineers, two naval officers of last session.

pointed to select it. high rank, and two civilians of distinguished sci The great distance and consequent difficulty The following statements connected with the entific acquirements, have been designated by the President to form this Board, and one officer of the vented any definite progress being made in the and delay in communicating with Oregon has pre- subject accompany the present report, viz:

Statement T exhibits the whole amount received Navy and one of the Engineers as secretaries. The || erection of the proposed building at Astoria, from the monthly contributions of seamen under Board so constituted immediately organized, and The operations of the Department arising out of the act of 16th July, 1798, up to 1st July, 1852. entered upon the duties assigned them by law.

the provisions made for sick and disabled seamen, Statement U, exhibiting the amount appropriThe clerks employed upon the light-house business are becoming daily more onerous and extended. ated by Congress for the purchase of sites, erection being one temporary clerk from the office of the

In consequence of the rapid expansion of our of marine hospitals, furniture, &c., designating Secretary of the Treasury, and four from the commerce, both foreign and domestic, the funds the respective points and the amount of appropriFifth Auditor's bureau, were, as required by law, arising from the monthly contributions of twenty ations for each place. transferred to the office of the Light-house Board. cents from the parties for whose benefit this truly Statement V, exhibiting the present state of the

The Board has been assiduously engaged in the beneficent system has been established, are insufti- hospital fund arising from the monthly contribuproper duties assigned it. From the practical cient for their relief, without the addition of directtions of the seamen, and the appropriations by knowledge and high professional and scientific appropriations by Congress.

Congress for their relief. attainments combined in the eminent gentlemen The previous appropriations from the Treasury The Supreme Court, in the case of Lawrence comprising it, there is no reason to doubt that all for the relief of sick seamen have amounted to vs. Caswells, decided that no return of duties the benefits contemplated by this new organiza- $969,069 34, besides $928,319 20 for the purchase could be claimed by parties who had not at the tion of that branch of the public service will be of sites, the erection of hospital buildings, furni time of making the entry entered a written protest fully realized. ture, repairs, &c.

declaring specially the grounds on which they obA detailed report of the operations of the Board, The Department recommends a continuance of jected to pay the duties; and the Department has comprising such changes and improvements in the appropriations for the relief of sick seamen and felt itself bound by that decision, and has since the present system as in its judgment have become boatmen, to the needful extent for supplying the declined to refund any duties alleged to be illegally necessary, is submitted with the present report. deficiency in the amount received from the hos- | assessed, except in cases where such written pro

Under the act of the 31st August last, providing pital fund; but it is not at present prepared to ad test was made at the time, or where it evidently for the construction of not less than six revenue vise the erection of more marine hospitals. The urose from a clerical error. This course involves cutters, the Department advertised for proposals | experience of the Department induces me to be great hardship in many cases where even the same for the building of six vessels of designated size lieve that it is in every way preferable to make all parties, having in certain entries made a regular and finish. Proposals have accordingly been re arrangement for the care of sick seamen with local protest, have received back the duties erroneously ceived, and the contract for the whole number has || hospitals of high standing, which are under the assessed, agreeably to legal decisions; whilst in been awarded to the lowest bidder, under ample immediate and vigilant supervision of citizens of | other cases, precisely similar in every respect, but security for its faithful execution. The appropria- | the highest respectability, at the respective places. where the formality of a protest was not observed, tion made will be sufficient for the construction of Such arrangements exist at New York, Philadel no return can be made under the above decision said vessels, and their perfect equipment for ser phia, Cincinnati, and at some other points, at a of the Supreme Court. I would recommend these vice.

fixed weekly rate for each seaman, ihe cost of cases to the favorable action of Congress, by inOf the several custom-houses authorized, or in which is greatly less than it would be in a public vesting in the Treasury Department the power to course of construction, that at New Orleans has hospital, and where the care and attention which return duties in all cases which may be similar to progressed as fast as circumstances would permit; the patients receive are fully equal to what they those on which the Supreme Court may have that at Savannah has been completed and occu could possibly obtain in a Government institution, made decisions in favor of the claimants, even if pied; at Charleston the foundation is progressing and their medical treatment is also under the di no protest has been made at the time by the parwith all possible dispatch. Sites have been pur rection of the most eminent professional talents ties. chased, and proposals publicly invited for the and experience. In all places where a similar ar The attention of Congress was called at the last erection of custom-house buildings at Mobile, rangement can be made, I am of opinion it should session to the necessity of a law-and one was Norfolk, Bangor, Louisville, St. Louis, and Cin be preferred, rather than erect other marine hos- i framed for the purpose but not acted on-to check cinnati. Sites have been selected at Bath and pitals in addition to those already authorized, as I the multiplicity of suits against the collectors of Waldoboro', Maine, and Wilmington, in Dela believe both the comfort of the sick, and economy the customs for duties alleged to be improperly ware; and their purchase will be completed when of expenditure, would be promoted by the adop- i collected, by obliging the same parties to consolithe cession of jurisdiction shall have been obtained tion of the former plan.

date all their suits of a similar kind in one action; from the States in which they are respectively situ Under the system which has been so long and i and also where one party had already entered a suit ated, in accordance with the requirements of the so steadily pursued by the Government as regards that no others involving the same principle should joint resolution of September, 1841. A site has this useful, but generally improvident class of be instituted, on the Treasury Department agreebeen selected for the building authorized at Rich men, there is probably no instance where so much ing, upon notice from other claimants, that the demond, Virginia. So much of the appropriation, | relief is granted, and so generally distributed, and cision of the suit which may have been already however, will be absorbed by its purchase that it with so much advantage to the parties interested, | entered, should govern in the settlement of the has been deemed advisable to delay for the pres as that by the marine hospital fund under its pres others. As it now is, the same parties, vexatious. ent any steps towards the erection of the build. ent regulations.

ly and with the view to increase their costs, will ing, with the view of requesting from Congress

While the benefit of this fund is extended to enter separate and numerous suits, all precisely an additional appropriation and the removal of the almost all the collection districts of the United similar in the facts and circumstances. existing restriction as to the amount of expendi- States, hospitals are completed and in full opera It is also essential that in all suits against col

Contracts have been made for the erection tion at Chelsea, near Boston, Massachusetts; Nor lectors there should be the right of appeal to the


320 CONG....20 Sess.

Colonization in North America-Mr. Cass.


Supreme Court without regard to the amount, as ation over exportation, and of exportation over recolonization of any part of this hemisphere by there are numerous decisions made in the lower | importation during the same years.

the European Powers has occupied the attention courts, involving important principles, which would L. Statement exhibiting the quantity and value of the American people for many years, with probably be reversed, were an appeal granted, but of wines, spirits, &c., imported annually, from more or less interest, as passing events seemed to which the amount involved does not admit of an 1843 to 1852, inclusive; and also showing the for render the effort more or less probable. The genappeal under existing laws.

eign cost per gallon under specific and ad valorem eral subject, as well as the principles involved in Congress at its last session having appropriated duties.

it, has been so often discussed that I do not prothe sum of $10,000 for locating surf-boats on the M. Statement showing the value of goods re pose to enter into a very full examination of our coast of the United States, the Department called maining in warehouses at the close of each quar rights and condition connected with this important upon the Superintendent of the Coast Survey for ter, from the 30th of September, 1847, to the 30th | topic, but rather to present the general consideraa report showing the points where they could be of June, 1852, as exhibited by the quarterly re tions belonging to it. most advantageously employed for the purpose turns of the collectors of the customs, under the Two Presidents of the United States have, by of saving life and property from shipwreck. This provisions of the act of the 6th of August, 1846; | solemn public acts, in their messages to Congress, report has lately been received, giving twelve and also the amount of duties payable thereon. declared and maintained the principles respecting points on the coast of Maine and Massachusetts N. Statement exhibiting the value of dutiable | American exemption from European dominion, as suitable locations; and orders will immediately | merchandise reëxported annually, from 1821 to which are laid down in the first of the resolutions issue for the supplying the same with the requisite || 1852, inclusive; and showing also the value re before us, ard have distinctly and satisfactorily boats and their appurtenances; and as soon as exported from warehouses under the act of August established not only our right' but our duty to do other suitable locations along the coast are fur 6, 1846.

so, as one of the great elements of our national nished this Department from the Office of the 0. Statement exhibiting the value of foreign safety and prosperity. Mr. Monroe, in 1823, Coast Survey, measures will be immediately taken merchandise imported, reëxported, and consumed, said: for furnishing them likewise. Numerous reports annually, from 1821 to 1852, inclusive, and also the “ We owe it, therefore, to candor, and to the amicable rehave been made to the Department of the great | estimated popuiation and rate of consumption, per lations existing between the United States and those Powers,

to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part saving of life and property on our coast by means capita, during the same periods.

to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as of these boals; and I would respectfully suggest P. Statement exhibiting the value of merchan

dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colthat a further appropriation of $10,000 be made dise and domestic produce, &c., exported annually onies or dependencies of any European Power we bave not for this laudable object, and that power be granted from 1821 to 1852.

interfered, and shall not interfere. But with the Govern

ments which have declared their independence and trainthis Department to expend, from time to time, Q. Statement exhibiting the quantity and value

tained it, and whose independence we have, on great considsuch portions of it as may be required to keep the of cotton exported annually, from 1821 to 1852,

eration and on just principles acknowledged, we could not boats and fixtures in repairs for immediate use, inclusive, and the average price per pound. view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, and compensate persons for taking care of them. R. Statement exhibiting the aggregate value of

or controlling in any other manner their destiny by any EuThe subject of the fisheries being one of high breadstuffs and provisions exported annually, from

ropean Power, in any other light than as the manifestation

of an unfriendly disposition towards the United States." importance, and having recently attracted great | 1821 to 1852.

Mr. Polk, in the same spirit, in 1845, said: and general attention, I transmit herewith a highly S. Statement exhibiting the quantity and value

"The people of the linited States cannot, therefore, view interesting and valuable report prepared for this of tobacco and rice exported annually, from 1821

with indifference attempts of European Powers to interfere Department by Lorenzo Sabine, Esq., embracing: to 1852, inclusive.

with the independent action of the nations on this continent. 1. A report on the fisheries of France, Spain, and All of which is respectfully submitted,

The American system of government is entirely different Portugal, in the American seas.


froin that of Europe. Jealousy among the different sover

eigns of Europe, lest any one of them might become too pow. 2. A report on the fisheries of Newfoundland,

Secretary of the Treasury. erful for the rest, bas caused them anxiously to desire the es Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward's Island, | Hon. Linn Boyd,

tablishment of what they term the balance of power. It Magdalen Islands, Bay of Chaleurs, Labrador, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

cannot be permitted to have any application on the North and New Brunswick.

Ainerican continent, and especially to the United States. We

must ever maintain the principle, that the people of this 3. Report on the fisheries of the United States.

continent alone have the right to decide their own destiny. 4. Review of the controversy between the Uni COLONIZATION IN NORTH AMERICA. Should any portion of them, constituting an independent ted States and Great Britain as to the intent and

State, propose to unite themselves with our Confederacy, meaning of the first article of the Convention of DEBATE IN THE SENATE,

this will be a question for them and us to determine, with

out any foreign interposition. We can never consent that 1818.

TUESDAY, January 15, 1853,

European Powers shall interfere to prevent such a union The following statements accompany the present

because it might disturb the balance of power' which On the Resolutions of Mr. Cass, relative to colon they inay desire to maintain upon this continent. Near a A. Statement of duties, revenues, and public

ization in North America.

quarter of a century ago, the principle was distinctly an

nounced to the world, in the annual message of one of my expenditures, during the fiscal year ending June The Senate proceeded, as in Committee of the predecessors, that · The American continent, by the free 30, 1852, agreeably to warrants issued, exclusive Whole, to consider the joint resolution declaratory and independent condition which they have assumed and of trust funds and Treasury notes funded. of the views of the United States respecting colo

maintained, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects

"for future colonization by any European Power.' This B. Statement of duties, revenues, and public nization on the North American continent by Euro principle will apply with greatly increased force, should expenditures, for the first quarter of the fiscal year, | pean Powers, and respecting the Island of Cuba; any European Power attempt to establish any new colony from July 1 to September 30, 1852, agreeably to which is as follows:

in North America." warrants issued, exclusive of trust funds and " Be it resolved, &c., That the United States do hereby In some remarks upon this subject in the Senate Treasury notes funded.

declare that the American continents, by the free and in a few days since, I alluded to, rather than considC. Statement of advances from the Treasury on dependent condition which they have assumed and mainaccount of the expenses of each custom-house in lain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for

ered, the general grounds upon which this claim future colonization by any European Power.' And while

of independent action for the nations of the Amerthe United States during the year ending on the * existing rights should be respected,' and will be by the ican continent rested for its assertion, I shall not 30th June, 1852.

United States, they owe it to their own' safety and inter repeat those views, contenting myself with saying D. Statement of the number of persons em

ests' « to announce, as they now do, that no future Euro-
pean colony or dominion shall, with their consent, be planted

that this right of exclusion results from the condiployed in each district of the United States, for the or established on any part of the North American coniinent.'

tion of this continent, and from those general princollection of customs, during the fiscal year ending And should the attempt be made, they thus deliberately de ciples of the public law of the world, by which it June 30, 1852, with their occupation and compen clare that it will be viewed as an act originating in motives protects the interests and safety of nations in the sation, per act 31 March, 1849.

regardless of their interests and their safety, and which
will leave them free to adopt such measures as au independ-

varying circumstances in which they may be E. Statement of the public debt on the 1st Jan

ent nation may justly adopt in defense of its rights and its placed. The history of that code shows that it honor.

has a power of adaptation to the advancing condiF. Statement of the redemption of Treasury " And be it further resolved, That while the United States tions of nations, and that rigid inflexibility is not notes during the fiscal year ending 30th June,

disclaim any designs upon the Island of Cuba inconsistent
with the laws of nations and with their duties to Spain,

one of its attributes. The changes introduced into 1852. they consider it due to the vast importance of the subject,

it by the discovery of America in the establishG. Statement exhibiting the total value of im to make known, in this solemn manner, that they should ment of the principles of occupation and settlement, ports, and the imports consumed in the United view all efforts on the part of any other Power to procure are familiar to all, and furnish an illustration of States, exclusive of specie, during each fiscal year possession, whether peaceably or forcibly, of that island, from 1821 to 1852; showing, also, the value of the wbich, as a naval or military position, must, under circum?

this progressive improvement. The right of restances easy to be foreseen, become dangerous to their colonization would necessarily lead to the renewal, domestic and foreign exports, exclusive of specie, southern coast, to the Gulf of Mexico, and io the mouth of indeed, to the perpetual domination of European and the tonnage employed during the same pe

the Mississippi, as unfriendly acts, directed agaiust them, Powers, and their colonies, wherever planted, riods. to be resisted by all the means in their power."

would become parties with the mother countries in H. Statement exhibiting the value of imports The question pending was on the following all their wars, though far beyond the true sphere annually, from 1821 to 1852, designating sepa amendment offered by Mr. Hale:

of their causes and objects. rately the amount of specie, free and dutiable “ And be it further resolved, That wbile the United States,

We should thus find ourselves in juxtaposition, goods, respectively.

in like manner, disclaim any designs upon Canada incon it might be, and at any rate within the reach of I. Statement exhibiting the value of certain ar

sistent with the laws of nations, and with their duties to
Great Britain, they consider it due to the vast importance

the action of communities, rendered enemies by ticles imported during the years ending on the 30th of the subject to make known, in this solemn manner, that

the disputes, too often frivolous, and almost always of June, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, they should view all efforts on the part of any other Power indifferent, of nations on the other side of the Atand 1852, (after deducting the reëxportations, to procure possession, either peaceably or forcibly, of that lantic. Such a state of things, bringing wars to and the amount of duty which accrued on each

Province, (wbich, as a naval or military position, must, unduring the same periods, respectively. der circumstances easy to be foreseen, become dangerous

our coast, to our inland boundaries even, and into their northern boundary, and to the lakes,) as unfriendly terrupting the peaceful and profitable avocations of K. Statement exhibiting the amount of coin and acts directed against them, to be resisted by all the means in a whole continent, to gratify the pride or jealousy, bullion imported and exported annually, from 1821 their power."

or some other equally unworthy passion of minto 1852, inclusive, and also the amount of import Mr. CASS. Mr. President, the question of the

report, viz;

uary, 1853.

320 Cong.....20 Sess.

Colonization in North America-Mr. Cass.


ries of power, would be “ dangerous to our peace satisfactory answer to this question. Though | justify the most solemn declaration of our adherence and safety.”

there is no doubt but that these Executive declara to it. Some of the independent States of Spanish But I do not know that the general principle of | tions were beneficial in their operations, and aided origin seem to be hastening to dissolution, and althis claim of exemption is contested. Certainly in checking schemes of aggrandizement, which, most all of them are weak, unquiet, agitated, and it cannot be upon any just grounds. Our Execu had they gone on, would have changed the polit- || with elements of destruction in more or less active tive Government has assumed it upon full consid ical aspect of the country south of us, and greatly operation. eration, and the history of our negotiations with to our injury, still they have not been wholly re The most important in extent, in population, England, to be found in the interesting account garded, as events upon the La Plata and in other and in natural resources, and the one which, from given by Mr. Rush, our able and faithful repre- regions have practically demonstrated, and occur its coterminous position, has the most intimate sentative, of his mission to that country, proves rences now going on in Central America, and relations with our peace and interests, is precisely beyond doubt, that although the British Ministry which, from day to day, occupy the earnest atten the Power whose fate appears to be the most were opposed to our anti-colonization doctrine, lest tion of the Senate, showing the steps by which the doubtful. Its internal agitations announce one of it might interfere with ulterior objects of aggrand merest shadow of possession becomes a claim, and those catastrophes, whose consequences are beizement on their part, yet, they entirely concurred a claim a title, which carries with it dominion and | yond the reach of human sagacity. in the application of the principle to the recently- || sovereignty, treaty or notreaty: These occurrences It is impossible but that this state of things emancipated Spanish Colonies, which in fact, con announce that our declared policy of exclusion will should have attracted the attention of European ceded the right of the United States to extend the be still further disregarded, unless authoritatively statesmen, and have given rise to schemes, more same policy to any portion of the continent not reaffirmed in the name of the American people. or less matured, for turning the circumstances to then actually possessed by a European Power. An experiment is making upon our forbearance, the advantage of the two great Powers most likely And Mr. Monroe distinctly announced this fact, or rather upon our apprehension, and as it is re to interfere, because most interested, and most casaying:

sisted or submitted to, it will be abandoned, or pable of making their interference felt. We can“ It is gratifying to know that some of the Powers with pushed to results which no nation now ventures not disguise from ourselves that our progress and whom we enjoy a very friendly intercourse, and to whom openly to avow. It is but a few years since, that prospects, while they are a reproach to many of these views (concerning the condition of the spanish-Amer ican States) have been communicated, have appeared to

a principle looking to an American balance of the Governments of the Old World, have excited acquiesce in them."

power, was announced by the French Prime Min their enmity by the contrasts they exhibit, and

ister, Mr. Guizot, in the Chamber of Deputies, in by the dangerous example they offer to the opWhen Mr. Canning announced to Mr. Rush

relation to occurrences at Buenos Ayres, utterly pressed masses, inviting them to do as we have that “ England could not see the transfer of any inconsistent with the true American doctrine; and done, and to become free, as we are free. He who portion of them (these same States) to any other no doubt our own negligence, or rather our timid does not know that there is not a Government in Power with indifference,” she acted upon consid- i ity, has encouraged this spirit of presumption, and Europe, which is a friend to our institutions, has erations much more applicable to our condition led to the belief that we do not intend to carry out much to learn of the impressions that our past, than to hers, and which are coextensive with the

our own principles, and that, therefore, they may and present, and probable future, are producing continent. There is great force in the remark of be safely disregarded by other nations.

among them. And while we should watch their that eminent British statesman upon our situation

I repeat, that the nature of our Government designs with constant, even with jealous care, it and political duties:

furnishes a satisfactory solution of this course of does not become us to magnify either our own " It concerned the United States under aspects and in foreign policy. The annunciation of our views | danger or their power. I have no fear of a direct terests as immediate and commanding, as it did or could

upon this subject was intended to warn the Pow attack upon this country. I do not believe that any of the States of Europe. They were the first Power on that continent, and now confessedly the leading Power. ers of Europe of our policy, and thus to prevent such a project is even among the reveries of the They were connected with Spanish America by their posi the violation of its principle. But upon this, as most dreaming statesman now on the stage of action, as with Europe by their relations. And they also upon many other occasions, we halted in our tion. But what we have to apprehend is plans stood connected with these new States by political relations. Was it possible they could see with indifference their fate

course, and did not come up to our work. We for arresting our extent and prosperity, the seizure decided only by Europe? Could Europe expect this indiffer did not keep on the line of political knowledge. We of positions by which we might be annoyed and ence? Had not a new epoch arrived in the relative position should have added the solemnity and the force of circumscribed, and the creation of an influence, and of the United States towards Europe, which Europe must a legislative concurrence to these Executive decla- of schemes of policy, offering powerful obstacles acknowledge? Were the great political and commercialinterests which hung upon the destinies of the new Continent

rations. Such annunciations, when made by the to our future advancement. Motives have always to be canvassed and adjusted in this hemisphere (Europe)

head of a European State, are made authoritative- || existed and been in operation for checking our without the coöperation or even knowledge of the United ly, because, he who uses them, has the power to progress, but recent events have added as well to

enforce them. They become settled maxims of their number as their gravity: We have acquired These words of

wisdom of one of the most en policy, and other nations are aware that they an extensive territory upon the shores of the great lightened men of England, commend themselves, cannot be interfered with, except at the hazard of ocean of the west, and our flag waves in the breeze by their justice and liberality, to the consideration war. But it is far different here. Great principles that comes from the islands and continent of Asia. of true American, and they are not the less

of national conduct depend essentially upon public Think you, Mr. President, there is a maritime just and liberal because they were urged with a sentiment, and can only be enforced'in ihe last re nation in Europe, which does not desire that every view to induce our Government to become a party sort by the action of Congress. Public sentiment || possible obstacle should be interposed in the way to a European Congress for the arrangement of has, I believe, with almost unexampled unanimity, of all communication between the eastern and the American affairs. It was wise to reject the pro- | approved this principle, but Congress has never, western portions of this magnificent republican posal; it is not less wise to acquiesce in the doc- || by action or declaration, given to it the sanction empire? "Not one; and Nicaragua routes, and irine which led to it, and to make it ours by its of its authority.

That decisive measure should Panama routes, and Tehuantepec routes, and all practical enforcement in our own way, as a ques

have been taken when the Executive first promul others, if there are any others, to be used by us, tion of American policy, beyond the just sphere | gated the doctrine. The claim, therefore, has are so many abominations in their eyes, to be tolof European interposition. When such states rested barren among our archives, only to bearerated only' till they can be closed upon us by the men as Mr. Monroe, Mr. Polk, and Mr. Canning, certain fruit when the Legislature of the Republic occupation of commanding positions whenever unite in their general views of our rights and du- | adopt as its own.

opportunities can be found, or made for seizing ties, those of us who believe in this salutary doc An able and distinguished Senator from Ohio, them. Considerations of this nature, far more trine, and in the expediency of enforcing it, may now no longer among us, (Mr. Allen,) seeing the than their intrinsic value, give importance to Honwell bear the censures, and sneers, and ridicule, importance of this policy, and foreseeing the ne duras, to the Colony of the Bay of Islands, to Soand reproach, which our efforts encounter from cessity of making it our own, and respected as nora, to Chihuahua, and to other points where some, because we go too far, and from others, be such, by a more signal public act, attempted, some European intrigues have been at work to obtain cause we do not go far enough, while the cautious six or seven years since, to press the subject on possession. All we want is a fair and equal field and the timid see in every assertion of national the consideration of Congress, but his exertions, for exertion, and if we have not industry and enrights and honor, a fearful cloud impending over which deserved a better fate, were fruitless, and terprise enough to hold our own way in the great our country, ready to burst upon us, and sweep we compromitted alike our honor and our interests, career of advancement, we deserve to fall behind away our prosperity, if not our existence. by shrinking from a responsibility not less noble, our rivals and cotemporaries, and ought to find no

One third of a century has passed away since in my opinion, than it was important. The Sen one " to do us reverence. But I have no fear of these diplomatic discussions, and if our position ate, if I recollect aright, refused even to consider this, nor indeed has any one else. It should, thereand circumstances, being the oldest of the family the subject. We would not denounce interference, fore, be a cardinal maxim of our policy, to preserve, of nations in the western hemisphere, conferred because that would be to interfere. And we should as far as we can, the integrity of the cisatlantic upon us at that time, such rights, accompanied by thus be led, but how I know not, into entangling Republics, for it is almost as much for their intersuch duties, how much stronger is the appeal of alliances, the bugbear of American politics, which est as it is for ours, that these great lines of comthis policy of continental independence to our raises its spectral front, whenever it is proposed munication should be opened to all the world, and earnest attention now, when time has developed to take a decided step in our foreign intercourse. free to the competition of every nation. our strength and our danger, and when our Amer This national timidity never did any good, and There has recently been an attempt to wrest ican interests are primary, and those which con never will. There are positions in the progress of Sonora from the Mexican dominion, which at first nect us with Europe but secondary in importance, a people, when firmness is not only wisdom bug attracted some attention in this country; but it has and when, from day to day, this disparity is in- | safety; and one of these we have now reached. apparently failed, and the effort seems now rather creasing

Mr. Monroe, when he first announced this to be ridiculed than condemned. The circumstanThis, then, being our settled plan of policy, and policy, considered the occasion proper for the as ces connected with the origin of that movement, having been so announced to the world by two sertion of “ a principle in which the rights and in are obscure, but public rumor at first assigned it Chief Magistrates of our country, why, it may be

terests of the United States are involved." If the indirectly to French agents, made with a view to asked, does it become necessary for Congress to circumstances to which he referred justified this the extension of the jurisdiction of their country interpose, and by a legislative declaration, reaffirm great and untried measure at that day, much more over that region. There are strong reasons for it? The nature of our Government furnishes a do the circumstances in which we are now placed I believing that this conjecture was correct, though

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32n Cong.....20 Sess.

Colonization in North America-Mr. Cass.


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to what extent those concerned acted from author. French diplomatic agent would take such a step, do, you must fortify it by the declaration of your ity, will probably never be known, especially as without the instructions of his Government, knows zealous concurrence, and, if need be, your powerthe result was unfortunate, and such an event gen- nothing of that punctilious sentiment of duty ful cooperation. Or are we afraid to speak out erally leaves these secret political agents to meet which animates his corps, and little of the respon boldly, plainly, as becomes the American people, the consequences of their own responsibility. But sibility he would encounter. “ Three hundred trusting to the miserable policy of expedients, it is not a litile curious that it was known here • Frenchmen,”says our authority, “collected from instead of asserting our rights and our determinathat such a movement would be made, before we different parts of the Republic, are already settled tion to maintain them? It may be consoling to had any actual information of its occurrence, and upon the lands granted by the Government. observe, at least for those who need the consolait was understood to be under the direction of Within a few years, a Frenchman, Mr. Dupas tion, that a legislative declaration would, to say French interests, and with the design of French quier de Dommartin, has shown a lively interest | the least of it, have a strong tendency to prevent acquisition. I received a letter myself, from a in the projects of colonization.”

attempts, which, without such an imposing measquarter I am not at liberty to disclose, some days “This," the adoption of his plans, “ will be the ure, would doubtless be made; for assuredly a before we heard of the enterprise, which I men surest dyke against the usurpation of the Ameri contest with the United States for the acquisition tioned to my colleague and to other gentlemen,

of territory in North America, the very seat of foretelling the movement and coupling it with de " There is also involved the great interest of Eng. our power, would not be hazarded without very signs of permanent annexation. And a document land for Europe, in not allowing to be accom powerful considerations, which it is difficult to forehas since reached this country, which is worthy of “plished, in spite of her, perhaps against her, and see, in the face of the exertions of this country, our attention, and which goes far to confirm these to her detriment, this new dismemberment of the putting forth all its strength. anticipations. It is a memoir, published recently 'Spanish-American Empire.” The Courrier des So much for this project of reconverting the al Paris, by Mr. Dupasquier de Dommartin, for "Etats-Unis, published at New York, the well American continent into European colonies, and the purpose of drawing the attention of European known organ of the French Government in this for the position it is our duty to assume and mainPowers, and especially of France, to the purpose country, in an article, a few days since, made a tain in relation to it. And now for the second of colonizing Sonora and Northern Mexico, as the very pregnant allusion, whether carelessly or care resolution, which looks to the present and the fuonly means of checking the rapid and formidable! fully I know not, but certainly well worthy of at ture of the Island of Cuba. growth of the United States, and preventing for tention: “As yet,” says the Courrier, “France But before proceeding to the consideration of it, ever the acquisition of a railroad from the Missis. 'has not set her foot on the American continent. it is proper to remark, that its form has provoked sippi to the Pacific ocean. The writer has devo . We may fear what she will do, we admit, but in a good deal of animadversion and some opposited himself for some time to the careful study of good faith she does not yet merit the least crimin tion, because the desire of the United States to this subject, has thoroughly explored the region *ation." This is honest enough, indeed, whether purchase Cuba is not distinctly announced upon of which he writes, and has laid the foundation for intended as a prophecy or as a warning. It may ihis occasion. Mr. President, it is an occasion the policy he recommends, by procuring, through be that it will be found expedient to irradiate the which is not appropriate to such a declaration. the aid of the French Minister in Mexico, large grants new empire with the luster of conquest; and it also Our present purpose, in this appeal to the world, of land for the purpose of colonization, from the may be, that the great augmentation of the French is to announce our policy, should any other nalocal authorities of Sonora and Chihuahua. Navy is connected with the designs upon this con tion attempt to obtain possession, by the consent

It is well remarked by the New York Times, tinent, so distinctly portrayed in the quotations I or without the consent of Spain, and in the conto which paper I owe the above extract, as well as have made. Nothing is lost by a provident fore viction that such a solemn procedure will have a the translated memoir—that the fact of the com cast.

tendency to prevent designs which might othermencement of such a colony, with the open avowal Now, it can hardly be doubted by any man who wise be undertaken. But our purchase of Cuba of such a purpose, is, of itself, sufficient to com is familiar with the course of European interpo is a question between us and Spain, and requires mand the prompt attention of the American peo- sition, that if the effort just made to overthrow the no public annunciation to other nations, and to pleand Government. And the interest is increased Mexican Government in Sonora had succeeded, make it, would be a sacrifice of our own self-reby the consideration, that such an appeal is thus ere long the country would have passed into the spect. publicly made for cooperation in the plan; made, possession of France, unless prevented by our So far as respects my own personal views, these too, in the French capital, where no such publica- remonstrances, or by armed intervention. As it I have already explained to the Senate.. I desire tion could appear, without the consent of the Gov- failed, we shall not know its true history until we the possession of Cuba, earnestly desire it, whenernment, that a French company obtained exclu read it in another attempt, and perhaps a successful ever we can justly obtain it, and the sooner that sive grants in Sonora; and that an attempt has one. That, however, will not be made, if we are time comes the better; for then will be finally setbeen made to wrest that region by arms from true to ourselves, by announcing and continuing tled one of the most delicate questions--the most Mexico. All these may, by possibility, be acci to manifest a determination to resist it, or any sim- delicate, perhaps, in our foreign policy, always dental coincidences, and not coöperating causes; ilar scheme of European aggrandizement.

liable to embarrass us by grave conjunctures more but the suggestion requires a good deal of national It is obvious, from the foregoing recapitulation, easily to be seen than to be guarded against. As charity, before it can become even credible. I that our policy and purposes are attracting the to the means, though, as l have already said, I wish there was time to lay this memoir before the attention of Europe; and whatever difference of am prepared to advocate its purchase, even at the Senate, for it is a very significant document, advo- | opinion may prevail respecting the true origin and most liberal price. Still, I should prefer its acquicating the very policy from which we have most objects of the recent movements in Sonora, it is sition by the action of the people of Cuba-and a to fear in all our foreign relations. But I must equally obvious that we may look for similar ex. i noble tribute it would be to our institutions-in confine myself to a very general summary of it. I plosions, from time to time, with results far more the exercise of their power as an independent naThe writer adverts to our commercial interests, injurious to us, unless anticipated and prevented tion, could they succeed by any arrangement with and to their extension; to our object to obtain ab- || by a prompt, bold, and decisive declaration, made Spain in procuring her recognition of that condisolute command of the commerce of the world, and to to be enforced with all our power, should circum tion, or should they be able and prepared to estabthe certainty with which our projects of aggrand stances be grave enough to require us to put forth lish their right to a place in the family of nations. izement will be effected, from the wonderful prog our whole strength.

There are two questions involved in this subject ress we are making, and shall make, unless Eu If, then, we have a right to insist upon this prin- of Cuba: one of right, the other of expediency. rope interferes to prevent it. He then considers the ciple of American exemption, and if the condition Whether we can do anything justly, and if we condition of Mexico, with a view to show, that of things, here and elsewhere, may render the ex can, what and how much we ought io do.' This from her state of weakness and division, she will ercise of this right essential to our interest and great measure of policy, connected with the desfall a prey to the grasping rapacity of the United our safety, and, still more, if the original annun tiny of that important insular position, has long States, unless saved by European colonization. ciation of the doctrine meet, as it unquestionably occupied the attention of the American people, He also gives a narrative of his explorations in does, the general approbation of the country, what and the considerations bearing upon it have been Mexico, and of his efforts to lay the foundation objection can there be to its reaffirmation by Con so often and so elaborately presented, that I shall for carrying his designs into effect. This brief ab- gress, the depository of so much of the power of confine my present remarks within the narrowest stract must suffice for the general purpose I have the American people? Why this course is ren compass which the gravity of the inquiry will perin view. I shall add to it the suminary made by dered necessary, I have already explained, and mit. We are all aware of the recent circumstances the author himself. He says:

have shown that the time which has intervened which have attracted and arrested public attention; “ From the preceding there result two facts : First, that

since its first proclamation, and the circumstances, and though the crisis they appeared to foreshadow Mexico possesses the key of the Northem Continent, of which have almost reduced it to a dead leiter, have has passed away, still there are elements of diffithe Atlantic and the Pacific, by land and by these two seas, produced the impression, which evidently prevails i culty arising out of the uncertain condition of the


in Europe, that we are not prepared to enforce it, Spanish monarchy, both metropolitan and colothe existence of Mexico, pressed on all parts by the United States, hangs only by a thread.”

as the war-making authority has refused or neg- 1 nial, which must be in active operation, ever “ The whole question is now reduced to knowing if lected to sanction it—why, I repeat, withhold this liable to produce results gravely affecting our vita! Europe will permit the United Stales to obtain so much action, and leave us thereby to encourage untoward

interests. events, which due firmness, on our part, might The right of one country to occupy or control A French periodical, of high and established | anticipate, and would probably prevent? The de- ' portions of the possessions of another, is deducharacter, The Annuaire des Deux Mondes, for cree stands recorded in the history of our Execu cible from the great law of self-defense, which is as 1852, has some remarks str ngly corroborative of tive acts. It is essential to its vitality, that it applicable to communities as to individuals. There the importance of the suggestions of Mr. Dupas- should now take its place in the acts of the Legis are many instances in modern history of the apquier de Dommartin. “Some attempts,” says that lative Department. Why not? Do you mean to plication of this doctrine, and the code which regujournal, “to afford a remedy for Mexican difficul leave it without effect, and abandon it to its fate, lates the intercourse of nations, and which adapts ties, have meantime been recently made. We men- and not even attempt to enforce it? If so, it would itself to the existing circumstances of the world, tion the commencement of the colonization of the be much more honorable to repeal it. Or do you recognizes this power of self-preservation. Like State of Sonora, which has been greatly aided by desire its efficient action in great exigencies, which other human pretensions, this is liable to abuse, the French Minister.” He who supposes that a || may come, probably, indeed, will come, for if you l! and has been greatly abused in Europe, and espe


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Colonization in North America-Mr. Cass.



cially by the usurpations, arising out of the bal the character of the people who will inhabit it, shows the views of British statesmen upon this ance of power—a principle avowedly introduced for baffle all efforts to estimate its productiveness, the subject. Lord George Bentinck, one of the most the protection of the weak against the strong, but tribute which its industry will pay to the wants of distinguished public men of England, and then the practically perverted to make the strong more pow the world, and the supplies which the comfort and Tory leader in the Commons, in a discussion erful, and the weak more dependent. A nation, habits of its people may require.

which took place there, said: feeling the responsibility of its conduct towards During the palmy days of Napoleon, it is said “ He had read in the Times an extract from a United God and man, and sensible of its own duties, that one of his projects was to convert the Medi States paper, in which it was stated, that if the United should take care, when driven to avert danger by terranean into a French lake. England has nearly

States did not possess herself of Cuba, Great Britain would,

and that England had a greater claim, by one hundred fold, anticipating it, that it does not mistake a spirit of done what defied the power and ambition of the to Cuba than the United States had to Mexico, because a aggrandizement for the just claims of self-defense, Great Conqueror. She has almost converted it sum of £45,000,000 was due to British subjects, and Cuba and seize the fleet of a friendly Power, a Danish into an English lake, in time of war. Gibraltar was hypothecated for the debt, &c., &c. He would therefleet, for example, as a mere instrument of mari- commands its entrance, Multa the channel between

fore say at once, let them (the British) take possession of

Cuba, and settle the question altogether. Let them distrain time supremacy. Sicily and Africa, and the lonian Islands the wa

upon it for the just debt due--and too long in vain-from The true principle is well laid down in our own ters of the Levant. There were good reasons for the Spanish Government." legislative history, and was announced in the reso believing, a short time since, that England was And then comes the true key to the English lution of Congress of March 3d, 1811, which de- seeking to obtain a cession of the Island of Crete, heart: clared:

the ancient kingdom of Minos, which would give " Then depend upon it,” continued the speaker, “ when « Taking into view the peculiar situation of Spain, and her the port of Canea, that I found one of the most Great Britain possessed the Havana, as once she did in of her American provinces, and considering the influence magnificent harbors in the world, equally capa

1762, when she held it for about a year, and then exchanged which the destiny of the territory adjoining the southern cious and secure.

it for the Floridas, and WHEN SHE COULD CUT THE TRADE border of the United States may have upon their security,

If England, in the pursuit of OF AMERICA in two, no more boasts would be heard of what tranquillity, and cominerce: Therefore

the same system, should acquire similar command the United States could do,” &c. " Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives | ing positions on the Gulf of Mexico, that great The importance of Cuba to our interest seems of the United States of America in Congress asseinbled, reservoir would become a mare clausum, and no That the United States, under the peculiar circumstances of

to be pretty well appreciated in the halls of British the existing crisis, cannot, without serious inquietude, see keel would' plow, it, nor canvas whiten it in

legislation. This last candid avowal of a design any part of the said territory pass into the hands of any for

time of war, but by her permission. Now, sir, il and a desire to cut in twain the commerce along eign Power, and that a due regard to their own safety com looking to the extent of our coast in that direc our southern coasts, would find its proper place in pels them to provide, under certain contingencies, for the temporary occupation of the said territory. They at the

tion; to the productions which must pass there a precious article published some years since in saine time declare, that the said territory shall, in their

to seek a market; to the nature of our population; Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, entitled “ A hands, remain subject to future negotiations."

and to the effect upon all these, which a perma- War with the United States a Blessing to ManAnd in the act of Congress, passed on the same nent naval superiority would produce—where is kind," filled with some of the most cold-blooded day, for the purpose of carrying this declara the American who is not prepared to adopt any suggestions that ever marked even that notorious tory resolution into effect, it is provided that the

to avert such a calamitous state of receptacle of vile slanders against this country. President “be authorized to take possession of things?: Who can fail to see the nature of the The present security of Cuba from European inthe country east of the Perdido river, and south i predatory warfare which England would carry on terference, independent of our position, is to be of the State of Georgia and of the Mississippi tions, which would encircle the Gulf

, from the And could this be removed by any scheme of

in all times of hostilities, from her various posi- found in the jealousy of France and England. Territory," among other events, in case it should be delivered up by the local authority,“ or in the

Bahamas to Cuba and to Yucatan? And who, partition, the mortgage would be foreclosed, for event of an attempt to occupy the said Territory also, can fail to see, that even in time of peace, her France also has a similar lien, and the property by any foreign Government.

many harbors would become places of refuge for transferred as soon as the process could be comThis is our doctrine and our policy, and the a certain class of our population, and that perpet- pleted. And we are reminded, in the recent corvery proposition of the French and British Gov ual collisions would occur, involving the peace of respondence between Mr. Everett and the Minisernments to our own, to regulate, by a tripartite the two countries?

ters of France and England, on the subject of the treaty, without the participation of Spain, the fu The Gulf of Mexico, sir, must be practically proposed tripartite treaty, suggestively or signifiture condition of Cuba, is itself a concession of an American lake, forthe great purpose of security, canily, as may be, that the hypothecation is yet the right to direct and control peculiar positions not to exclude other nations from its enjoyment, in full force as “ British and French subjects, as upon whose fate important interests depend. but to prevent any dominant Power, with foreign well as the French Government are, on different

Does the Island of Cuba present those paramount or remote interests, from controlling its navigation. accounts, creditors of Spain for large sums of considerations connected with our safety and prosIt becomes us to look our difficulties in the face.


How soon the creditors may distrain, perity, which justify the United States in the ex Nothing is gained by blinking a great question in the language of Lord George Bentinck, may ercise of a vigilant supervision over its destiny, Prudent statesmen should survey it, and as far as depend upon our course. I am satisfied they and in the adoption of decisive measures for its may be, provide for it. We have, indeed, no will resort to no such remedy, should we keep on possession, should any other nation seek to obtain Mount Carmel, like that of Judea, nor prophet to Mr. Canning's line of political knowledge, and say, it by force or by purchase? The importance of ascend it, and to warn us against a coming storm. if you touch the island, that act will be a declarathe question, rather than any difficulty in its solu But the home of every citizen is a Mount Carmel tion of war against the United States. tion, deserves a passing consideration, and in re for us, whence we can survey the approaching Besides, no man can look at the aspect of Europe ferring to it, I must repeat views I have hereto cloud, even when no bigger than a man's hand, without feeling assured that, from day to day, colfore presented to the Senate upon this subject. which threatens to overspread the political almos lisions may arise between nations, and internal conThe Gulf of Mexico is the reservoir of the great phere, and to burst in danger upor his country. vulsions

may shake the very frame of society. And river of the North American continent, whose im

So long as Cuba is held by its present possess wars may thus break out, extending their effects portance it is as difficult to realize, as it is the value ors, neither we nor the commercial world have through the globe. The Spanish monarchy, it of the country which must seek an outlet to the anything to fear from the projects of England or may be, is incapable of rejuvenation; I do not ocean through its waters. That country is nearly France; for the latter country also has its schemes know how that may be, and I leave it to a wiser equal to all Europe in extent, embracing twenty of territorial and mercantile aggrandizement, as is or to a rasher man than I am to speak confidently. five degrees of latitude, and thirty-five of longi- apparent from the considerations. I have already But certainly that kingdom is marked with the tude upon the great circles of the globe. This presented to the Senate. Spain is not now in a

signs of some approaching catastrophe. If the vast basin extends from the summit of the Alle condition, and in all human probability never car new French Empire follows the traditions, as it ghany to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, be, seriously to annoy us, even if she had the dis- | inherits the name and institutions of the old, and its population now equals eight millions. The position, and we may well rely upon her want of which rose and fell with its founder, the greatest man yet lives, who was living when almost the power and her want of will, and rest satisfied that name, in my opinion, in modern, if not in ancient first tree fell before the woodsman's stroke in this her most precious dependency, the Queen of the European history, it will soon make itself felt in great domain; and the man is now living, who will Antilles, will not be hazarded by converting it into the Hesperian Peninsula, and become the arbiter live to see it contain one hundred millions of peo a military and naval arsenal for interrupting and of its faie. To rely, as some profess to do, upon ple. Already the hardy western pioneer has crossed seizing our commerce and devastating our coasts. the security which the present state of things in the barrier of the Rocky Mountains, and the forest But let the dominion be transferred to England or Europe gives to the Spanish dominion in Cuba, is is giving way before human industry upon the France, and where are we? The mouth of our to neglect the most obvious dictates of policy, and very shores that look out upon China and Japan. i great river might be hermetically closed, and the to abandon an object of vast importance to the The Mississippi is the great artery of this region; most disastrous injuries inflicted upon us. I need mere chance of events. which, drawing its supplies from the fountains at not pursue these considerations further, for he

The correspondence to which I have just alluded the north, pours them into the ocean under a trop who is incredulous to their force, would not be gives rise to some serious reflections. Before adical sun, and drains, in its own course, and in the driven from his incredulity by any effort of mine. verting to these, however, I desire to express my course of its mighty tributaries--tributaries in Such being the intimate relations between this

warm approbation of the letter of Mr. Evereti. name, but equals and rivals in fact--the most mag

island-fortress and our safety and prosperity, are It is worthy of his character, and it is marked by nificent empire which God, in his providence, has

there such indications of danger as to call upon a lofty patriotic American feeling. I have seldom ever given to man to reclaim and enjoy. I have a provident nation to decide upon its course document more conclusive in its argument, myself descended that great stream two thousand promptly, and to pursue it inflexibly! The signs or more beautiful in its style or illustrations. If miles in a birch canoe, admiring the country upon this subject are neither few nor doubtful. i it had announced openly that we desire to purthrough which it passes in a state of nature, and am not going to review them. But no man of or chase Cuba--and that declaration would have been lost in the contemplation of what that country is dinary sagacity, looking to the acknowledged appropriate to the occasion-I should have given to be when subdued by human industry. The policy of France and England, can question the to it almost my unqualified adhesion; but even statistics of such a region, in years to come, is a desire of both of them to acquire this commanding with that omission, I feel proud of it, as an Amersubject too vast for calculation. Its extent, fer- position. And a characterístic incident occurred ican State paper. tility, salubrity, means of internal navigation, and not long since in the House of Commons, which And I thank Mr. Everett for the reproof, or re


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