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320 Cong....20 Sess.
Report of the Secretary of the Navy.
SENATE & Ho. OF REPs.
take some effective measure to promote a better by long and various services in his profession. certain to end in the failure to accomplish such understanding with this populous and semi-barba- | Looking to the magnitude of the undertaking, and results as Congress bad contemplated. Looking rous empire; to make the effort not only to obtain the great expectations which have been raised both to the amount which it would have been necessary from them the observance of the rights of human- || in this country and in Europe in reference to its to reserve in order to provide for the special conity to such of our people as may be driven by ne results, the casualties to which it may be exposed, | tingencies of such an expedition, it would have cessity upon their coasts, but also to promote the and the necessity to guard by every precaution been impracticable to procure, by the application higher and more valuable end of persuading them within the power of the Government, against the of the remaining portion of the appropriation, more to abandon their unprofitable policy of seclusion, possibility of a failure, I have thought it proper, than one steamer, of an inferior class, and perhaps and gradually to take a place in that general asso with your approbation, to increase the force des two small brigs, to constitute the force to be used ciation of commerce in which their resources and tined to this employment, and to put at the dis in the undertaking. It is doubtful if even this industry would equally enable them to confer posal of Commodore Perry a squadron of unusual equipment could have been obtained by such an benefits upon others anú the fruits of a higher civ- strength and capability. I have, therefore, recently appropriation of the fund. The absolute necessity ilization upon themselves.
added to the number of vessels appropriated to of altering, strengthening, and arranging any vesThe exiension of the domain of the United the command, the line-of-battle-ship Vermont, the sel which might be purchased, so as to adapt it to States to the shores of the Pacific, the rapid settle corvette Macedonian, and the steamer Alleghany. the character of the service required, and give reament of California and Oregon, the opening of These ships, together with the sloop-of-war Van- / sonable assurance of safety and success, would the highway across the Isthmus of Central Amer- ! dalia, originally intended to be assigned to the have drawn so largely upon the appropriation as ica, the great addition to our navigation employed squadron, and with the ships now on that station, to reduce the outfit to a limit quite incompatible in trade with Asiatic nations, and the increased the steamer Susquehanna, and the sloops-of-war with the object expected to be attained. activity of our whaling ships in the vicinity of the Saratoga and Plymouth-a portion of which are This cruise of exploration and survey, destined northern coasts of Japan, are now pressing upon now near to the term of their cruise—will consti to equal employment in the tropics and the arctic the consideration of this Government the absolute tute a command adapted, we may suppose, to any regions, and required to traverse the broad exnecessity of reviewing our relations to those East- emergency which the delicate nature of the trust panse of the Pacific amongst dangerous and unern communities which lie contiguous to the path | committed to the Commodore may present. It is known shoals, and in search of islands and rocks of our trade. The enforcement of a more liberal | probable that the exhibition of ihe whole force misplaced upon our charts, and therefore the more system of intercourse upon China has met the ap which will be under the command of Commodore perilous to the navigator, will find enough, and proval of the civilized world, and its benefits are Perry during the first year will produce such an more than enough, of labor to occupy it during seen and felt, not less remarkably in the progress impression upon a government and people who the next three years. Its toilsome duties, exactof that ancient empire itself, than in the activity are accustomed to measure their respeci by the || ing ceaseless vigilance and all the skill of seamanwhich it has already imparted to the pursuit of array of power which accompanies the demand ship, will be inevitably enhanced by the disease Eastern commerce. China is awaking from the of it, as may enable him to dispense with the ves incident to varying climates and exposure to the lethargy of a thousand years to the perception of sels whose term of service is drawing near to a peculiar casualties of boat navigation and contests the spirit of the present era, and is even now fur close, and that they may be returned to the United with the savage islanders of the seas it is destined nishing her quota to the adventure which distin- | States without any material prolongation of their to explore. I have therefore deemed it indispenguishes and stimulates the settlement of our West cruise.
sable that at least one large vessel should be always
A liberal allowance has been made to the squad at hand to afford a change of quarters to those These events have forced upon the people of ron for all the contingencies which the peculiar | who may be disabled, and to supply reliefs of America and Europe the consideration of the ques- | nature of the enterprise may create. The command fresh men to take the place of those who may be tion, how far it is consistent with the rights of the ing officer is furnished with ample means of defense broken down by sickness or accident. It is imcivilized world to defer to those inconvenient and and protection on land as well as sea; with the possible to maintain the health of the crews of the unsocial customs by which a nation capable of means, also, of procuring dispatch vessels, when small vessels in so long a service without the comcontributing to the relief of the wants of humanity necessary, transports for provision and fuel, and forts which such a change may afford. These shall be permitted to renounce that.duty; whether for such other employment as may be required. surveys also require an extra supply of men beany nation may claim to be exempt from the ad- Special depôts of coal have been established at yond the usual complement destined to our cruismitted Christian obligation of hospitality to those various points, and abundant supplies provided. ing ships, there being constant occasion for detachstrangers whom the vocations of commerce or the He has, in addition to the instructions usually ments in boats to conduct the operation of measlawful pursuits of industry may have incidentally given to the squadron on this station, been direct- | uring and determining the position and bearings brought in need of its assistance; and the still led to avail himself of such opportunities as may
of the shoals and islands which it is the purpose stronger case, whether the enlightened world will fall in his way to make as accurate surveys as his of the enterprise to ascertain. tolerate the infliction of punishment or contumeli means may allow of the coasts and seas he may In consideration of all these conditions, and ous treatment upon the unfortunate voyager whom visit, and to preserve the results for future publi- | many others of a kindred 'nature, I have deterthe casualties of the sea may have compelled to cation for the benefit of commerce.
mined to give to this little squadron 'every facility an unwilling infraction of a barbarous law.
Somewhat allied in character and importance to which the resources at my command have enabled These are questions which are every day becom- | these projected operations of the Japan squadron, me to supply. I have accordingly, put the Vining more significant. That oriental sentiment is the expedition now prepared for the exploration cennes, one of our stanchest and best sloops-ofwhich, hardened by the usage and habit of centu and survey of the China Seas, the Northern Pacific, | war, in the lead of the expedition. I have added ries, has dictated the inveterate policy of national and Behring's Straits. The naval appropriation to this the propeller John Hancock, which, being isolation in Japan, it is very apparent, will not bill of the last session of Congress put at the dis
found to have an engine of the strongest construclong continue to claim the sanctity of a national posal of this Department one hundred and twenty- tion, needed only some alterations in her size and right to the detriment of the cause of universal five thousand dollars, " for the building or pur frame, and the addition of new boilers, to make commerce and civilization, at this time so signally .chase of suitable vessels, and for prosecuting a her in every respect a most efficient contribution active in enlarging the boundaries of human knowl survey and reconnoissance, for naval' and com to the force required. She has, with this view, edge and the diffusion of comfort over the earth. mercial purposes, of such parts of Behring's || been placed in the hands of the naval constructor, The day has come when Europe and America • Straits, of the North Pacific ocean, and the China who is now assiduously at work, and I am happy to have found an urgent inducement to demand of * Seas, as are frequented by American whaleships report with all desirable success, in fitting her out Asia and Africa the rights of hospitality, of aid and by trading vessels in their routes between the with every accommodation which her future operand comfort, shelter and succor, to the men who • United States and China."
ations may demand. Besides these two vessels, pursue the great highroads of trade and explora Very earnestly concurring with Congress in the the brig Porpoise has been detailed for the expeditioreover the globe. Christendom is constrained, importance of this exploration and survey, I have tion, and put in condition for all the exigencies of by the pressure of an increasing necessity, to pub- lost no time in the arrangement and preparation her employment. A small pilot-boat, adapted 10 lish its wants and declare its rights to the heathen, of what I hope will prove itself to be a most effect- | speedy navigation and shallow waters, will be and in making its power felt will bring innumer ive and useful expedition. As the act of Con- added to the squadron. These vessels, fully able blessings to every race which shall acknowl. gress has confided to the discretion of this Depart manned and equipped, and furnished with all the edge its mastery
ment the selection of the vessels which may be necessaries appropriate to the hazardous nature of The Government of the United States has hap- | found necessary for the prosecution of this enter their cruise, constitute the material elements of the pily placed itself in the front of this movement, | prise, the equipment and distribution of the force | expedition. and it may be regarded as one of the most en it may require, and the organization of every mat To promote the scientific objects contemplated couraging guarantees of its success, that the ex ter of detail connected with it, limited only by the by the reconnoissance, I have supplied the squadpedition which has just left our shores takes with amount of the appropriation, I have thought I ron with an astronomer and hydrographer of it the earnest good wishes, not only of our own should best accomplish the object proposed, and known ability and accomplishment, and also with country, but of the most enlightened communi- li gratify the expectation of the country, by giving a naturalist and botanist, who are charged with ties of Europe. The opening of Japan has be to the expedition the benefit of such naval re the duty of collecting and preserving specimens of come a necessity which is recognized in the com sources as the Department could command, rather such natural productions as may be interesting to mercial adventure of all Christian nations, and is than confine it to such limited supply as would science and commerce. deeply felt by every owner of an American whale have resulted from either building or purchasing The squadron is placed under the command of ship and every voyager between California and vessels, and providing for the other details of this an officer already distinguished by his participaChina.
service out of the fund intrusted to the Depart- | tion in a former exploring expedition, and well This important duty has been consigned to the ment. With this fund so applied the Department known for the valuable contributions he has made commanding officer of the East India squadron, a would have been constrained to organize the ex to the hydrographical survey of our western coasts gentleman in every respect worthy of the trust re pedition upon a scale which I conceive to be alto- ||--Commander Ringgold—whose professional acposed in him, and who contributes to its adminis-gether inadequate to the nature of the labor re- complishment and devotion to the service emitration the highest energy and ability, improved li quired, and which, indeed, would have been almost || nently qualify him for the duty committed to him.
He will be able, I hope, to take his departure in Congress might hereafter think fit to authorize. have waited with anxiety for the occasion to add a few weeks, and will sail directly to the Pacific, I have accordingly directed a preliminary investi this new resource to the industry of our people; doubling Cape Horn and proceeding by the Sand- gation to be made by an officer of the navy, and I am sure it will gratify the commercial pride wich Islands to Behring's Straits, where he may whom I have attached to the African squadron, and please the emulous ambition of the nation, not be expected to arrive at the opening of the season with orders to devote the months of the coming less ihan it will secure great and permanent advanfor operations in that quarter. Tuis designed to em winter to an examination of necessary conditions tages to its trade, lo have the American flag and a ploy the expedition during each year in the recon which this undertaking may require,
national vessel the first to receive the greetings of noissance of these high latitudes from June until In Commander Lynch, to whom the country is the population who, at the foot of the Andes, and October, this being the only season in which the already indebted for important service in another along the navigable waters of inland Brazil, Bosurveys may be prosecuted in those regions. The field, I have found a prompt and ardent volunteer livia, and Paraguay, are ready to welcome the first remaining portions of each year will be devoted to for this employment. He is now on his way to messenger of commerce and throw their treasures the prosecution of survey and exploration in the the African coast. He will land at Liberia, Cape into his hand. lower latitudes, along the coast of Japan, the China | Palmas, and other points, and will pursue his in Anticipating the near approach of this opporseas, and the routes of navigation between our qairies as far as the river Gaboon, with a view to tunity, with your approval I admonished Lieuports on the Pacific and the East Indies. Particu- ll the ascertainment of such localities on the margin tenant Page, before it arrived, to hold himself in lar attention will be given to the survey of the seas of the African continent as may present the great readiness for an exploration of these rivers, and and coasts through and along which our whaling est facilities, whether by the river courses or by || directed the steamer Water Witch to be put in ships pursue their perilous trade, looking carefully inland routes, for penetrating, with least hazard, to condition for the service. She is now nearly to the coast of Japan, the Kurile Islands, the sea the interior. He will collect information touch
equipped, and Lieutenant Page will be ready to of Okhotsk, and ihe unexplored shores of North- | ing the geographical character of the country, its take his departure at the first moment that the ern Asia.
means of attording the necessary supplies of men steamer may be fit to receive him. He is proThe commander of the expedition is made fully and provisions, the temper of the inhabitants, | vided with an able crew, well adapted to the nature aware of the necessity and value of an accurate whether hostile or friendly, the proper precautions of his expedition, and seconded by officers chosen survey of the various lines of navigation between to be observed to secure the health of the party for their efficiency both in the sphere of seamanCalifornia and China, and will beslow upon this | employed, and all other itens of knowledge upon ship and scientific labor. A few boats are proundertaking an attention commensurate with its which it may be proper hereafter to prepare and vided, adapted to the navigation of the upper importance. He is directed to make frequent re combine the forces essential to the success of a streams above their falls; and the equipment, ports of his work, in order that no time may be complete and useful exploration of the interior. I though of simple and unexpensive kind, will be, lost in communicating to the country the results, In the performance of this duty, under the most in all respects, such as may enable. Lieutenant together with descriptive charts, of his survey, for favorable circumstances, he will encounter the Page to accomplish the duty assigned to him. the benefit of commerce and navigation. These perils of a climate famed for its unwholesome influ
These four expeditions, each of them of a highly will be duly published as often as they are received ence upon the white man, and may hardly hope interesting character, and likely to be productive by the Department.
to escape the exhibition of hostility from the na of results which will be beneficially felt and acBeing persuaded that this Department cannot tives. The spirit which has prompted him to court knowledged long after the men who may procure better contribute to the fulfillment of the high ex this perilous adventure, so honorable to his cour them shall have passed away, constitute, in great pectations which the country has ever entertained age and philanthropy, I trust will enable him to part, the chief and most important topics which as to the value of the Navy, nor perform a more brave every hazard with success, to overcome have engrossed the care of the Navy Department acceptable duty to the Navy itself
, than by im- every obstacle in his progress, and to reserve him during the past year. parting to this arm of the national power the high- self for the accomplishment of the great object to It gives me pleasure to report, connection est spirit of enterprise, as well as the greatest which these preparations are directed. In the with these, the return of Lieutenant Herndon, to efficiency of action, I have sought every opportu mean time, I most earnestly commend the subject || whom was consigned, in conjunction with Passed nity to put in requisition for useful service the of the exploration to the early and favorable alien Midshipman (now Lieutenant) Gibbon, an explorvarious talent, skill, and ambition of honorable tion of Congress, with the expression of my own ation of the valley of the river Amazon and its adventure, which equally distinguish and embellish conviction that there is no enterprise of the present tributaries. These officers were directed to cross the professional characier of the officers under the day that deserves a higher degree of favor, or that the Cordilleras in Peru and Bolivia, and by a secontrol of the Department. Constant employment | will more honorably signalize the enlightened pol lection of the most judicious routes of travel, with of ships and men in the promotion of valuable icy of this Government in the estimation of the
a small company of men, for the employment of public interests, whether in the defense of the present or of future generations. It will require whom means were furnished by this Department, honor of our flag, or in the exploration of the field a liberal appropriation of money, and an enlarged to explore the valley of the Amazon, and to deof discovery and the opening of new channels of discretion to be confided to the Navy Department scend that river to the sea. More than a year has trade, or in the enlarging of the boundaries of sci for the organization and arrangement of a plan of been spent in the active prosecution of this duty. ence, I am convinced will be recognized both by operations which must embrace the employment | Lieutenant Herndon reached the United States in the Government and the people as the true and of a number of men, the supply of boats, arma July last, bringing with him a large amount of inproper vocation of the Navy, and as the means best ments and tools, and the enlistment of such scien teresting and useful facts, industriously collected calculated to nurse and strengthen that prompt and tificaid as a long and laborious inland exploration, by him in the course of his long and hazardous gallant devotion to duty which is so essential to beset with many dangers and dificulties, will sug- journey, embracing many valuable statistics of the character of accomplished officers, and so ingest,
the country, and adding most important contribudispensable to the effectiveness of the naval organ With a view to the preparatory operations of tions to the hitherto unknown geographical charization.
Commander Lynch, and also in consideration of acter of the country. He is now engaged in preActing in conformity with this opinion, I have | the need which the African squadron has at all
paring a full report of the incidents and discoveries availed myself of events that favored the object to times for such an auxiliary, I have directed the of his travel, which will be communicated to you set on foot two other expeditions, which may be small steamer Vixen to be prepared without delay as soon as it is placed in possession of this De. classed with those which I have just presented to and sent to that coast, to constitute a part of the partment. I beg to commend Lieutenant Herndon your notice, and from which I have every reason force under the command of Commodore Mayo, to your special approbation and thanks for the io hope much good is to be derived hereafter. who is about to take charge of the squadron. He intelligence and ability, and yet more for the high My attention has been invited by the Colonization will be instructed to furnish Commander Lynch professional zeal he has exhibited in the performSociety of Pennsylvania to the necessity of pros with every fucility which his position may allow. ance of his difficult and honorable duty. ecuting some researches into the character of the A small sum of money has also been placed at the Lieutenant Gibbon, having taken a different Continent of Africa, and especially that portion disposal of Commander Lynch for the contingen route from that of Lieutenant Herndon, has not of it lying eastward of the settlements of Liberia. cies of his present service.
yet arrived, but may be expected in the course of It is supposed that an exploration of this region The second expedition to which I have referred ihe winter. When he returns to this city, the would lead to the discovery of a broad tract of fer-has grown out of the recent decree of the Provis result of his work will be submitted to your notice. tile and healthy country, well adapted to the ex
ional Director of the Argentine Confederation, The brig Dolphin, which was employed during tension of that system of colonization which for which has very lately reached this country, and the last year, under the command of Lieutenant some years past has greatly interested the public i which now throws open to navigation that long Lee, in a survey of portions of the Atlantic, for attention, and more recently attracted the favorable sealed and excluded country lying upon the tribu the purpose of ascertaining the position of some consideration of Congress.
taries of the river La Plata. The Uraguay and dangerous rocks and shoals which were known to The proposition submitted to my view by the the Parana are at last opened by this decree to the
exist in the routes of navigation between the Unisociety, and referred to your approval, I regard access of all nations who may choose to seek the ted States and Europe, has performed useful seras one which may be rendered productive of great new associations which they offer to the spirit of vice, of which the results will be communicated public advantage, and in regard to which you adventure. A vast territory of boundless resource, to Congress. This work being yet incomplete, might confidently bespeak and anticipate the ap- proverbial for its treasures of vegetable and min- | the Dolphin has again been dispatched on a secprobation of the country. I have, therefore, not eral wealth, extending, like the Mississippi, from ond cruise of the game character, under the comhesitated, with your concurrence, to give it the aid south to north, and reaching through twenty-four mand of Lieutenant Berryman, and may be exwhich it was in the power of the Department to parallels of latitude, with every climate between pected to accomplish a work which will tend, in bestow. As I could not, however, without some ihe temperate and torrid zones, and with every no small degree, to lessen the hazards which have special appropriation to the object, organize a full variety of product which may be gathered from heretofore embarrassed the voyages of our merand effective expedition for the prosecution of this the alluvial plains of the ocean border to the heights chant marine. enterprise, I have thought that, by the employ- | of the Andes—this is the field into which the lib
Lady Franklin, whose devotion to the cause of ment of such means as have been provided for the eral decree of President Urguiza has invited the en her unfortunate husband has excited so large a ordinary exigencies of the service, I might profile | terprise of our country, as well as of other nations, sympathy in the United States, has been encourably prepare the way for such an expedition as i who will be equally prompt to pursue it. We | ayed to make another effort to determine the fate of
the gallant navigator of the Arctic sea, and is now been regulated and limited by several laws, of nominated for the school may be established by intent upon the organization of a new expedition which the combined import now is to give to each law. For the present, I suggest that this number under the auspices of our countryman, Mr. Henry State and Territory, its relative proportion of ap may be fixed at two hundred and forty-eight. It Grinnell, and Mr. George Peabody, of London. || pointments, determined by the ratio of representa may be altered as future experience niay require. Their endeavor will be directed to an exploration tion in Congress and its relation to the whole or ihis number of two hundred and forty-eight of the upper coasts of Greenland, by land as well number of acting and passed midshipmen allowed who are to be furnished to the Academy every four as sea, and will furnish occasion for valuable sci to the Navy. To this determination of the quota years, one fourth, or sixty-two, should be nominentific observation tending to the ascertainment of of appointments appropriated to each State and aled for admission at the commencement of each the magnetic poles and the intensity and dip of the Territory there has been added an allotment of a yearly term, lo constitute the first or lowest class of needle, and interesting also to geological questions fractional share to each Congressional district, | ihe school of this whole number of two hundred connected with the supposed existence of an open and the nomination for each district has been and forty-eight, two hundred and twenty-eight polar sea, and other subjects of much importance conferred upon the member representing it. might be allotted to the nomination of members of in the natural history of our globe. A part, there The whole number of midshipmen, including Congress, apportioning them to each State accordfore, from its main object, there is much in the passed midshipmen, allowed to the Navy is four ing to the ratio of representation and requiring the projected expedition to excite a high degree of in hundred and sixty-four. The number of Repre- || nomination to the vacancies to be made, not by terest in its results, both in Europe and America. sentatives and Delegates, according to the last the representatives singly, but by the united coun
The distinguished lady whose sorrows have in census, is two hundred and thirty-nine. Each sel and action of the whole representation of each spired this zeal of adventure, and whose energy Representative, therefore, is entitled by the existing State, including Senators and Representatives, has given it an intelligent and hopeful direction, law to the nomination of one candidate and a frac The remaining twenty of the two hundred and has done no more than justice to a meritorious tion equal to 225-239.
forty-eight may be given with advantage to the young officer of our Navy, Passed Assistant Sur No provision has been made for the disposition || President. geon Kane, in asking his coöperation in this haz of these fractions, and I have therefore thought By this arrangement Congress would be called ardous exploit. Dr. Kane has already won a myself bound, in the absence of any other regu on to nominate fifty-seven cadets every year, and high praise from his countrymen by his intrepid lation, to consult the wishes of at least a majority | the President five. perseverance in facing the extraordinary dangers of the Representatives entitled to the fractional The classes would thus commence their career of the last expedition on the same errand to the part in receiving a nomination to supply the with sixty-two members, and this number, or so Arctic sea, and still more by the diligence which, vacancy.
many of them as are not dropped in the progress guided by scientific accomplishment, has enabled As the school does not contain more than a of the four years, would represent the annual numhim to contribute a valuable fund towards the illus. fourth of the midshipmen belonging to the Navy, | ber of graduates. Provision, of course, should be tration of a subject that now engrosses an unusual and as the vacancies in the number of students made for the gradual absorption of all those acting share of learned investigation.
are dependent altogether upon the promotions to midshipmen who, under the present system, are The request of Lady Franklin to enlist Dr. the grade of lieutenants and upon the resignations, not yei disposed of. In a few years they must Kane in the new expedition has been communi dismissals, and deaths in each year in the corps disappear, after which the organization of the cated to me, and I have not delayed to give him of midshipmen, the annual nominations to the cadets would be undisturbed. the necessary permission, and to confer upon him school must, when the entire complement of mid In addition to this number of sixty-two nomall the benefit he may derive from his position in shipmen is regularly filled, be comparatively but inations to be made in each year, Congress and the Navy, by an order which puts him upon spe. few in number. The present condition of the the President would also have the appointment to cial service. If it should become requisite in the service supplies but a small ratio of promotions; || such vacancies in the new class as might arise out field of operations to which he is destined to pro- and if it were not for the operation of the resigna- of the failure of the first candidates to pass the vide him with means for the prosecution of scien tions, dismissals, and deaths, it is manifest that preliminary examinations required at their admistific discovery, beyond those which may be afford- the yearly recruits to be added to the schoolsion. The vacancies occasioned by subsequent ed by the Department and the liberality of the would be so inconsiderable in numbers as to examinations, and by the other causes operating distinguished gentlemen who have assumed the forbid any hope of extensive usefulness; whilst || during the progress of the classes through the charge of this expedition, I would commend it to the fluctuating character of these causes which term of the four years, I propose should not be the enlightened regard of Congress, with the most produce the vacancies tends to a result scarcely | filled; but the classes, after their commencement, confident hope that that body will respond to the || less injurious.
should advance to the end of the term of study, suggestions of this necessity with a prompt appre It is, indeed, the most obvious defect in the pres- | subject to all the incidents of their career which ciation and generous support of an undertaking ent organization of the Academy that its supply of may reduce their numbers. The propriety of this BO honorable to humanity and so useful to the students is liable to these contingencies; for while provision will be recognized when it is observed enlargement of liberal science.
the classes are advancing by regular steps, through sihat a vacancy occurring in any class after it has
the course of four years' study, to the term at become advanced in its studies could not be supTHE NAVAL ACADEMY.
which they must leave the school and enter into | plied, at that advanced stage, by a new appointThe Naval Academy at Annapolis presents to the field of active service, the vacancies which ment to the school. The class would still go on the regard of Congress an institution worthy of they create are dependent upon such a limited in its reduced state, whilst the supply of a vacancy the highest encouragement.
fund of supply as must ultimately reduce the num- occurring in it could only operate to the undue Under a judicious and energetic administration, ber of pupils below the quota which is essential to || increase of the lowest class of beginners, and it has now reached a stage in its progress which the administration of the system.
would thus produce a periodical and inconvenient may enable the Government to form a satisfactory That this defect has not already been visible in increase of graduates for whom no allotment could estimate of its influence in promoting and sustain the career of the Academy is to be ascribed only to be made in the Navy. ing the future efficiency of the Navy.
the fact, that up to the present time the members of Assuming sixty-two as the number which shall The school has grown up to its present stage in the institution have been recruited from the grade | always be supplied to the lowest class or beginthe progressive expansion and improvement of a of midshipmen who have been employed at sea ners of the school, we have reason to believe, from design which, in its origin, forbade the adoption previous io the new arrangements, adopted and the data afforded by the experience of West Point, of a comprehensive and permanent system of naval commenced with the class of 1851. The classes that the annual number of graduates would not education. It was at first contrived to supply heretofore have been furnished out of this corps, exceed some twenty-five or thirty, it being found, nothing more than the opportunity of prosecuting in addition to the annual nominations. When this in the general operation of the system, that the a few useful studies to a class of occasional stu resource is exhausted and the school is dependent graduates do not bear a greater average proportion dents, who were subject to all the interruptions of on the yearly nominations alone, the defect to to the admissions than forty per cent. 'Upon this details for service at sea, and who were therefore which I have referred will be fully seen and felt. basis it may be estiinated that these twenty-five or not in a condition to conform to the requirements It will then be manifest that the whole number at thirty may be looked to as the ordinary yearly necessary to a regular course of professional in- | the school cannot exceed, at any time, the num resource for the supply of young officers to the struction. The obvious insufficiency of this model ber of promotions added io the occasional vacan Navy. of study soon suggested the necessity for a more cies occurring the corps of midshipmen and I propose, in the next place, that the law should methodical arrangement. A plan was accordingly passed midshipmen in four years.
establish the corps of midshipmen for the service devised in 1850, to take effect at the commence It is to remedy this defect, and to give the school at two hundred and fifty. These should be recogment of the next term of October, 1851, by which an inherent power necessary to its own perpetua nized as midshipmen only, and be subject to all all the acting midshipmen of the date of that and tion, and to make it what I am sure the country the understood and appropriate duties of that class subsequent years should be inducted into the school desires to see it, a vigorous and healthful institu- of officers. They should then be consigned to in its lowest class, and proceed in due order tion, completely adapted to the useful ends for service on board of ships-of-war, and, after six through a prescribed course of naval education, which it was ordained, that I propose, with your months' employment at sea, should, upon examwhich is specifically adapted to a term of four approbation, to submit to Congress the following ination and approval by a competent board, be years. The series of studies appropriate to each change in its fundamental structure.
entitled to the midshipman's warrant, bearing the year was defined, the practice of gunnery and sea The Academy should be composed exclusively date of the graduation of the school; and after manship established, and the whole organization, of cadets, or young men who are received as can three years' service at sea and another examinaas it now exists, completed. The classes were so didates for admission to the Navy. Its design || tion, they should be noted for promotion to a contrived also as to receive, according to an ap should be that of a preparatory school to qualify | higher grade, which I propose should be created pointed succession, the acting midshipmen of dates these candidates for appointments, and they should by law and denominated masters. The grade of prior to 1851, who by this provision will, in the only be in condition to be selected for midshipmen | passed midshipman should be abolished as soon space of the next three years, have had the op when they had successfully passed through this as the gradual promotion of the corps may allow. portunity of graduating in the school. probation.
It is an anomaly in the naval service, presenting a The admissions of acting midshipmen to the If this principle be adopted as the ground-work | class of officers to whom no duty is specifically Navy, and consequently to the Academy, have li of the plan, then the whole number of cadets to be || assigned, and constantly engendering discontent
32D CONG.... 2D SESS.
SENATE & HO. OF REPs. when the duties of ordinary midshipmen are re graphical corps may require, shall be appropriated reduce it. It is proper for me to say, also, that, quired of it. This class now perform the duty of to that service; and, upon being so appropriated, in assigning five captains to this corps, I may masters, and I think it but proper that the duty they shall be returned to the Academy for an ad. have exceeded the number which may be approand the rank should be associated by law. The ditional course of study of two years, during priate to the organization. But as no captain, change would require no increase of pay, and which they shall be employed in obtaining a thor: according to this plan, could be appointed before would, I have no doubt, be productive of good ough knowledge of the higher branches of civil the lapse of five years, the experience which may eflects.
engineering, hydrography, astronomy, mechan be gained in the interval may enable Congress, The grade of masters might be established at ism, and gunnery, in conformity with the best before that period has gone by, to adjust this one hundred, and might at once be filled by ap system of instruction which the Academy may be grade to its proper number, and assign to it its pointing to it that number of passed midshipmen. able to furnish. At the end of this probation of appropriate duties. It may be hereafter looked The ultimate result of this plan would give, when two years they shall be subjected to a final examin to for the supply of the head of the engineer de. all the present passed midshipmen shall have been ation, and, upon a recommendation to that effect, | partment, the superintendents of naval architec. absorbed in the regular course of promotion, two shall be admitted to the rank of masters in the hy ture and construction, the general supervision of hundred and fifty midshipmen and one hundred drographical corps. Five years' service in this | hydrographical surveys, and the management of masters to occupy the space now filled by the corps grade should entitle them to be promoted to lieu- i the Naval Academy. If these functions may be of four hundred and sixty-four officers--a reduc tenants, as vacancies may happen, and the pro- efficiently discharged by it, the number I have tion of one hundred and fourteen. This reduction motions thenceforward should await the ordinary assigned will not be too large. of course would increase the ratio of promotion incidents of the corps which may supply the proper These are the general views and considerations to the corps of lieutenants, and would leave a occasion.
which have induced me to submit this plan to your sufficient complement for all the demands of the If the Department should be able to contribute | approval and to the consideration of Congress. service, estimated by the present size of the Navy. | any members to the corps from the present officers It will afford the annual appointment of sixtyA future increase of the Navy would suggest a pro of the service, I think such appointments should two candidates for the Navy. portionate increase of officers of every grade. not exceed twenty to each grade of masters and It will give greater permanency and efficiency
The promotions incident to this organization of lieutenants and ten commanders, and, that no cap to the school. the corps—that is to say, of two hundred and fifty tain be appointed until after five years' service in It will quicken promotion in the Navy, and give midshipmen and one hundred masters-would the corps, there may be found the proper officers to the younger officers hope of useful command supply about twenty-five vacancies a year. The to occupy the vacancies in this grade. It should also whilst they yet possess the vigor and ambition of present number of higher officers furnish some be well understood that the Secretary of the Navy, youth. ihing near this yearly average, and there is no in assigning present officers to the corps, should It will establish a valuable corps of scientific reason to suppose that it will be reduced in future; be governed alone in his selection by high qualifi- officers, who will bring to the service equal devothe more active service of the Navy, even on the cation and accomplishment in the science required, tion to the prosperity of the Navy and the highest present establishment, may rather increase it. The and not by seniority in the service; and that no attainments to promote it. school, therefore, may be regarded as subject to an appointments should be made, unless there be And it may occasionally give to the country annual demand for this number of its graduates to found officers of approved reputation for their ac men carefully educated in useful knowledge, and be advanced into the regular line of service. Esti- | quirements in reference to this service who may be bound by the strongest obligation of gratitude and mating the number of graduates at twenty-five, willing to enter the corps.
honor to requite this public bounty by laudable the whole of them would thus find position and The yearly graduates of the Academy will, ac service in the employments of civil life. employment; an increase to thirty would of course cording to this system, be assigned to the two I think it proper, in presenting this new organgive a remainder of five, which may also be dis branches of service I have described; that is to ization of the school and of the officers which it posed of.
Bay, to the regular naval service and to the hydro- is intended to supply, to ask of Congress that the I propose, in further organization of this system, graphical corps. The graduates required for these grade of master in the service shall be entitled to to construct a scientific corps in the Navy, to be iwo branches should be selected from those who li a commission and recognized in that churacter by established as the hydrographical crops; this corps are adjudged by the board of examination to stand law. The masters are ward-room ofiicers, and to be designed, in its first formation, upon a basis | highest on the roll of the class; and if at any time should be placed amongst the commissioned offiwhich shall provide for thirty masters, thirty lieu it should happen that the requisitions should not cers of the Navy. No change of pay is necestenants, fifteen commanders, and five captains, embrace the whole number of graduates in each sary, and in that respect they may be left upon making eighty in all. It should be specially edu year, then those whose services are not required, their present footing. cated for that scientific professional service in being the lowest on the roll, should receive an It must be observed that some years will elapse which some portion of the Navy is constantly em honorable discharge from the school. These would if this organization be now authorized by law ployed. Its chief duties should be connected with return to the occupations of private life well edu- | before it can be rendered complete; and the sooner, hydrographical surveys, astronomical observa cated by the bounty of the Government, and qual- || therefore, that it is adopted the better. tións, construction of charts, preparation and im- i ified for useful employment in the many important The present class of passed midshipmen numprovement of ordnance, the supervision of naval vocations connected with commerce and naviga bers two hundred and sixteen. These are to be architecture and machinery, and the direction of tion, and especially in the various service of steam disposed of. One hundred of them may be comcivil engineering in the construction of docks and ships which create so large a demand for expert missioned as masters, and the grade may be at other structures requiring scientific knowledge and and accomplished officers. In whatever situation once established at that number by law. The reskil.
they may be placed, they will find abundant oc maining hundred and sixteen would be gradually The corps should be entirely separate from and casion to rejoice in the advantages they shall have absorbed by the grade of masters in a few years, independent of the regular naval service. Its line obtained at the school, and, by the proper use of after which the system will work according to its of promotion should be confined to its own organ these advantages, indemnify the country for the permanent regulation. ization, and its government should be under its care and expense it may have bestowed upon their The present number of acting midshipmen is own proper officers. In addition to the duties as culture. These conditions and incidents of an ad two hundred and six, of which the school contains, signed to it on shore and in hydrographical sur mission to the Academy being understood in ad by the last report, eighty-one. Five appointments veys, some portion of it might be appropriated to vance, both by the cadet and his friends, it is pre have been made for the next term, and there are service at sea, and one or more officers of the corps sumed, will prepare them to regard the discharge yet thirty-seven vacancies. To the nominations might be introduced into the complements of squad- in its true point of view, as the necessary contin- | already made for the new class of beginners to the rons on foreign or home service. An experienced "gency of a most important good conferred, and next term of October, 1853, may be added at once, officer of this corps would find useful and active not as a disappointment which should occasion with the thirty-seven vacancies, as many as may duty upon every cruise. It should be left to the regret. If, on the other hand, it should turn out be necessary to make sixty-two. The classes Navy Department to regulate the character and that the annual number of graduates should not should then advance regularly to the end of their contingencies of this service, and to make all the he adequate to the demands of these two branches respective terms, without additions, and the law necessary rules and orders for its application. of service, the basis of sixty-two in the class of may provide for the annual supply henceforth of
This corps should be built up under the direc- beginners may be increased to the number at which sixty-two, in the manner I have indicated. The tion of the Secretary of the Navy from the material experience may show that the desired result may grade of midshipmen might be at once declared to afforded by the Academy, with such additions to be obtained. It will be easy, after the experiment be limited to two hundred and fifty, and the filling it, in its commencement, from the regular line of of a few years, to ascertain this number with suf of that complement should await the supply it naval service, as in his judgment the qualifications | ficient precision; and, as in the mean time the hy. may hereafter obtain from the graduates. of the present officers inight enable him to make drographic corps is to be filled, the extra supply If any of the present grade of passed midshipwith advantage.
of the classes for the next three years, by the ad men and masters should be found qualified for With a view to the supply of this corps from | mission of the midshipmen of dates prior to 1851, admission to the hydrographic corps, the vacanthe Academy, I propose that, upon the yearly ex will very opportunely enlarge the classes to a num cies which may be made by their appointment to amination of the graduates, the Board of Examin- ber which will satisfy that requisition.
it may be filled by promotion, and so hasten the ation shall be directed to bestow a close attention In arranging the complement of officers to the period at which the new organization may be upon the class submitted to them, in order to as hydrographic corps, I have proceeded upon a con brought into full operation. certain the particular adaptation of any of the jectural estimate of what I suppose may be found The school has yet to receive some classes of graduates to this species of service, and that they necessary to the service required of it. I submit midshipmen of the date previous to 1851. When shall report to the Department the names of such this to the judgmnent of Congress for such aliera admitted, they will constitute an extra portion beas they may find qualified by study, talent, and tions in the grades and numbers as their investi yond the quota allowed to the Academy, and I acquirement for admission to the corps; and if, gation of the subject may suggest. I have thought would suggest in regard to them that they should upon this report, the students so designated shall it safest to propose a number rather below what be permitted, as heretofore, to constitute a part of consent to enter the corps, they, or so many of I think the service may ultimately demand, as any class for which they may be qualified, and upon them as the established complement of the hydro-li is easier to increase this complement than to l their graduation to be entitled to their advance
320 CONG.....20 Sess.
SENATE & Ho. OF REPS. ment to the proper grade; it being mainly import- | it is due to Commander Stribling, who has charge dom indulged without leading to cruelties that ant to provide at present that each yearly class of of the institution, and to the officers, professors, must disgrace those who practice them; and, what new admissions should be constituted of the ap and assistants under his command, to say that the is more to be feared, raise a sentiment in the public pointed number of sixty-two, and in no event io assiduity and intelligence with which they have mind hostile to the Navy itself. The seaman, be. exceed that number. The future organization of performed the laborious and complicated duties lieving himself exempt from the speedy penalty of the school will necessarily follow upon the ob assigned to them, merit the highest approbation; disobedience or negleckpof duty, and looking with servance of this provision.
and that the prosperous condition of the school, || indifference to the remote and uncertain proceedIn proper connection with this subject of the and admirable arrangement of its details, particu-ing of a court-martial upon his delinquency, grows Academy, it is my duty to apprise you that I have larly manifested in the deportment and proficiency habitually contumacious to his superiors, and in recently adopted regulations for the government of the young men confided to their care, eminently fuses the same sentiment into his comrades; and of apprentices to be admitted at the several navy- entitle it to the favorable opinion and encourage in the very fact of the diffusion of this spirit of yards and workshops under the control of this i ment of the Government.
insubordination finds ground to hope for immunity Department. The propriety of these regulations I particularly commend to the notice of Congress from punishment—naturally enough believing that has been suggested by the Bureau of Yards and the consideration of the appropriations asked for what has grown to be common and frequent will Docks, and I am indebted to the intelligent labors by the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, I also come to be more lightly considered when he of three distinguished officers of the department, for the improvements necessary to purchase the is summoned to a trial at the end of his cruise. It Commodores Morris, Shubrick, and Smith, to grounds and complete the buildings required by may excite some surprise in the statement of what whom I referred the subject for a report, which I the Academy.
I learn to be true, that the most frequent comhave received, and which will be found amongst
plaints against the abolition of corporal punishthe documents accompanying this communication. ORGANIZATION AND DISCIPLINE OF SEAMEN.
ment are made, in great part, by the seamen themThe report presents the regulations which I have There is no subject connected with the pros selves. The difficulties arising out of its abrogaapproved. The number of apprentices as estab- | perity of the Navy that, in my estimate, better tion, and the absence of any substitute for it, now lished, for the present, by this system, is eighty- | deserves the attention of Congress than that re constitute the most prominent obstacles to the three. They are required to undergo an examin-lating to the condition of the corps of mariners, ready supply of our squadrons with seamen. This ation twice in each year, and, after the first year, which constitutes the great working force in the Department is familiar with complaints from the those most distinguished in the previous triais navigation and management of the public vessels. recruiting stations of the difficulty of enlisting the are to be subjected to another of a still more In obedience to a sentiment which is prevalent better class of seamen. Of that large number of extensive and rigorous character, upon which throughout the country, and which is naturally men who have heretofore constituted the pride of such as shall be reported as worthy of the highest suggested by those impulses that distinctively our Navy, by their good seamanship and highly approbation and reward, and as demonstrating characterize the opinions and habits of our people, respectable personal deportment, comprising, I retalent adapted to eminence in the public service, | Congress has been recently led to the considera- | joice to say, the great body of the mariners who are to be commended to the Secretary of the Navy tion of the ordinary mode of punishment, which have sustained the honor and glory of our flag in for such further advantages of instruction as he it had heretofore been supposed was necessary to its most perilous, as well as in its most useful camay have it in his power to confer.
the preservation of the discipline of the Navy. reer-of these men, it is a fact which invites the I regard it as a most salutary power to be in The result of this consideration has been the pas. | deepest concern of Congress, weare daily deprived, vested in the Secretary of the Navy, for the bene sage of a law for the entire abolition of corporal | by their refusal to enter again into the service until, ficial performance of the duty thus assigned to him, punishment on board of our ships, both public and as they ask, they shall have some assurance that that he should have authority to admit into the private. This punishment—which, for a long a better system of discipline may be restored. Naval Academy those apprentices whose good con time, has been practised in the Navy and com- | They reasonably complain, that whilst the worst duct and capabilities shall have earned this dis mercial marine, not only without question as to portions of the crew are placed under arrest, and tinction; and to provide that they should there be its efficacy in maintaining the proper observance are exempt, in consequence, from the severe duconducted through a course of study appropriate of duty on ship-board, but which, indeed, had ties of the deck, they find their toil increased by to their intended future vocations, and calculated to become so incorporated in the sober conviction of the constantly-recurring exigencies which compel advance them in mathematical and mechanical sci- | both officers and men, as an indispensable neces them, for weeks and months, during a cruise, to ence, under such regulations in regard to the term | sity of the service, that it had grown to be the perform the extra work which the reluction of the of their application, their duties and deportment, as most unquestioned usage and generally received force of the ship inevitably throws upon them. So the Navy Department might think it expedient to incident of naval discipline-many judicious per- oppressively is this evil felt, that I have reason to adopt. Having completed this course of study, sons believed might be dispensed with, not only believe, if the best seamen, who have heretofore they should be returned to the yards from which most acceptably to the feelings of the nation, but | been accustomed to man our ships, could find an they may have been received, or allotted to suitable | also without disadvantage to the service. The occasion to express their wishes to Congress, a employments in the service.
adoption of this opinion by Congress, in the pas- || majority of the whole number would be seen to It would be a useful provision in this scheme to sage of the act of September, 1850, which for-prefer a restoration of that form of punishinent give to the young men so educated a preference in bade the accustomed penalty, without providing which has been forbidden, rather than be subject the admissions to the corps of engineers for steam a substitute for it, has afforded the Navy the to the severities imposed upon them by the present ships, for which appointments their education opportunity to make the experiment. I very condition of disorder in the naval discipline. would particularly qualify them; their admission sincerely regret to say that the records of this De Looking at this state of things in the Navy, I into that corps, nevertheless, to be dependent upon partment, as well as the almost entire concurrence think the occasion propitious to the adoption of a successful examination and a favorable certificate of facts and opinions, brought to my notice from new system for the organization and government to moral and intellectual character.
authentic sources, and vouched by intelligent and of the whole material constituting the crews of In the operation of this scheme the Navy would experienced observers, all tend to indicate a most our ships; and I take advantage of the present derive the benefit of the best talents and acquire unsatisfactory result. The omission of Congress time to submit to your consideration the outline of ment for the supply of engineers, naval architects, to provide for the punishment of what may be a plan, which I trust will engage your attention, and constructors and superintendents in the vari- called minor offenses against discipline and good and receive the approbation of Congress. ous departments of mechanical employment con order on ship-board may, perhaps, account in part The supply of our Navy with seamen has herenected with the service.
for the failure; but the fact of the most serious tofore been obtained by a system of enlistment, I take great pleasure in presenting this subject to detriment to the efficiency of our service is so un modeled, in its principal elements, upon the plan your approval and to the attention of Congress. happily forced upon my attention, as the effect of adopted in Great Britain, from which nation we
In view of this reorganization of the Academy, the recent change, that it becomes the gravest of have derived, by old habit and national descent, I sabmit, also, as a question worthy of considera- | my duties at this time to lay the subject once more the general features of our marine. Like Engtion, whether it would not be a salutary provision || before Congress, and to ask its atiention to the land, we have looked to our commercial navigato require that the officers of the Marine Corps consideration of such a corrective to the present tion for the reinforcement of the men of the Navy. should be prepared for that service by an educa- condition of the service as I am confident it must We enlist the mercantile seamen for the national tion at the school? My own opinion is, that it find to be indispensable to the proper government cruise, discharging and paying them off when it is would be attended by manifest advantage, both as of the Navy. We have evidence furnished to this finished, and returning them to the merchant serrespects the necessary accomplishment for naval Department, in the history of almost every cruise, || vice. The Navy, in general, has been sufficiently service in that corps, and the personal character of acts of insubordination that not only impair attractive to the sailor to be able to secure his serand deportment of the officers belonging to it. It the usefulness of our ships, but which tend also vice when needed; and this mode of enlistment is amongst the incidents of their employment that to the gradual development of habits amongst the being an easy and accessible resource, but little they are sometimes required to perform important seamen that threaten to lead to extensive and un consideration has heretofore been bestowed upon military duties on shore in which a necessity is controllable mutinies. The multiplication ofcourts. || its effect either on the Navy itself or upon the found for that species of knowledge only to be martial, and all the consequences of an increase of seamen. To the Navy it has given a large and gained in the military or naval school; and in every disorder and crime, are amongst the least of the meritorious class of mariners, not unmixed, howservice to which they are called it is quite apparent apparent and growing evils of the new system. ever, with many of a diferent character, and from that this knowledge, and the spirit to appreciate | The demoralization of both men and officers is a that mixture itself requiring a prompt and effective the duties of command that is inseparable from it, yet more observable consequence. The absence system of punishment adapted to secure a ready must increase the efficiency of the officer and ele. or probibition of the usual punishments known to discharge of duty in every emergency. The effect vate the character of the corps to which he is at seamen has led to the invention of new penalties of the system upon the men of the Navy has been tached. If these considerations should influence of the most revolting kind, in the application of, overlooked, or, if regarded at all, it has not atthe opinion of Congress as they do my own, they which full scope has been given, and the strongest tracted the attention of the public authorities. The will suggest the expediency of making the pro provocations administered, to that exhibition of sailor is, in general, upon shore a helpless being. vision to which I have invited their attention. lemper and passion which, however natural it may Between himself and all around him there is a pal
In concluding this notice of the Naval Academy, be to men of hasty and excitable natures, is sei- il pable incongruity. He has come off a long cruise