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32p Cong....20 Sess.

Debt of Texan Republic-Mr. Seward.

SENATE.

It is because the producer and consuiner must come closer (various meanders for several hundred miles, (which, I be Now, draw the contrast. One hundred years ago, the together.

• lieve,

is called Missouri by the natives, or Red river, from Missouri river was a myth; sailors, on the long voyage to There is no part of the Mississippi river, from its mouin the color of its waters ;) and then received intelligence India, died off with the scurvy and other diseases like rotten to the Falls of St. Anthony, that, by an air line, is more from the natives that its head springs interlocked in a sheep. Indeed, so dangerous was the calling, that philosothan one thousand eight hundred geographical miles from neighboring mountain with the head springs of another phers and political economists at that day confessed them. San Francisco. Midway between these two points on the 'river, to the westward of these saine mountains, dis selves at a loss whether to class the sailor at sea as ainong river, the distance is only one thousand five hundred miles. 'charging itself into a large lake called Thoyayo, which the living or the dead. Two days by railway ought therefore to put the traveler pours its waters through a large, navigable river, into a As much then as this old worthy felt that his country from the Mississippi valley into San Francisco. Thence by boundless sea, where, they told him, they had seen pro. owed 10 sailors, so much, and njore too, do I now feel that steamer to Shanghai, the distance is five thousand four digious large canoes, with three masts, and men almost as our country still owes to that gallant class. hundred miles, which is equal to eighteen days steaming, 'fair as himself, if I mistake not; tor, as I have read a his What, then, has wronght these changes that have since at the average rate of three hundred miles per day. Twenty tory of the travels of an Indian towards those regions, as come over the face of the sea, and the surface of ibis broad days from China to the heart of this country! Why no one well as those of Mr. Cox, the reports of the natives to both land ? Bold mariners, steam, and the hand of improvement, can foretell the revolution in the commercial affairs of the of them as to the large canoes are so siinilar, that I, per guided by that" spirit of civil and religious Liberty, with world, which such a compression of time and distance is haps, may confound one with the other. Mr. 'Cox's book, her daughter Felicity,” to which that worthy sage did to make!

I imagine, is very scarce. I know of but one copy in homage in his lifetime: these are the instruments with I have said and written much upon the subject of this this colony, of which I had an accidental, and therefore which these great changes have been wrought. communication across the country. I do not know why [ a cursory view, about four years ago. It is a small octavo He foresaw that New York was to be the great commershould have it so much at heart, unless it be in consequence

"volume, entitled 'Cox's Carolana,'that country being thus cial emporium of this country. He showed theoretically of a sort of affection for it, acquired by inheritance. ' called, from the donor.

why the Columbia river should exist. He predicted that We have heard a good deal said as to whom belongs the “Now, sir, though this narrative hath in it something of the northwest passage, as a commercial question, would credit of originating the idea as to this communication

the romantic air of a voyager, yet the author's accounts of turn out, as you and I have seen it has, a chimera. across the country. I thought it was an affair of our own

such branches of that river and such parts of that country, He claimed for this country the importance of becoming day and generation; but in looking over some old family Seven as high up as the latitude of Huron's Lake, and also the “ general mart to the European world." He certainly records I find that the idea was a familiar one to my father's

bis description of the extent, situation, shape, soundings, saw far and well into the future. father, and that one hundred years ago that most excellent

and other properties of the lakes now confessedly naviga - As great aud important as a "canoecble” navigation man and worthy divine was writing earnestly and enthu

"ted by him, together with his character of the circumjacent across this continent to the Pacific would have been in siastically upon the subject.

"lands, are said to have been found just by late discoveries, those days, the change which such a thoroughfare would It is well w cast back and see how this question has

as far as discoveries have been made. And if so, it is but have then made upon the business and connerce of the grown in importance since Anno Domini 1756, when my • reasonable to give credit to what he tells us concerning world would not be greater than that which this Pacific grandiather, from his glebe hoine under the mountains of

others of its waters and countries into which, perhaps, no railway would low draw after it. Albemarie, in Virginia, was inditing his letter about a com British subject has ever since penetrated.

While the steamboat, the railway, and the ixlegraph, mercial thoroughfare from Hudson's river, or the Poto “I presume the credit which Colonel Fry gave to Mr. have, on one hand, compressed the earth into a smaller mac, across this country to the East Indies."

Cox, and his recommending these matters to the consider compass, by bringing the far corners closer together, Tobacco, at that day, constituted the currency of the

‘ation of the Governor and Council, gave birth to a grand science, with the discoveries and improvements which its country, and with the bad roads of the time, you may well

scheme formed here about three years ago.

lights have cast upon agriculture and the art of good husimagine the difficulty planters had in hauling their crops

“ The scheme might have been forined in Great Britain, bandry, has, on the other hand, vastly enlarged its dimeneeventy five or one hundred iniles to market. Oue wagon

" and was this: Some persons were to be sent in search of sions by causing two blades of grass to grow where but one Joad was the work of weeks. Under this state of things,

that river Missouri, if that be the right name of it, in order stood before, and thus increasing the capacities of the earth one of the neighbors of my grandfather had just conceived

to discorer whether IT HAD ANY SUCH COMMUNICATION to sustain population. and executed ihe plan of putting a hogshead or two across

WITH THE PACIFIC OCEAN; they were to follow that river, These changes have impressed their characteristics upon a canoe, and of' so paddling his crop down the Jaines river

“if they found it, and make exact reports of the country they the affairs of life, and the whole business of the world. at its floods to Aiarket.

passed through, the distance they traveled, what sort of And in contemplating the ways of commerce now, and In telling of the importance and value of this discovery,

navigation those rivers and lakes afforded, &c., &c. contrasting them with what they used to be, we are struck the old gentleman, who taught in his school both Madison

" And this project was so near being reduced into prac with the motto, which we feet rather than see, as we pass and Jefferson, asks his correspondent in England to con tice that a worthy friend and neighbor of nine, who has among the business marts of the world; it is the “opeu ceive, if he can, the importance which this cunoe discovery

been extremely useful to the colony in the niany discoveries sesame” of the age, for “ Speed's the word, and quick's is to prove to the Ohio and Mississippi country.

"he has made to the westward, was appointed to be the the motion," is now the countersign with which we are The letter of bis to which I refer is a remarkable one. I

chief conductor of the whole affair, and had, by order of greeted at every turn by every man of business. venture to make a few extracts from it. It is daled “Lou

their honors, drawn up a list of all the necessary imple. Old Vasco de Gama was in a slow coaclı; and the roy. isa county, Fredericksville parishi, January 10, 1756.

'ments and apparatus for such an attempt, and an estimate age around Cape Horn is too tedious, 100 long. There is of the expense, and was upon the point of making all not time to go round the house, when both the front and

proper preparations for setting out, when a sudden stop back doors are open ; we must go through it, and have ac« Since the publication of that map, another has made its

was put to the further prosecution of the scheme for the cess from one side of the country to the other by a passage' appearance in the world, much more extensive, as it com

present by a cominencement of hostilities between this prehends all that part of the British American Empire that

way right in the middle of it. We cannot wait six inonths

colony and the French and their Indians, which rendered to get our tea from China, when this railroad may give it to lies between Boston and the southern boundary of Vir

a passage through the interjacent nations, with whom they us fresh and good in three weeks. ginia; the territory of the six confederate northern Indian

are ever tampering, 100 hazardous to be attempted. This, The great end and aim of vast commercial en ternations; the river St. Lawrence, almost from Quebec to its

I must observe to you, still remains a secret ; and to pre prises that are now on foot, that have wrought such source; the various communications between that river

vent its discovery to the enemy, in case the ship I write by changes and accomplished such magnificent achievements, ' and the lakes and Ohio; also, Ohio, with its dependencies

should be taken, the person to whom I have recommended is to bring the consumer and the producer closer together.

“With it the author has this packet has instructions to throw it overboard in time. Jower than the falls," published an instructive, curious, and useful pamphlet,

How beautifully and magnificently would this California However, you are at liberty to impart it to my uncle John, railway accomplish this end! explanatory not only of the map, but of many particulars, or to any other friend of whose retentive faculty you can But there is another point in my ancestor's letter from too, relative to the face and products and natural ad * be as confident as I can be of

yours.

which we may, I think, learn wisdom. You observe that vantages of the tract of territory which is the subject of it.

" But to return once more. As there is such short and many of the friends of the California railway say, let 119 “The map is but small, not above half as large as Fry and

easy communication by means of canoe navigation, and have a survey first. Why this is exactly what the people Jefferson's--consequently crowded. Though both it and

some short portages between stream and stream from the were saying one hundred years ago. Survey, survey, was the pamphlet be liable in several exceptions, and I believe

* Potomac, from Hudson's river, in New York, and from the the word then. I am sick of surveys. Let us do hy. this just ones, yet both are very useful in the main, and to

"St. Lawrence to the Ohio, the two latter through the lakes, railway precisely what we do by all other great enterprises, gether give an attentive peruser a clear idea of the value

the foriner the best and shortest. As there also is good and what we daily see done by corporations and States. of the now contested lands and waters to either of the two

.navigation, not only for canoes and batteaux, but large Authorize the work, then make ibe surveys and locate it. competitor Princes, together with a proof amounting 10

'Hats, schooners, and sloops down the Ohio into the Missis. Pray pardon my earnestness upon this subject, and exmore than probability, that he of the two who shall reinain

sippi, should Cox's account be true of the communication cuse ine for troubling you with such long, but I hope not master of Ohio and the lakes, at the end of the dispute, of this last river with the South sea, with only one portage, tedious, extracts from an old family letter. must, in the course of a few years, without an interposal of I leave you to judge of what vast importance such a dis. Very respectfully,

M. F. MAURY, Providence to prevent it, become sole and absoluie Lord covery would be to Great Britain, AS WELL AS TO HER

Lieutenant United States Navy. of North America; to which I will further add, as my own

PLANTATIONS, WHICH, IN THAT CASE, AS I OBSERVED Hon. A. C. DODGE, U. S. Senale, Washington. private opinion, that the same will onc day or other render

ABOVE, MUST BECOME THE GENERAL MART OF THE EUROeither Hudson's RIVER AT NEW YORK, or Potomac river,

PEAN WORLD, at least for the rich and costly products of (in Virginia, the GRAND EMPORIUM of all East Indian com. the East, and a mart at which chapmen might be furnished

DEBT OF TEXAN REPUBLIC. modities. Marvel not at this, however surprising it may (with all those commoulities on inuch easier terms than the seem; perhaps, before I have done with you, you will be (tedious and hazardous, and expensive navigation to those "lieve it to be not entirely chimerical. "countries crun at present afford." This would supersede the

SPEECH OF HON. W. H. SEWARD, " When it is considered how far the eastern branches of

necessity of going any more in quest of the northeast pas. that immense river, Mississippi, extend eastward, and how sage, which, probably, if cver discovered, will also be

OF NEW YORK, near they conie to the navigable, or rather canocahle parts

productive of another discovery, that it lies in too inclemFof the rivers which empty themselves into the sea that rent a latitude ever to be useful.

IN SENATE, March 1, 1853, washes our shores on the east, it seems highly probable that “The discovery of a communication through this part On an amendment proposed by Mr. PEARCE to its western branches reach as far the other way, and make of the continent with the South sea, would not only as near approaches to rivers emplying themselves into the

the Civil and Diplomatic Appropriation Bill, be a nursery for our seamen, but would be instrumental in ocean to the west of us-the Pacific ocean-cross which saving the lives of great numbers of them, under Heaven,

providing for the payment of the Creditors of a short and casy communication-short in comparison with the protectors of you and of us, who, poor fellows, drop the late Republic of Texas. the present thither-opens itself to the navigation from that off like rotten sheep, by scorbutic disorders consequent Mr. SEWARD said : "shore of the continent into the Eastern Indies."

upon such long voyages as that to the East Indies. “ There are more than probable reasons for believing that What an exhaustless fund of weallh would here be

Mr. PRESIDENT: At the epoch of annexation, the western branches of this river are no less extensive opened, superior to Potosi and all the other South Ameri 1845, the Republic of Texas possessed some propthan its eastern branches. This is a common property of can mines? What an extent of region ! WHAT A

!

erty in public defenses, a large domain of unapmost rivers, and that it is of the Mississippi, 'I have the But no more. These are visionary excursions into futu. "authority of one Mr. Cox, an English gentleman who, rity, with which I sometimes used to feast my imagina

propriated land, and revenues derived from cus' either some time before, or during the reign of King Wil. tion, ever dwelling with pleasure on the consideration of

ioms. It owed a considerable debt which had liam IT-in virtue of a charter granted by Charles I., if whatever bids fair for contributing to extend the empire been incurred in establishing independence and or"I remember right, for I speak without books--to his attor. and augment the strength of our mother island; as that ganizing civil government. That debt was divided ney general, Sir Robert Heath, constituting him the lord would be diffusing Liberty, both civil and religious, and her proprietor of the lands and waters of the Mississippi, and daughter Felicity, the wider, and at the same time be a

into two classes: first, what has been called a doafterwards transferred through several hands, till it fell into means of aggranizing and enriching this spot of the

mestic debt, not distinctly charged on the revenues "those of this gentleman-sailed up to its great falls, near globe, to which every civil and social tie bind me, and for from customs; second, what was secured to credone thousand five hundred miles from its mouth; both took • which I have the lenderest regard.

itors by a pledge of those revenues. its soundings that whole distance; traced some of its con " But these pleasing expectations, if not entirely van“siderable branches on either side, and almost up to their ‘ished, are much weakened and suspended, till Heaven de

Texas came into the Union as a Statë, under sources; made a settlement and planted a colony upon it cides the controversy between the two mighty monarchs

stipulations concerning her property and debts, near widway that distance-if my memory fails me not now contending in some sort for the empire of the namely: She ceded to the United States all public and published a map of it from his own and the company's (world."*

edifices, fortifications, and other property, per: journals, as far as those falls, and above them, from what information he could collect from the savages. One of its * See Memoirs of a Huguenot family. Letters of the

taining to the public defense. She retained a || "western branches, he tells you, he followed through its Rev. James Maury. Page 386.

her funds, and all of her public domain, but under

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320 CONG..... 20 Sess.

Debt of Texan Republic-Mr. Seward.

SENATE.

a covenant that it should be applied to the pay- lions; and Texas was obliged to ascertain it, and III. I consider that the plan of the committee is ment of her debts, with the absolute right to any see it extinguished, before she could demand the recommended by justice. surplus; and it was agreed that in no event should last five millions.

Justice is the basis of moral obligation. Wheththose debts become a charge on the Government Each party, therefore, undertook to ascertain er there is a moral obligation between the United of the United States. Thus did the United States, and fix the amount.

States and these creditors, is a question concluded in the very act of union with Texas, bind her to

Texas has ascertained and fixed it at....$3,355,360 25

by the act of annexation of 1845, and the compropay her creditors, at least as far as her domain Which would leave to Texas of the five

mise act of 1850. On what ground, other than would furnish resources for that purpose.

millions...

1,644,639 75 such an obligation, did the United States, in 1845,

On the other hand, the United States have In 1850, five years after the annexation of Texas to the United States, all those debts remained

ascertained and fixed the amount at....8,293,947, 55

leave to Texas a peculiar national fund, and bind A sum exceeding the five millions re

her to use it to pay her creditors generally, and unpaid; and, adding interest thereto, they stood, served for those creditore by... .3,293,947 52 stipulate with her for the indemnity of the United on the 1st of July in that year, as follows:

And exceeding the sum at wbich it is fixed

States against those debts? On what other ground by Texas by.....

.4,938,587 27 Domestic debt.....

did the United States, in 1850, reserve in their ..$4,138,733 80 Debts secured by customs pledged... 8,293,947 52 It is manifest, also, that Texas holds the initia own Treasury five millions of the sum to be paid

" live in the action necessary to carry the compro to Texas, uniil her creditors should file their reTotal......

$12,432,681 32

mise into effect. She must see that her creditors leases in the Federal Treasury? It is clear, then, During that intervening period, there had been release herself and the United States. Moreover, that it is just, and the United States are bound to war between the United States and Mexico, which not only cannot the United States pay all the cred the creditors by a moral obligation to see their had resulted in the annexation, by conquest and litors thus secured, but they cannot pay any until debts extinguished, at least as far as the sum of purchase, of New Mexico, a State adjacent to all of them shall, by the agency of Texas, have five millions would go. Under just such circumTexas. A border dispute existed between those been brought to file releases. This dispute, full stances, a court of equity would, on a bill of inStates, and it was supposed by Congress neces of loss and damage to the creditors, and of irrita- terpleader, direct the United States to pay that sary to adjust that dispute, in order to restore tion between the United States and Texas, is now fund to those creditors. civil government in New Mexico, and even to pre two years old. The debt to the creditors grows But the moral obligation under which the Univent armed collision between Texas and the mili chiefly at the rate of ten per cent., while the fund ted States assumed to indemnify the creditors for tary force of the United States, which, it was is in the Treasury, drawing an interest against the five millions, equally holds for their indemnity to apprehended, might terminate in a general civil United States of five per cent.

It is manifest now the whole amount of their claims; that is, for war, subversive even of the union of the States. that it is time, high time, that the controversy | $8,293,947 50. If we were under no moral obli

In the midst of this dispute the creditors of I should be settled, and the compromise carried into gation to pay that sum, then the stipulation to Texas appeared here, and urged the settlement effect. It is equally clear that unless Congress pay five millions was a wanton waste of that sum of their claims as a condition of the proposed shall intervene, it will not be settled for an indefi without adequate consideration-a position which adjustment. They pleaded that the United States nite period.

no one here will assume. had become liable for those debts, by absorbing The Committee on Finance proposes a plan of Such are the grounds on which the plan of the the sovereignty of Texas, and that at least they settlement, which is, that in lieu of the five mil committee is defended. I proceed to consider the had become liable for them to the extent of the il lions of five per cent. of fourteen years, the i objections raised against it. The honorable Senvalue of the revenue accruing from imposts, which, United States shall issue stock to the amount of ator from Virginia (Mr. HUNTER) says that we although they had been specifically pledged to the $8,333,333 33, at three per cent., redeemable in are under no obligations to pay these creditors, creditors, had been diverted into the Treasury of iwenty years, and deliver it to the creditors, taking because, in the act of annexation, Texas agreed the United States by the act of annexation. Thus assignments for their claims, (the small excess that we should not be liable, and that she would the debt of Texas became an element of the con of their claims being paid in money at the Treas- pay them, and that the creditors had notice of that troversy which Congress undertook to settle in ury,) and that the United States shall hold the as annexation on those terms, and did not protest, 1850. _Congress settled it by compromise: signed claims as a bar to the claim of Texas for and therefore impliedly consented. But the hon1. Texas ceded her claim to some of the lands these five millions.

orable Senator was understood to waive this point before insisted on, and accommodated her bound 1. I consider this plan commended by its con of implied consent by the creditors. ary to the demands of the United States. venience.

I take the objection, however, in whatever form, 2. Texas relinquished all claim upon the United 1. In the first place, the creditors of Texas, for i and say in reply: States for the debts of Texas, and all other claims whose protection the United States, with her own 1. That all the world knows that a protest by for indemnity:

conseni, has intervened, will be promptly paid. the creditors against the act of annexation, would 3. In consideration of these concessions, the Their claims will be extinguished, and this is a have been not more impertinent than unavailing. United States stipulated to pay $10,000,000 to cardinal point.

2. That it may well be supposed that the cred. Texas, in five per cent, stock of fourteen years. 2. The whole claim of Texas on the Uniteditors concerned may, in 1845, have foreseen that Buta

States, under the compromise of 1850, will be vir- although the United States then refused, yet in 4. It was stipulated that the United States should i Lually paid, which is another cardinal point. 1850 they would assume the debts of Texas, to not pay to Texas more than $5,000,000 of the said In any event, and by her own showing, Texas the amount supposed to be secured by the reve$10,000,000 until the creditors, who had taken will be paid to within the sum of $1,164,639 75. nues of Texas, diverted into the Federal Treasury. pledges of her revenues from customs, should The difference which will remain to be adjusted, The Senator from Virginia objects, secondly, have filed releases of all their claims against if any, will be one between the United States and that the sovereignty of Texas was not, by the act Texas with the Secretary of the Treasury of the Texas, which will involve no injustice to individ of annexation, merged in the United States; but United States. uals--another cardinal point.

that, on the contrary, she still remains a sovereign Thus it appears that there were three parties to 3. The expense to the United States will not be State, and in the enjoyment of adequate and ample this compromise—the United States, Texas, and materially increased. The interest of $5,000,000 resources, viz: her public domain and capacity for the creditors of Texas. The United States and at five per cent., and of $8,333,333 at three per i direct laxation to pay the creditors. Texas bound themselves then. The consent of cent., are equal. There will be still the difference I reply, first, that while the public domain of creditors, whose debts were secured by customs, of $3,333,333 between the principal sums, to be Texas, like our own, and her capacity for direct although postponed, was nevertheless necessary; borne by the Treasury. But we have now, and, taxation, like our own, are valuable resources for and so they were a third party, whose consent for some time to come, are likely to have, a sur credit, and to some extent for expenses of current was afterward to be given by releases. The do- plus in the Treasury, and so can buy up these administration, they are practically unavailing for mestic creditors, who had no specific lien, and in $8,000,000;or, if you please, the whole $13,000,000, the payment of a large funded debt. The rewhose behalf the United States made no stipula in one or two years, and so indemnify ourselves, sources of Texas for that purpose were her custion, were dismissed to the justice of Texas alone, in a great measure, for the additional sum advanced toms, which we have diverted, and so annexation, and they disappeared at once and forever from to settle the controversy.

instead of increasing, has impaired the practical this capital.

II. I considler the plan, in the next place, com ability of Texas to pay her debts. This is the starting-point in the present case.

mended by its harmony with the principles of the com 2. This objection is foreclosed by the comproIt is manifest that it was a cardinal object and de- !| promise of 1850.

mise of 1850. sign of that compromise that the creditors of The United States, by that compromise, as The Senator from Virginia objects, thirdly, that Texas, whose debts were secured by pledges of sumed to guaranty ample satisfaction to the cred the plan proposed is a departure from the theory the customs, should be satisfied by the extin- liitors in question. The sum appropriated (five | of annexation, which theory was that Texas guishment of their claims. The way in which it millions of dollars) was appropriated because it should pay her own debt. And the Senator inwas to be done was by making that extinguish was thought adequate to that object. The United sists that the compromise of 1850 adhered to that ment, through the agency of Texas, a condition States would then have appropriated $8,000,000, supposed theory of the act of annexation, because precedent of the payment to her of the last half of if it had been understood that the debts in question it directed the $5,000,000 to be paid, not to the ihe $10,000,000.

amounted to that sum; and there is no reason to creditors, but to Texas herself. It is manifest, also, now, that the compromise || doubt that Texas would have as promptly agreed I reply, that the imagined adherence in the comhad inherent defects, which were these, viz:

to that sum as to the lesser one. However this promise of 1850 to the theory of annexation, is an 1. That it did not ascertain and fix the amount may be, the fact now is that the compromise of adherence in form only and not in fact, because which was to be paid to the creditors.

1850 has failed, for the reason that the sum as the $5,000,000 are to be paid to Texas when she 2. That it left that amount open to dispute be- signed for the indemnity of the creditors was too procures releases from her creditors, and never to tween Texas and the creditors ihus preferred. small by the difference of $3,333,333. I am sure be paid if they will never give the releases. So

Nevertheless, the ascertaining and establishing that the sum would have been fixed at what now the stipulation is exactly the same thing as would this amount was indispensable to the execution of is proposed, if it had been understood that other- || have been a stipulation for paying the $5,000,000, the compromise. The United States were obliged wise the compromise would fail of effect for the or so much as should be due directly to the credto ascertain it before they could pay the five mil reason that it has failed.

itors. The departure from the supposed theory,

320 CONG.....20 Sess.

Debt of Texan RepublicMr. Seward.

SENATE.

then, was made in 1850, and is not to be made in the $8,333,333, at three per cent., will cost the It remains only to notice the argument of the 1853. We must keep on in the course of 1850 | Treasury more than five millions at five per cent. honorable Senator from Texas, (Mr. Houston,] till we reach the goal.

It will cost exactly $3,333,333 more. But that is which seems to result in this: that Texas had a The honorable

Senator objects further that this no good objection, if, first, it is necessary to pay right to ascertain and fix the amount of her liabilplan of the committee to pay $8,333,333 at three that sum to discharge these debts; and if, secondly, ities, and she has fixed it at $3,353,360 25, and the per cent., being less than the usual rate of interest | it is just, both of which points have been demon United States and the creditors are concluded by on public stocks, is a scaling of the debts, so that strated.

that decision. creditors will not get dollar for dollar, and is there The Senator at last falls back on his original I reply, that was not the agreement in the comfore objectionable on the same ground that Texas ground, that the United States are not liable for promise. It was that the creditors should reis complained of. Grant this to be true, still I the debt of Texas, according to the law of nature ! lease their claims. If they will release for the reply that we scale less deeply than Texas. Sec or of nations. It is quite too late to raise the $3,355,360 25 it is enough. But they have not ondly, that we are mediating between the proper question after the act of annexation of 1845, and released for that sum, and they will not. parties; and thirdly, who can complain? Not the compromise of 1850.

Then the Senator insists that Texas is just and Texas, for we take nothing from her, and do not Nevertheless, I will briefly consider the Sen they unreasonable. I do not think so. The prindivert any fund in which she has a claim. Not | ator's argument.

ciple assumed by Texas is that she owes her credthe creditors, for they assent.

The United States derived advantages from the itors not what she agreed to pay, but the value of The Senator further objects that Texas will annexation of Texas, and creditors had aided what she received from them. It needs only that nevertheless come back for the $5,000,000, and | Texas to rise to the condition in which her union this proposition should be stated to secure its rewill be entitled to it. I reply that Texas has al was thus advantageous. They did not give her a jection. It can be no more put in the case of Texas ready declared, by an act of January 31, 1852, dowry, but they enabled her to assume her own. in regard to these debts than in any other case of that $3,355,360 25 of this same $5,000,000 is The union of Texas with the United States and di- | public and even private indebtedness. justly due to these creditors, and shall be paid to vision of her revenues were a division of her sover The argument, however, is attempted to be susthem. At the very worst, Texas will not come eignty, rendering her less fully and exclusively tained by precedents. I reply, if sound, it needs back for that sum. Will Texas come back for approachable by creditors. Was there not in no aid from precedents. If unsound, then no prethe remaining $1,644,639 75? She must produce these circumstances sufficient consideration to sus cedents can make it sound. releases from the creditors for it. They will have tain the agreements between Texas and the Uni- 11 There is only one ground on which a Govern, already released, upon a just consideration paid, ted States for the benefit of the creditors ?

ment can justly scale its debts—that is the ground not by Texas but by the United States, and after Bynkershock teaches us so, (p. 191.)

of absolute inability or bankruptcy, and then there Texas had had ample time to obtain releases, and Again: Texas by annexation became subject to must be a devotion of all iis wealth. Neither had failed, because she exacted what the credi- the debts of the United States. How is it, then, Texas nor the United States can adopt that ground. tors were neither legally nor equitably bound to that the United States could acquire Texas with Each of the parties is prosperous, each is rich, yield.

out coming under some moral obligation to guar- and they can neither assume the condition nor The Senator from Virginia objects further that li anty the debts of Texas ?

interpose the plea of insolvency.

NEW SERIES.No. 16.

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be administered to the new membe

of the

IN SENATE.

eastern lobby, and Senators retained their own sion on both sides of the ocean. Less than sixtyFRIDAY, March 4, 1853.

seats. The circular gallery was filled exclusively four years ago the Father of his Country made In pursuance of the proclamation of the Presi- | by ladies, and the eastern gallery by gentlemen, the then " recent accession of the important State dent of the United States, the Senate of the United intermingled with whom were several ladies of North Carolina to the Constitution of the UniStates assembled in the Senate Chamber at twelve Every part of the Chamber, and every avenue by ted States” one of the subjects of his special cono'clock, m.

which it was approached, was densely crowded. gratulation. At that moment, however, when After prayer by the Rev. C. M. Butler,

At half-past one o'clock, the President elect en the agitation consequent upon the revolutionary Mr. CASS rose and said: I have been requested the Hon. Jesse D. Bright, chairman of the Com- emerging from the weakness and embarrassments

tered the Senate Chamber, leaning on the arm of struggle had hardly subsided, when we were just to ask the Senators to come to order.

mittee of Arrangements. They were followed of the Confederation, there was an evident conNEW MEMBERS.

by the outgoing President, who was supported sciousness of vigor, equal to the great mission so Mr. BADGER. I submit this resolution, which | by the Hon. Thomas G. Pratt, and the Hon. wisely and bravely fulfilled by our fathers. It was I hope will be adopted: Hannibal Hamlin, members of the Committee

not a presumptuous assurance, but a calm faith, Resolved, That the oath prescribed by the Constitution of Arrangments. Millard P. Fillmore, Esq., springing from a clear view of the sources of power

ate by the Private Secretary of the retiring President, sucHon. Lewis Cass, the oldest member of the Senate.

in a Government constituted like ours. It is no ceeded, accompanied by SIDNEY WEBSTER, Esq., paradox to say, that although comparatively weak, The resolution was considered by unanimous

the Private Secretary of the President elect. ihe new-born nation was intrinsically strong. Inconsent, and agreed to.

They were conducted to seats in front of the Mr. BADGER. I move that the roll of new

considerable in population and apparent resources, President's chair.

it was upheld by a broad and intelligent compreSenators be now called.

Amongst the other gentlemen who accompanied hension of rights, and an all-pervading purpose The motion was agreed to.

the President elect to the Senate Chamber, were to maintain them, stronger than armaments. It The Secretary read the list, as follows:

the Hon. William L. MARcy, of New York; Hon. C. G. ATHERTON, of New Hampshire.

came from the furnace of the Revolution, tempered Hon. James C. Dobbin, of North Carolina; Hon. to the necessities of the times. The thoughts of Hon. Judah P. BENJAMIN, of Louisiana.

James Guthrie, of Kentucky; Hon. Robert Hon. John M. CLAYTON, of Delaware.

the men of that day were as practical as their senMcCLELLAND, of Michigan; and the Hon. James Hon. STEPHEN A. Douglas, of Illinois.

timents were patriotic. They wasted no portion CAMPBELL, of Pennsylvania. Hon. Josiah J. Evans, of South Carolina.

of their energies upon idle and delusive specula

The preparations being complete, those assem tions, but with a firm and fearless step advanced Hon. EDWARD Everett, of Massachusetts.

bled in the Senate Chamber proceeded to the eastHon. Sam Houston, of Texas.

beyond the governmental landmarks which had ern portico of the Capitol, in the following order: hitherto circumscribed the limits of human freeHon. Robert M. T. Hunter, of Virginia. The Marshal of the District of Columbia. Hon. GEORGE W. JONES, of lowa.

dom, and planted their standard where it has stood

The Supreme Court of the United States. Hon. William K. SEBASTIAN, of Arkansas.

against dangers which have threatened from Hon. Charles E. STUART, of Michigan.

The Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate.

abroad, and internal agitation which has at times

The Committee of Arrangements. Hon. John B. Thompson, of Kentucky.

fearfully menaced at home. They approved them

The President elect and the ex-President. Hon. John R. Thomson, of New Jersey.

selves equal to the solution of the great problem,

The President pro tempore and the Secretary of to understand which their minds had been illuminHon. William Wright, of New Jersey.

the Senate. Each of these gentlemen, as his name was called,

ated by the dawning lights of the Revolution. The Members of the Senate.

The object sought was not a thing dreamed of: came forward, and the oath prescribed by the Con The Diplomatic Corps.

it was a thing realized. They had exhibited not stitution having been administered to him by the Heads of Departments, Governors of States and only the power to achieve, but what all history Hon. Lewis Cass, took his seat in the Senate.

Territories, the Mayors of Washington and affirms to be so much more unusual, the capacity PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE.

Georgetown, other persons who had been to maintain. The oppressed throughout the world, Mr. SHIELDS. With the unanimous consent admitted into the Senate Chamber.

from that day to the present, have turned their of the Senate, I ask leave to offer the following After the oath of office had been administered eyes hitherward, not to find those lights extin.. resolution: the President delivered the following

guished, or to fear lest they should wane, but to Resolved, That the Hon. David R. ATCHISON continue

INAUGURAL ADDRESS:

be constantly cheered by their steady and increase President pro tempore of the Senate. The resolution was unanimously adopted.

My CountryMEN: It is a relief to feel that no ing radiance. Mr. ATCHISON, on taking the chair, ad - 1 and bitter sorrow over which I have been borne heart but my own can know the personal regret In this, our country has, in my judgment, thus

far fulfilled its highesi duty to suffering humanity. dressed the Senate as follows: Senators : Permit me to return my sincere

to a position so suitable for others rather than de- | It has spoken, and will continue to speak, not sirable for myself.

only by its words, but by its acts, the language thanks for the honor that you have again conferred on me, and the evidence of your kind personal called, for a limited period, to preside over the

The circumstances under which I have been of sympathy, encouragement, and hope to those

who earnestly listen to tones which pronounce for consideration, and also for your confidence in my

destinies of the Republic, fill me with a profound the largest rational liberty. But, after all, the integrity and impartiality.

sense of responsibility, but with nothing like most animating encouragement and potent appeal INAUGURATION CEREMONIES.

shrinking apprehension. I repair to the post as for freedom will be its own history, its trials, and The PRESIDENT. The Sergeant-at-Arms will signed me, not as to one sought, but in obedience its triumphs. Preëminently the power of our adproceed to carry out the arrangements made by to the unsolicited expression of your will, answer vocacy reposes in our example; but no example, the committee for the inauguration of the Presi- | able only for a fearless, faithful, and diligent ex be it remembered, can be powerful for lasting dent elect of the United States, so far as the posi- || ercise of my best powers. I ought to be, and am, good, whatever apparentadvantages may be gained, tions in this Chamber are concerned.

truly grateful for the rare manifestation of the na which is not based upon eternal principles of right The Sergeant-at-Arms proceeded to introduce tion's confidence; but this, so far from lightening and justice. Our fathers decided for themselves, gentlemen to the floor of the Senate, in accordance my obligations, only adds to their weight. You both upon the hour to declare and the hour to with the arrangements which were prescribed by have summoned me in my weakness: you must strike. They were their own judges of the cirthe appropriate committee.

sustain me by your strength. When looking for cumstances under which it became them to pledge The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the fulfillment of reasonable requirements, you will to each other “ their lives, their fortunes, and their the Supreme Court, in their robes, were accom not be unmindful of the great changes which have | sacred honor,” for the acquisition of the priceless modated with seats on the right and left of the occurred, even within the last quarter of a centu inheritance transmitted to us. The energy with platform of the officers of the Senate. The diplo- ry, and the consequent augmentation and com which that great conflict was opened, and, under matic corps, in their official costume, occupied the plexity of duties imposed in the administration the guidance of a manifest and beneficent Proviseats without the bar, on the left of the principal both of your home and foreign affairs.

dence, the uncomplaining endurance with which entrance ; the Cabinet of the outgoing President, Whether the elements of inherent force in the it was prosecuted to its consummation, were only General Scott, and others entitled to admission, | Republic have kept pace with its unparalleled pro- | surpassed by the wisdom and patriotic spirit of occupied the seats on the right. To ex-members | gression in territory, population, and wealth, has concession which characterized all the counsels of of Congress and members elect was assigned the I been the subject of earnest thought and discus. the early fathers.

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