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32n Cong.....2n Sess.

Message of the President.

SENATE & Ho. OF Reps.

Every effort has been made to protect our fron- suggestions of which I ask your approval. It Your attention is respectfully called to the report tier, and that of the adjoining Mexican States, exhibits an unusual degree of activity in the oper of the Postmaster General for the detailed operafrom the incursions of the Indian tribes. Of about ations of the Department during the past year. tion of his Department during the last fiscal year, eleven thousand men of which the Army is com The preparations for the Japan expedition, to from which ii will be seen that the receipts from posed, nearly eight thousand are employed in the which I have already alluded; the arrangements postages for that time were less by $1,431,696 defense of the newly-acquired territory, (includ made for the exploration and survey of the China than for the preceding fiscal year, being a decrease ing Texas,) and of emigrants proceeding thereto. Sear, the Northern Pacific, and Behring's Straits; of about 23 per cent. I am gratified to say that these efforts have been the incipient measures taken towards a reconnois This diminution is attributable to the reduction unusually successful. With the exception of sance of the Continent of Africa eastward of Libe- in the rates of postage made by the act of March some partial outbreaks in California and Oregon, ria; the preparation for an early examination of || 3, 1851, which reduction took effect at the comand occasional depredations on a portion of the the tributaries of the river La Plata, which a recent mencement of the last fiscal year. Rio Grande, owing, it is believed, to the disturbed decree of the Provisional Chief of the Argentine Although in its operation during the last year state of that border region, the inroads of the In Confederation has opened to navigation; all these the act referred to has not fulfilled the predictions dians have been effectually restrained.

enterprises, and the means by which they are pro- l of its friends by increasing the correspondence of Experience has shown, however, that whenever posed to be accomplished, have commanded my the country in proportion to the reduction of postthe two races are brought into contact, collisions full approbation, and I have no doubt will be pro- | age, I should nevertheless question the policy of will inevitably occur. To prevent these collisions ductive of most useful results.

returning to higher rates. Experience warrants the United States have generally set apart por Two officers of the Navy were heretofore in- | the expectation that as the community becomes tions of their territory for the exclusive occupa structed to explore the whole extent of the Ama accustomed to cheap postage, correspondence will tion of the Indian tribes, A difficulty occurs, zon river, from the confines of Peru to its mouth. increase. It is believed that from this cause, and however, in the application of this policy to Texas. The return of one of them has placed in the pos from the rapid growth of the country in populaBy the terms of the compact by which that State session of the Government an interesting and tion and business, the receipts of the Department was admitted into the Union, she retained the valuable account of the character and resources of must ultimately exceed its expenses, and that the ownership of all the vacant lands within her lim a country abounding in the materials of commerce, country may safely rely upon the continuance of its. The government of that State, it is under and which, if opened to the industry of the world, the present cheap rate of postage. stood, has assigned no portion of her territory to will prove an inexhaustible fund of wealth. The In former messages I have, among other things, the Indians; but as fast as her settlements advance report of this exploration will be communicated to respectfully recommended to the consideration of lays it off into counties, and proceeds to survey you as soon as it is completed.

Congress the propriety and necessity of further and sell it. This policy manifestly tends, not Among other subjects offered to your notice hy legislation for the protection and punishment of only to alarm and irritate the Indians, but to com the Secretary of the Navy, I select for special || foreign consuls residing in the United States; to pel them to resort to plunder for subsistence. It commendation, in view of its connection with the revive with certain modifications the act of 10th also deprives this Government of that infiuence interests of the Navy, the plan submitted by him March, 1838, to restrain unlawful military expeand control over them without which no durable for the establishmeni of a permanent corps of sea ditions against the inhabitants of conterminous peace can ever exist between them and the whites. men, and the suggestions he has presented for the States or Territories; for the preservation and proI trust, therefore, that a due regard for her own reorganization of the Naval Academy.

tection from mutilation or theft of the papers, interests, apart from considerations of humanity In reference to the first of these, I iake occasion records, and archives of the nation; for authorizing and justice, will induce that State to assign a to say that I think it will greatly improve the the surplus revenue to be applied to the payment small portion of her vast domain for the provis- | efficiency of the service, and that's regard it as of the public debt in advance of the time when it ional occupancy of the small remnants of tribes still more entitled to favor for the salutary influ- will become due; for the establishment of land within her borders, subject of course to her own ence it must exert upon the naval discipline, now offices for the sale of the public lands in California ership and eventual jurisdiction. If she should greatly disturbed by the increasing spirit of in and the Territory of Oregon; for the construction fail to do this, the fulfillment of our treaty stipu- subordination, resulting from our present system. of a road from the Mississippi valley to the Pacific lations with Mexico, and our duty to the Indians | The plan proposed for the organization of the ocean; for the establishment of a Bureau of Agrithemselves, will, it is feared, become a subject of seamen furnishes a judicious substitute for the culture for the promotion of that interest, perhaps serious embarrassment to the Government. It is law of September, 1850, abolishing corporal pun- | the most important in the country; for the prevenhoped, however, that a timely and just provision ishment, and satisfactorily sustains the policy of tion of frauds upon the Government in applications by Texas may avert this evil.

that act, under conditions well adapted to main- for pensions and bounty lands; for the establishNo appropriations for fortifications were made tain the authority of command and the order and ment of a uniform fee bill, prescribing a specific at the last two sessions of Congress. The cause of security of our ships. It is believed that any | compensation for every service required of clerks, this omission is, probably, to be found in a grow- change which proposes permanently to dispense district attorneys, and marshals; for authorizing ing belief that the system of fortifications adopted with this mode of punishment, should be preceded an additional regiment of mounted men, for the dein 1816, and heretofore acted on, requires revision. by a system of enlistment which shall supply the || fense of our frontiers against the Indians, and for

The subject certainly deserves full and careful Navy with seamen of the most meritorious class, fulfilling our treaty stipulations with Mexico to investigation; but it should not be delayed longer whose good deportment and pride of character defend her citizens against the Indians with equal than can be avoided. In the mean time there are may preclude all occasion for a resort to penalties diligence and energy as our own;" for determining certain works which have been commenced--some of a harsh or degrading nature. The safety of a the relative rank between the naval and civil officers of them nearly completed—designed to protect ship and her crew is often dependent upon imme in our public ships, and between the officers of the our principal sea-poris, from Boston to New Or

diate obedience to a command, and the authority | Army and Navy in the various grades of each; for leans, and a few other important points. In re to enforce it must be equally ready. The arrest reorganizing the naval establishment by fixing the gard to the necessity for these works, it is believed of a refractory seaman, in such moments, not number of officers in each grade, and providing for that little difference of opinion exists among mili- only deprives the ship of indispensable aid, but a retired list upon reduced pay of those unfit for tary men. I therefore recommend that the appro- | imposes a necessity for double service on others active duty; for prescribing and regulating punishpriations necessary to prosecure them be made. whose fidelity to their duties may be relied upon ments in the Navy; for the appointment of a com

I invite your attention to the remarks on this in such an emergency. The exposure to ibis mission to revise the public statutes of the United subject, and on others connected with his Depart- | increased and arduous labor, since the passage of States, hy arranging them in order, supplying ment, contained in the accompanying report of the the act of 1850, has already had, to a most deficiencies, correcting incongruities, simplifying Secretary of War.

observable and injurious extent, the effect of pre- | their language, and reporting them to Congress for Measures have been taken to carry into effect venting the enlistment of the best seamen in the its final action ; and for the establishment of a the law of the last session making provision for | Navy. The plan now suggested is designed to commission to adjudicate and settle private claims the improvement of certain rivers and harbors, promote a condition of service in which this ob against the United States. I am not howand it is believed that the arrangements made for jection will no longer exist. The details of this ever, that any of these subjects have been finally that purpose will combine efficiency with econo plan may be established in great part, if not acted upon by Co gress. Without repeating the my. Owing chiefly to the advanced season when altogether, by the Executive, under the authority reasons for legislation on these subjects which the act was passed, little has yet been done in of existing laws; but I have thought it proper, in have been assigned in former messages, I respectregard to many of the works beyond making the accordance with the suggestion of the Secretary | fully recommend them again to your favorable connecessary preparations. With respect to a few of the Navy, to submit it to your approval. sideration. of the improvements, the sums already appropria The establishment of a corps of apprentices for I think it due to the several Executive Departted will suffice to complete them, but most of them the Navy, or boys to be enlisted until they be ments of this Government, to bear testimony to will require additional appropriations. I trust come of age, and to be employed under such reg the efficiency and integrity with which they are that these appropriations will be made, and that ulations as the Navy Department may devise, as conducted. With all the careful superintendence this wise and beneficent policy, so auspiciously re proposed in the report, I cordially approve and which it is possible for the heads of those Departsumed, will be continued. Great care should be commend to your consideration; and I also con ments to exercise, still the due administration and token, however, to commence no work which is cur in the suggestion that this system for the early 1 guardianship of the public money must very much not of sufficient importance to the commerce of the training of seamen may be most usefully ingrafted depend on the vigilance, intelligence, and fidelity country to be viewed as national in its character. upon the service of our merchant-marine.

of the subordinate officers and clerks, and espeBut works which have been commenced should The other proposition of the report to which I || cially on those intrusted with the settlement and not be discontinued until completed, as otherwise have referred—the reorganization of the Naval | adjustment of claims and accounts. I am gratified the sums expended will, in most cases, be lost. Academy-I recommend to your attention as a to believe that they have generally performed their

The report from the Navy Department will in- project worthy of your encouragement and sup- || duties faithfully and well. They are appointed to form you of the prosperous condition of the branch port. The valuable services already rendered by guard the approaches to the public Treasury, and of the public service committed to its charge. It this institution entitle it to the continuance of your they occupy positions that expose them to all the presents to your consideration many topics and fostering care.

temptations and seductions which the cupidity of


32d Cong.....20 Sess.

Report of the Secretary of War.


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peculators and fraudulent claimants can prompt nent safety and interest of the country. They | progress, and the invasion of the rights of others them to employ. It will be but a wise precaution knew that the world is governed less by sympathy for national prowess and glory. The former are to protect the Government against that source of than by reason and force; that it was not possible constantly agitating for some change in the organic mischief and corruption, as far as it can be done, for this nation to become a propagandist of law, or urging new and untried theories of human by the enactment of all proper legal penalties. The free principles without arraying against it the com rights. The latter are ever ready to engage in laws, in this respect, are supposed to be defective, bined Powers of Europe; and that the result was any wild crusade against a neighboring people, and I therefore deem it my duty to call your atten more likely to be the overthrow of republican lib- | regardless of the justice of the enterprise, and tion to the subject, and to recommend that pro erty here ihan its establishment there. History without looking at the fatal consequences to our vision be made by law for the punishment not has been written in vain for those who can doubt selves and to the cause of popular government. only of those who shall accept bribes, but also of this. France had no sooner established a repub- | Such' expeditions, however, are often stimulated those who shall either promise, give, or offer to lican form of government than she manifested a by mercenary individuals, who expect to share give to any of those officers or clerks a bribe or desire to force its blessings on all the world. Her the plunder or profit of the enterprise without exreward touching or relating to any matter of their own historian informs us that, hearing of some posing themselves to danger, and are led on by official action or duty.

petty acts of tyranny in a neighboring principal soine irresponsible foreigner, who abuses thie It has been the uniform policy of this Govern ity, "The National Convention declared that she hospitality of our own Government by seducing ment, from its foundation to the present day, to would afford succor and fraternity to all nations the young and ignorant to join in his scheme of abstain from all interference in the domestic affairs who wished to recover their liberty; and she personal ambition or revenge, under the false and of other nations. The consequence has been, that gave it in charge of the executive power to give delusive pretense of extending the area of freewhile the nations of Europe have been engaged in orders to the generals of the French armies to aid dom. These reprehensible aggressions but retard desolating wars, our country has pursued its peace. all citizens who might have been or should be the true progress of our nation and tarnish its fair ful course to unexampled prosperity and happi oppressed in the cause of liberty.” Here was fame. They should, therefore, receive the indig

The wars in which we have been com the false step which led to her subsequent misfor nant frowns of every good citizen who sincerely pelled to engage, in defense of the rights and honor tunes. She soon found herself involved in war with loves his country and takes a pride in its prosof the country, have been fortunately of short du all the rest of Europe. In less than ten years her | perity and honor. ration. During the terrific contest of nation against government was changed from a Republic to an Our Constitution, though not perfect, is doubtnation, which succeeded the French Revolution, Empire; and finally, after shedding rivers of blood, less the best that ever was formed. Therefore, we were enabled, by the wisdom and firmness of foreign Powers restored her exiled dynasty, and let every proposition to change it be well weighed, President Washington, to maintain our neutrality. exhausted Europe sought peace and repose in and if found beneficial, cautiously adopted. È very While other nations were drawn into this wide the unquestioned ascendency ot' monarchial prin- || patriot will rejoice to see its authority so exerted sweeping whirlpool, we sat quiet and unmoved ciples. "Let us learn wisdom from her example. as to advance the prosperity and honor of the naupon our own shores. While the flower of their Let us remember that revolutions do not always tion, whilst he will watch with jealousy any atnumerous armies was wasted by disease, or per establish freedom. Our own free institutions were tempt to mutilate this charter of our liberties, or ished by hundreds of thousands upon the battle not the offspring of our Revolution. They ex pervert its powers to acts of aggression or injusfield, the youth of this favored land were permitted isted before. They were planted in the free char tice. Thus shall conservatism and progress blend to enjoy the blessings of peace beneath the pa ters of self-government under which the English their harmonious action in preserving the form ternal roof. While the States of Europe incurred colonies grew up, and rur Revolution only freed and spirit of the Constitution, and ai the same enormous debts, under the burden of which their us from the dominion of a foreign Power, whose time carry forward the great improvements of the subjects still groan, and which must absorb no government was at variance with those institu- | country with a rapidity and energy which freesmall part of the product of the honest industry tions. But European nations have had no such men only can display. of those countries for generations to come, the training for self-government, and every effort to In closing this, my last annual communication, United States have once been enabled to exhibit establish it by bloody revolutions has been, and permit me, fellow-citizens, to congratulate you on the proud spectacle of a nation free from public must, without that preparation, continue to be a the prosperous condition of our beloved country. debt; and, if permitted to pursue our prosperous failure. Liberty, unregulated by law, degenerates Abroad its relations with all foreign Powers are way for a few years longer in peace, we may do into anarchy., which soon becomes the most horrid friendly; its rights are respected, and its high the same again.

of all despotisms. Our policy is wisely to govern | place in the family of nations cheerfully recogBut it is now said by some that this policy must ourselves, and thereby to set such an example of nized. At home we enjoy an amount of happibe changed. Europe is no longer separated from national justice, prosperity, and true glory, as ness, public and private, which has probably never us by a voyage of months, but steam navigation shall teach to all nations the blessings of self-gov fallen to the lot of any other people. Besides afhas brought her within a few days' sail of our ernment, and the unparalleled enterprise and suc fording to our own citizens a degree of prosperity, shores. We see more of her movements, and take cess of a free people.

of which ov so large a scale I know of no other a deeper interest in her controversies. Although We live in an age of progress, and ours is em- | instance, our country is annually affording a refno one proposes that we should join the fraternity phatically a country of progress. Within the last uge and a home to multitudes, altogether without of potentates who have for ages lavished the blood half century the number of States in this Union example, from the Old World. and treasure of their subjects in maintaining "the has nearly doubled, the population has almost We owe these blessings, under Heaven, to the balance of power,” yet it is said that we ought to quadrupled, and our boundaries have been ex happy Constitution and Government which were interfere between contending sovereigns and their tended from the Mississippi to the Pacific. Our bequeathed to us by our fathers, and which it is subjects, for the purpose of overthrowing the mon territory, is chequered over with railroads, and our sacred duty to transmit in all their integrity to archies of Europe and establishing in their place furrowed with canals. The inventive' talent of our children. We must all consider it a great disrepublican institutions. It is alleged that we have our country is excited to the highest pitch, and tinction and privilege to have been chosen by the heretofore pursued a different course from a sense the numerous applications for patents for valuable people to bear a part in the administration of such of our weakness, but that now our conscious improvements dis inguish this age and this people a Government. Called by an unexpected dispenstrength dictates a change of policy, and that it is from all others. The genius of one American sation to its highest trust, at a season of embarrassconsequently our duty to mingle in these contests has enabled our commerce to move against wind ment and alarm, I entered upon its arduous duties and aid those who are struggling for liberty. and tide, and that of another has anniinlated dis with extreme ditñdence. I claim only to have dis

This is a most seductive but dangerous appeal to tance in the transmission of intelligence. The charged them to the best of an humble ability, with the generous sympathies of freemen. Enjoying whole country is full of enterprise. Our common a single eye to the public good; and it is with dewe do the blessings of a free Governmeni, there schools are diffusing intelligence among the people, vout gratitude, in retiring from office, that I leave is no man who has an American heart that would and our industry is fast accumulating the comforts the country in a state of peace and prosperity. not rejoice to see these blessings extended to all and luxuries of life. This is in part owing to our

MILLARD FILLMORE. other nations. We cannot witness the struggle | peculiar position, to our fertile soil, and conspara

WASHINGTON, December 6, 1852. between the oppressed and his oppressor any where lively sparse population; but much of it is also without the deepest sympathy for the former, and owing to the popular institutions under which we the most anxious desire for his triumph. Never-| live, to the freedom which every man feels to Report of the Secretary of War. theless, is it prudent or is it wise to involve our engage


any useful pursuit, according to his taste selves in these foreign wars? Is it indeed true that or inclination, and to the entire confidence that

WAR DEPARTMENT, we have heretofore refrained from doing so merely his person and property will be protected by the

WASHINGTON, Dectinber 4, 1852. from the degrading motive of a conscious weakness? | laws. But whatever may be the cause of this Sir: I beg leave to submit a brief account of the For the honor of the patriots who have gone before | unparalleled growth in population, intelligence, | operations of this Department during the year. us, I cannot admit it. Men of the Revolution who and wealth, one thing is clear, that the Govern The efforts of the Department have been prindrew the sword against the oppressions of the ment must keep pace with the progress of the cipaily directed to the defense of our frontiers and mother country, and pledged to Heaven “ their people. It must participate in their spirit of en those of Mexico from the Indian tribes within our lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor” to terprise, and while it exacts obedience to the laws, || borders. For this purpose, out of about 11,000 maintain their freedom, could never have been and restrains all unauthorized invasions of the officers and men borne on the rolls of the Army, actuated by so unworthy a motive. They knew no rights of neighboring States, it should foster and about 8,000 are employed in the defense of Texas, weakness or fear where right or duty pointed the protect home industry, and lend its powerful | New Mexico, California, and Oregon, or of emway, and it is a libel upon their fair fame for us, strength to the improvement of such means of igrants destined to the last two. while we enjoy the blessings for which they so nobly | intercommunication as are necessary to promote It affords me great pleasure to say that the fought and bleu, to insinuate it. The truth is, that our internal commerce and strengthen the țies efforts of the Department for this purpose have the course which they pursued was dictated by a which bind us together as a people.

been attended with more than usual success. stern sense of international justice; by a statesman It is not strange, however much it may be re The benefits that were anticipated from the julike prudence and a far-seeing wisdom, looking not gretted, that such an exuberance of enterprise dicious arrangements made by ihe commanders of merely to the present necessities, but to the perma- li should cause some individuals to mistake change for the 8th and 9th military departments (Texas and


320 Cong.....2n Sess.

Report of the Secretary of War.

SENATE & Ho, of Reps.

New Mexico) have been fully realized. With the at the many new posts that have recently been To protect this small population we are come exception of a portion of the Rio Grande country, established. Hopes are entertained, however, pelled io maintain a large military force, at an anthe former hus been comparatively exempt from that when a fair irial of the experiment can be nual expense nearly equal to half the value of the Indian depredations. A number of persons of made, it will, at least at such of the posts as are whole real estate of the Territory. Would it not desperate character and fortunes were attracted to favorably situated for the purpose, be more suc be better to induce the inhabitants to abandon a thai frontier by the lawless attempts of Carvajal, cessful.

country which seems hardly fit for the habitation and after his defeat they dispersed through the In spite of this failure, of the unusual activity of civilized man, by remunerating them for their country, and resorted to plunder for subsistence. of the troops during the past season, and of the property in money or in lands situated in more On the other hand, many of the inhabitants of fact that so large a portion of them are stationed favored regions? Even if the Government paid for Mexico either sought to avenge themselves for the on the remote frontier, I have the satisfaction to the property quintuple its value, it would still, wrongs inflicted on them by that adventurer and announce that the expenditures have been consid- | merely on the score of economy, be largely the his followers, or found in his lawless proceedings erably reduced, and this, too, in the Quartermas- gainer by the transaction, and the troops now staa justification for their own, and retaliated on the ter's Department—that branch of the service of tiorred in New Mexico would be available for the peaceable inhabitants.

which the expenditures are most affected by these || protection of other portions of our own and of the The Indians in that vicinity availed themselves circumstances. The expenses of that department, | Mexican territory. Unless the means I have indiof the confusion and alarm consequent upon this ascertained and estimated, (exclusive of clothing, cated, or some other, be adopted to relieve the Instate of things to renew their depredations. I the amount of which is fixed by permanent regula- || dians from the necessity of plundering to procure Thefts, robberies, and even assassinations were tions,) continue to exhibit an annual decrease, viz: the means of subsistence, their depredations must the consequence.

for the current year, as compared with the last not only continue but increase. This would reAlthough the prevention or punishment of dis year, a reduction of $501,252, and for the next quire a corresponding increase in the means of orders like these, when committed by others than year, as compared with the current year, a fur protection. In that view I concur in the recomIndians, belongs rather to the civil authorities of iher reduction of $500,000.

mendation of the General-in-Chief, that an addi. the State than to the military force of the United In spite, however, of every effort to reduce the tional regiment of mounted men be authorized. States, the commanding officer used every exer expenses of the Army, they must continue to be

Allow me to call your attention to the state of tion to put a stop to them, and for that purpose very great in proportion to its numbers, so long our defenses on the sea-coast. ordered several additional companies of troops to as it is necessary to maintain so large a force in Shortly after the termination of the last war with the part of the State where they had occurred. It countries which supply so little of what is neces Great Britain a Board of Engineers was organized is believed that these measures have been, at least sary to its support as those in which the greater

to prepare a system of coast defense. partially, successful. So long, however, as the part of it is now stationed. I beg leave, therefore, This Board recommended that fortifications be species of border warfare which has lately been to repeat the suggestion contained in my last constructed at a number of points on the sea-coast carried on in that region between the inhabitants annual report, that sound policy, no less than and on the northern lakes. Their recommendation of the two countries continues, it will be difficult, humanity, requires that some other means than was adopted, and its execution was commenced, if not impossible, with any number of troops, and force should be tried to restrain the Indians and first, by repairing and enlarging such of the old with the strictest vigilance on the part of their offi to prevent the frequent collisions that occur be works as were deemed worthy of preservation; cers, to prevent, on so extensive a frontier, a repe tween them and the white inhabitants in their secondly, by the construction of new works, betition of these disorders.

neighborhood. The whole history of our country ginning, of course, with those that were considIn New Mexico, the depredations of the Indians shows that whenever the two races are broughtered the most important. have been entirely arrested. The Navajos and frequently into contact, collisions (generally pro Although doubts have been occasionally ex. the Apaches, the two most formidable tribes in duced by aggressions of the stronger on the weaker pressed whether some of the works proposed by all that region, have been completely overawed, party) are inevitable. I know of no other means ihe Board might not be dispensed with, and whethand manifest every desire to be at peace with the by which those collisions can be prevented than er others were not on a scale unnecessarily large, whites.

a rigid adherence to the policy which has here the works recommended by it slowly but steadily In consequence of frequent collisions between tofore been successfully pursued, of setting apart || advanced, and until the year 1850 Congress never the Indians and the white inhabitants of California a portion of territory for the exclusive occupancy failed, except in a single instance, to provide the and Oregon, it was deemed advisable to send the l of the Indians.

necessary means for prosecuting them. In the fourth regiment of infantry to the Pacific, to re A difficulty occurs in the application of this last-mentioned year, no appropriations for fortifiplace the mounted riflemen that had been ordered policy to Texas. By the terms of the compact cations were made, but the House of Representathence to Texas.

admiiting that State into the Union she reserved lives adopted a resolution directing the Secretary Intelligence has been recently received that the to herself all the vacant territory within her limits. I of War to submit, at their next session, a report Yuma Indians, a bold and hostile tribe, occupying | It is understood that she acknowledges no right of | on this subject. That report was submitted, but a portion of country on the Gila and Colorado occupancy in the Indians within her borders, but

no action was taken on it, and no appropriation 9 rivers, whose inroads and depredations have been proceeds to lay off her territory into counties, and was made. the source of frequent annoyance and alarm to the aš fast as it is needed, to sell it, without assigning It is believed that this omission was caused by inhabitants both of our own territory and of the any portion of it to them, or providing in any other an opinion which seems to prevail that the system Mexican State of Sonora, have agreed to a peace. mode for their support. Nothing could be more adopted by the Board of 1816, if not originally too

The troops stationed on the frontier may justly || calculated to alarm and irritate the Indians and to extensive, has become so in consequence of events be considered as in active servicea service, too, || produce collisions between them and the whites that have since occurred, and ought to be revised in which they are exposed to all the hardships than the adoption of this policy. It, in fact, drives and restricted. and dangers of war without its excitement to stim the Indians to desperation, by leaving them no In that opinion I concor; and in the report ulate or its hopes of honorable distinction to sus alternative but to steal or to starve. It also de

above-mentioned I expressed the opinion that tain them.

prives the Government of the United States of that many of the works embraced in the original plan Owing to the many officers who, from disability control over them and of the territory they occupy might and ought to be dispensed with. or other causes, are excused from duty, the cares which is necessary for their own preservation as The subject is undoubtedly worthy of all the and responsibilities of command frequently de- well as for the safety of the white settlements in consideration that Congress can bestow upon it; volve on a small number; and the establishment, | their vicinity. If the United States are bound and it is to be hoped that they will, at an early during the last season, of a number of new posts, to protect Texas against the Indians, it is mani- | period, adopt some mode of 'revising the plan, has added very much to the labors both of the fest that the Government of that State should do and making any changes in it which the present officers and men; nevertheless, it affords me great || nothing to thwart, but, on the contrary, all in its circumstances of the country may seem to them pleasure to bear testimony to the cheerfulness and power to promote, the fulfillment of this duty. I to require. alacrity with which all have discharged their du- | iherefore respectfully suggest the expediency of In the mean time, however, there are a number ties. To Brevet Major General Smith and Brevet endeavoring to make some arrangement with that of works which have been commenced, and are Colonel Sumner, in particular, much praise is due. State whereby a portion of her vast unoccupied in various stages of advancement, but the proseThe former, although in feeble health, has been domain may be temporarily allotted to the exclu cution of which is suspended for the want of the unremitting in his exertions; and to his energy sive occupancy of the Indians within her borders.

necessary appropriations. Most of these works and judicious arrangements his department is What policy, however, it may be deemed proper are highly important, being intended for the progreatly indebted for the comparative tranquillity to adopt in reference to the Indian tribes in Texas, tection of our principal sea-ports and naval stait enjoys. The latter has not only succeeded in California, and Oregon, is a question only of hu- tions, viz: Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Balarresting the incursions of the Indians within his manity or of temporary policy, as the period can timore, Norfolk, Charleston, Savannah, Pensacommand, but has greatly reduced its expendi not be very remoie when they will be swept before cola, Mobile, and New Orleans, or other points of tures.

the resistless tide of emigration which continually scarcely less importance. Brevet Brigadier General Hitchcock has also flows towards these countries.

Whatever difference of opinion may exist as to displayed great energy and prudence, and done all The case is different with regard to New Mexico. the extent to which the system of fortifications that it was possible to do with a very inadequate That Territory, is so remote and inaccessible, and should be carried, all must admit that no expense force, and amid many difficulties and embarrass holds out such little inducement to emigration, that should be spared to render points like those abovements, to protect his extensive command.

the struggle between the two races is destined, in mentioned absolutely impregnable by any force I regret to say that the attempt to cultivate farms all probability, to continue there long after it shall that may reasonably be expected to be brought by the troops has, but in few instances, during the have ceased in every other portion of the conti- against them. past season, been attended with beneficial results. cent.

I hereto append a statement of these unfinished This failure is owing in part to the constant activ By the last census the total population of New works, showing the amounts required to complete ity in which it has been found necessary to keep | Mexico, exclusive of wild Indians, is (in round them respectively, and the sums that could be adthe troops, and to the necessity of employing them numbers) 61,000 souls, and its whole real estate is vantageously expended on each of them during the in the construction of barracks and in other works l estimated at (in round numbers) $2,700,000. next fiscal year, and earnestly recommend that

320 Cong.....20 Sess.

Report of the Secretary of the Navy.

Senate & Ho. OF REPS.


Congress be urged to make the necessary appro

and economical application of the large sums of First: That the Department be authorized to priations with a view to the completion, if not of money that have been and may be appropriated abolish such arsenals as are no longer needed and all, at least of the most importani among them at for these works to the important purpose for which are a source of useless expense. as early a period as practicable. If this be not they were intended.

Second: That an additional number of comdone, the large sums already expended on them Experience has shown that for works of this | missaries be authorized. will in many cases be lost.

description, in which large sums are disbursed, Third: That a retired list of the Army be esAmong the works recommended by the Board and which require for their execution a combina- || tablished, as a measure of justice both to the offiwhich have not yet been cornmenced, there are sev tion of science and practical skill, it is, as a gen cers that are disabled and to those that are not. eral which appear to me of obvious necessity. I eral rule, safer to rely on officers of the Army Fourth: That the distribution of arms among reser particularly to those designed for the protec- | aided when necessary by civil assistants) than on the militia of the States and Territories, under tion of New Bedford and of San Francisco, both civil agents of whose character and qualifications | the act of 1808, be made hereafter on the basis of of which are now entirely defenseless.

the Department must often be ignorant. I deter the free white male inhabitants of age to bear arms, It is also the opinion of the engineers that a work mined, therefore, to avail myselfof all the aid which as shown by the latest census, instead of the offiat Sandy Hook, for the protection of the outer the Army could afford, and to confide the super- || cial returns of the militia, which are frequently harbor of New York, is necessary to complete the

intendence of the works to the two corps, of En not furnished, and when furnished, are often indefenses of that city.

gineers and Topographical Engineers, both of Congress also omitted the last two sessions to which are eminently qualified for this duty.

To these recommendations I beg leave to add a make the usual appropriations for the purchase of This arrangement not only enabled me to dis few more that further experience has suggested. the heavy ordnance used in coast defense. As pense with a number of civil agents whose assist By the fifth section of the act of September 28th, this description of ordnance is generally intended ance would otherwise have been necessary, but 1850, it is made the duty of the Secretary of War for fortifications, it has been the practice to esti (a consideration of hardly less importance) to to discharge any soldier who, at the time of his mate for it under the head of “ Armament of For. secure the invaluable aid of the distinguished head | enlistment, was under the age of twenty-one tifications.” It is hardly necessary to observe, of the Corps of Engineers.

years, unless such enlistment had been made with however, that it is an indispensable part of any

I at first intended to establish a joint board, com ihe consent of the parent or guardian of the solsystem of defense that may be adopted, and that posed of the heads and another officer of each of dier. the fewer the fortifications the greater the quantity the corps, aided, when circumstances would re Young men are frequently enlisted who reprethat will be required.

quire it, by an officer of the Navy, to superintend sent themselves to be of age, but whose discharge On this subject I beg leave to subjoin a few re the execution of all the works; but some difficulties | is afterwards applied for on the ground of minormarks contained in the report on fortifications having arisen in arranging the details of this plan, | ity. The consequence is, that they are frequently above referred to:

I finally determined to divide the works between | discharged after they have been clothed and fed “ Whatever policy may be adopted with reference to for

the two corps, and to establish two boards, one for for months, without rendering any service, or tifications, it will still be necessary to provide a much

each corps, composed of its own officers, to aid after they have been sent, at great expense, to larger supply of ordnance than we now have on hand. Ry its head in preparing, supervising, and correcting some remote station. There is reason to believe reference to the report from the head of the Ordnance Bu plans and estimates,

&c., the members to act sep that in some instances parties have enlisted with reau, hereto annexed, (marked C,) it will be seen that the whole number of guns, of all calibers, now on hand, whether

arately as inspectors of the works when in process a view to defraud the Government. in the forts or in the arsenals, amounts only to 3,535; and of construction.

I recommend that any person being above the that of gun-carriages is still smaller. The entire number of This plan has been carried into effect; and in || age of eighteen years who shall practice such an guns that can be mounted in the forts already completed pursuance of it the works on the Atlantic and the imposition may be compelled to serve out his term (Classes A and B) amounts to 4,572 guns; and if the works

Gulf of Mexico have been assigned to the Corps of l of enlistment. now in progress of construction should be completed, the total number of guns that would then be reqnired for all the

Engineers, and those on the northern lakes and If further appropriations for fortifications and forts would be 6,093. It appears, therefore, that the supply western rivers to the Corps of Topographical En- || for riverand harbor improvements should be made, of ordnance now on hand is very inadequate, even to the gineers.

the number of officers in the corps of Engineers present wants of the service. I will obserre, too, that even It is believed that this arrangement will emir Congress should determine to restrict the system of forti

and Topographical Engineers will be insufficient fications, this would not obviate the necessity for a large inently, conduce to the speedy and economical to supply the necessary details for these works increase in the supply of heavy ordnance. Some means of execution of the works.

and for the coast and lake surveys added to the defense must be employed, and cannon is an indispensable Owing principally to the advanced season when other duties they are called upon to perform. I part of any system that may be adopted. “It appears, too, from the reports hereto appended, that

the appropriations were made, little has been done, recommend, therefore, that in that event the offithe great naval Powers of Europe have, within a few years in regard to many of the works, beyond making cers of these corps be increased by an annual past, grently increased the caliber of the guns mounted on the necessary arrangements to commence them as addition to each for six years of not more than their vessels-of-war. This renders it obviously necessary early as practicable in the spring.

three second lieutenants, to be taken as heretofore that the power of the batteries intended to resist them should also be proportionably increased. I believe it is

For more detailed information on this subject, || from the graduates of the Military Academy. the opinion of all officers, both of the Army and Navy, who and on others connected with their duties, I re In consequence of the great number of remote have devoted inuch attention to this subject, that many of spectfully refer to the reports of the Colonels of military posts at which troops are stationed, the the guns now in our most important forts ougbt to be removed, and others of longer range substituted. A glance pended to this report.

Engineers and of the Topographical Engineers ap- | number of medical officers has been for some at the report of the Ordnance Bureau will show how very

years past entirely inadequate to the wants of the deficient we are in the heavy descriptions of ordnance,

The estimates for such of the works as require service; the consequence of which is, that a numparticularly in eight and ten-inch columbiads, the most additional appropriations will be submitted as soon ber of private physicians are necessarily employed. effective weapons against vessels-of-war. as they can be prepared.

I am satisfied that it would be a measure of “To manufacture cannon of gond quality is a work that demands considerable time; and as they are imperishable

The expedition which I mentioned in my last economy to authorize an increase of the medical when properly taken care of, there is no good reason why annual report, as having been sent, under the com

corps. the Government should not at once provide the requisite mand of Brevet Captain Lorenzo Sitgreaves, to Besides the above recommendations, there are supply. ** In connection with this subject, I would venture to

explore the Zuni and Colorado rivers, from the several contained in the report of the General-insuggest that provision be made for a distribution of artillery

source of the former to the Pacific, has completed Chief, hereto appended, which appear to me to among the militia of the States and Territories. Our peo the exploration and returned, but the report has | deserve attention. I will mention particularly his ple are more deficient in the knowledge of this arm than not yet been submitted.

suggestions that the third section of the act of of any other, and yet it is the one that would be most required in a war with any European Power. If a standing

Early last spring Captain Marcy was sent with June 17, 1850, entitled “ An act to increase the appropriation were made applicable to the distribution of a party to explore the head waters of the Red River. rank and file of the Army, and to encourage enartillery, and of the book on artillery practice among the He accomplished the object and has returned, but listments," be repealed; that measures be taken to States and Territories, it would tend very much to promote the knowledge of this essential branch of the military art

the report of the expedition has not yet been pre- || distribute, for the use of the militia of the States among the citizens of the country." pared.

and Territories, the books of tactical instruction

It affords me pleasure to repeat my commenda used in the regular service; and that the pension One of the most important and responsible du- tions of the good order and discipline which pre laws be so amended as to place the widows and ties which have devolved on the Department during vail at the Military Academy, and to express my orphans of officers of the Army on an equal footthe present year is the execution of the works | conviction of the benefits which result to the ser ing with those of naval officers. known as the river and harbor improvements. vice from that institution.

Respectfully submitted. The number of works for which appropriations The reports of the Chief of the Ordnance Bureau

C. M. CONRAD, Secretary of War. were made by the act recently passed is about one and of the Quartermaster's Department will show

TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. hundred, and the sum appropriated about two the operations of these important branches of the millions and a quarter. The appropriations, how service. Several of the suggestions contained in ever, will only in a few instances be sufficient to them are deserving of attention.

Report of the Secretary of the Navy. complete the works for which they were made. By The first of these two reports exhibits a very far the greater number will require additional, and satisfactory view of the operations of the national

Navy DEPARTMENT, December 4, 1852. some of them very large additional, appropria armories at Springfield and Harper's Ferry; and To the President of the United States: tions to complete them. It is to be presumed, that I concur in the opinion that no benefit would be Sir: I have the honor to submit the annual reeven if Congress should not see fit to continue the likely to result from a return to the former mode port of this Department, which will make you system and to provide for other works of a simi of governing these establishments.

acquainted with the present condition of the naval lar character, not included in the present act, they In my last annual report I called your attention service, and bring to your notice the several subwill at least finish the works that have been begun. to several points in regard to which legislation jects which I have thought worthy of your con

I deemed it, therefore, of the utmost importance appeared to me to be necessary. I will simply sideration and the attention of Congress. I would to make, at the outset, such permanent arrange renew these suggestions, without repeating the beg leave also to say, that the many valuable sugments for the execution of these works as would, reasons on which they were founded. They | gestions for the improvement of the service, made as far as practicable, insure the faithful, judicious,

by my predecessors in previous reports, which


320 CONG.....20 Sess.

Report of the Secretary of the Navy.




yet remain open to the deliberation and disposal The Pacific squadron, under the command of town, Captain Downing, with the store-ship Reof Congress, have, in my opinion, lost nothing of Commodore Charles S. McCauley, has been com lief, Lieutenant Hitchcock. It has rendered useful their interest, and that I refer to them now as most posed of the frigate Raritän, commanded by Com service to the public interests in that quarter, and appropriate subjects for commendation to the favor mander McKean, as flag-ship of the squadron; the been found adequate to all the demands of our varied of the National Legislature. If I have presented frigate St. Lawrence, Captain Dulany; the sloops and extensive commercial intercourse there. other views on the same topics, or proposed a of-war St. Mary's, Commander Magruder; Ports Commodore McKeever will return in the spring different method for improving the organization of mouth, Captain Dornin; Falmouth, Commander with his ship, and his place will be supplied by any branch of the service, I hope these will be re Petigru; Vandalia, Commander Gardner; and Vin Captain Salter, who has received preparatory ceived as contributions to the common effort which cennes, Commander Hudson. The Falmouth, orders to the frigate Savannah, to be commanded this Department has ever felt it a duty to make Vandalia, and Vincennes, and the two store-ships by Commander Mercer. towards the perfection of our naval system; and Lexington and Southampton, also attached to the Commodore Silas H. Stringham has command that they may be weighed in the deliberations of squadron, have returned home within the last two of the Mediterranean squadron in the frigate CumCongress with a full appreciation of what is de or three months. The Raritan, with Commodore | berland, Commander Turner. His force consists servedly due to the experience of those who have | McCauley on board, is now also on her homeward of the steamer San Jacinto, Captain Crabb, and heretofore conducted the affairs of this Depart- | voyage, and may be looked for in the course of the sloops-of-war St. Louis, Commander Ingra. the month of January,

ham, and Levant, Commander Goldsborough. DISTRIBUTION OF SQUADRONS.

This squadron has been actively employed in This squadron will probably bereinforced hereafter

cruising near the Sandwich Islands, from the Straits by the steamer Princeton or the Saranac, if either During the year now about to close the vessels

of Fuca and Puget's Sound, in Oregon, to Panama, of these vessels may be spared from the service at of the Navy in commission have been assigned to on the North American coast, and along the whole home, and the San Jacinto, which is now underthe various employment deemed necessary for the line of South America on the Pacific. It has also going repairs at Trieste, in that event may be orprotection of our commerce, according to the sys visited the Gallipagos Islands and the adjacent seas, dered back to the United States. tem of distribution heretofore adopted, and found whilst one or more of its vessels have been kept in This squadron has been conspicuously engaged most convenient to the exigencies of the service. constant intercourse with every port familiar to our in various service connected with our important

This distribution has been made in a provision commerce, from California to Valparaiso. commercial and political relations to the countries for six squadrons, each of which is required to In the new arrrangement of this squadron it will bordering on the Mediterranean, and has perserve on a cruise of three years, with the excep be put under the command of Captain Dulany; and formed its duties with a commendable zeal and tion of that allotted to the coast of Africa, where, the razee Independence, the sloops-of-war Falu || the best results. We have been able, through the from a consideration of the peculiar character of mouth and St. Mary's, will be dispatched with no exertions of Commodore Stringham, to obtain a the service, it is limited to two years.

more delay than may be necessary for their equip: permanent arrangement for the accommodation of The duration of the cruise is subject only to an ment. The store-ship Fredonia, having performed our ships at Spezzia by the good will of the King occasional prolongation, when the public interest her service in this squadron, has lately been sent on of Sardinia, and all that the public interest and may render it necessary. Suitable provision is a voyage to California as a transport of troops, and convenience require in a safe and commodious made in the enlistments for this incident whenever will, when released from that duty, be established naval depôt we may now regard as secured. it may occur.

at Valparaiso in charge of the public stores at that The squadron on the coast of the United States, The six squadrons are assigned to the East In port.

or the Home squadron, under the command of dies, the Pacific ocean, the coast of Africa, the The African squadron is under the command of Commodore J. T. Newton, consists at this time coast of Brazil, the Miditerranean, and the coast Commodore Lavalette, whose flag-ship is the sloop- of the frigate Columbia, the flag-ship of the comof the United States. In addition to these, a of-war Germantown, Commander Nicholas. Be- || modore, and commanded by Commander Pendersteamship is appropriated to the lakes upon our sides this vessel, it is composed of the sloops-of- | grast, the steamer Saranac, Captain Long, the northern border, and a few vessels are kept for war John Adams, Commander Barron, and Dale, sloops-of-war Albany, Commander Gerry, and detached service.

Commander Lardner, and the brigs Bainbridge, Cyane, Commander Hollins, and the steamer The East India squadron has continued during Lieutenant Manning, and Perry, Lieutenant Page. Fulton, Commander Jackson. The steam-frigate the past year under the command of Commodore Commodore Lavalette, having nearly completed Powhattan, Captain Mervine, was a short time John H. Aulick, and has consisted of the steam the period of his cruise, will return to the United ago attached to this squadron, and immediately frigate Susquehanna, being the flag-ship of the States in the Germantown as soon as he can be dispatched, with the Commodore on board, on squadron, the sloops-of-war Portsmouth, Com- relieved by Commodore Mayo, who will sail in special service, to the ports of Havana and Vera mander Kelly; Saratoga, Commander Walker; the month of December in the frigate Constitution, Cruz. Upon his return from this voyage it was and Marion, Commander Glendy. This vessel with Commander Rudd in command. The Dale found necessary, in consequence of the disability (the Marion) has recently returned to the United will be replaced by the Marion, Commander of the Princeton, to change her station, and place States, and is now assigned to the African squad- | Howard, which is now ready to sail.

her in the East India squadron. ron, and, being ready for sea, will very soon pro

The steamer Vixen will be added to this com

The steamer Saranac, detailed for duty in the ceed to her destination. mand for such rapid communication with the

Home squadron, sailed on the 4th of October last The squadron has been lately reorganized and coast and the trading points on the rivers as the for Rio de Janeiro, under the command of Captain placed under the command of Commodore M. C. duties assigned to the squadron constantly re Long, giving conveyance to the late Brazilian Perry, and Commodore Aulick only waits the ar quire.

Chargé d'Affaires, the Chevalier de Sodre, to the Tival in the East Indies of an officer to command the The service on this station is arduous, and at

seat of his own Government. Captain Long will Susquehanna, to return to the United States, which tended with many incidents to render it far from be back, it is supposed, in a few weeks to reassume he will do in advance of his ship. Commodore being acceptable to those employed upon it. Con his position in the squadron from which he was Perry's command will consist of the line-of-batile stant vigilance and frequent intercourse with a bar- | detached, or for such other service as may await ship Vermont, which is now in a course of rapid barous people on the coast are the least of its discom him. preparation for service, and it is expected will be forts. To thescare added exposure to disease and the The Cyane has been recently ordered to cruise ready to sail about the first of March. The Com irksome seclusion of a long voyage, which finds in the neighborhood of the Island of Cuba, and to modore himself has just sailed from the port of but small relief in visits to a shore without attrac visit the port of Havana. The Albany is ordered Norfolk in his flag-ship, the steam-frigate Missis tion and always dangerous to the stranger. The to the same quarter, and will, for the present, resippi. He will be followed in a few days by health of our ships on that station, I am happy to main at Pensacola. the steam-frigate Powhattan, Captain McCluney, report, has in general been well guarded by the The steamer Mississippi, having been in condiwhich vessel has been recently added to the squad-, useful sanitary discipline which the experience of tion for her cruise to the East Indies, some time in ron in place of the steamer Princeton, originally the service has of late years been able to suggest advance of the rest of the squadron, was employed detailed for it, but which, from some imperfection and enforce, and we have now no longer to com in the month of August lasi on å visit to the coast discovered in her machinery, after she had under- || plain of such ravage by the maladies of the climate of the British Provinces upon our northern border, gone a thorough repair, has been compelled to re as' overtook those who were in times past con in a service connected with the question of the main in port. This imperfection, I have reason signed to this service.

Fisheries. She returned early in the month of to hope, will prove to be less serious than was at The time has come, perhaps, when it may be September to resume her alloited station, and to first apprehended, and that she may soon be in properly commended to the notice of Congress to await the period of the departure upon the long condition for service, when she will be assigned to inquire into the necessity of further continuing the voyage in which she is now engaged. other employment.

regular employment of a squadron on this coast. In addition to these two ships, the corvette Ma- || The slave trade may be said to be now driven into

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. cedonian, Captain Abbot; the sloop-of-war Vanda a comparatively narrow space on the southern During the past year the attention of this Delia, Commander Pope; and the steamer Alleghany, il portion of the coast, and confined to North and partment, in conjunction with the Department of Commander Sands, constitute the reinaining force South Guinea. Whilst the measures recently State, has been directed to the employment of the assigned to Commodore Perry. The first iwo of adopted in Brazil encourage the hope that this in- | East India squadron in an enterprise of great mothese, the Macedonian and the Vandalia, are now famous traffic will soon be abandoned altogether, ment to the commercial interests of the country nearly ready for sea, and may be expected to take a few small vessels added to the Brazilian squadron, the endeavor to establish relations of amity and their departure during the month of December. and directed to cruise in the track of the slave commerce with the Empire of Japan. The Alleghany is waiting only for the completionships, may be found effectual to suppress the last The long interdict which has denied to stranof her engine, and will be dispatched as soon as it efforts of ihat forbidden commerce, against which gers access to the ports or territory of that counis finished.

the abhorrence of all Christian nationsin awakened. try, and the singularly in hospitable laws which The store-ships Supply, Lieutenant Sinclair, and The squadron on the coast of Brazil is com its Government has adopted to secure this excluSouthampton, Lieutenant Boyle, are also attached manded by Commodore McKeever, and is com sion, having been productive, of late years, of to the squadron, and are already on their way to posed only of his flag-ship, the frigate Congress, gross oppression and cruelty to citizens of the their appointed stations.

Commander Pearson, and the sloop-of-war James United States, it has been thought expedient to

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