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Command High personal or Usually but not Binding. The purpose avowed- Important moral and (1.) From God. (2.) acquired digni- necessarily mo

ly depending on the

secular concerns. From high secular ty, or irresis- ral. It may will of the person

authority. (3.) From tible power. also be derived commanding,

men of such charac-
from high social
quires no definition.

ter as to command
position or irre-

authority in matters
sistible power.

of right and wrong.
(4.) From any one to
whom passing cir-
cumstances give the
right to absolute

Order. Moderate, ac- Social or merely Binding, or conven- Purpose defined; the Directions for the or- (1.) Persons who have

quired rank; or conventional. tionally considered purpose to keep up dinary business of a moderately high social or mer

so. Arising from ar- the routine of social life, especially of a rank in the social
cantile rela-

rangements concern- life. No special con- subordinate nature, scale, permanently
tions, which,

ing little things, and sideration of either and given to subor- or for a time. (2.)
even when tem-
therefore easily to end or means. dinates.

Merchants, customporary, give a be altered.

ers, and all such as, kind of superio

for the moment, ocrity.

cupy a sort of social

vantage-ground. Enjoin. An appeal to our Strong remind- Binding: The moral Accentuated only in More frequently a Every person whom moral nature, to er of God, vir- appeal is sufficiently so far as every moral general moral duty we sufficiently re

of tue, and moral powerful to act per- action is an end in than a single right spect to allow him to what is right duty.

emptorily. itself. action.

make an appeal to and good.

our moral self.



An urgent de- Social or moral ; Ranging from request Not accentuated, or Single acts, social, Those who rather em-
mand, made in generally the to demand. Depen- only in so far as an moral, or mental. phasise their will
the earnest de- former.

dent upon the rela- urgent request im- The two latter, be- than their title to
sire that it will

tions of the persons plies an interest in cause they cannot command, although be granted.

concerned and the its fulfilment. be absolutely com- social, personal, or situation of the mo

manded, are spe- moral titles are not

cially suited to the wanting.
doubtful intensity of
the word. (I bid you
reflect; he bade him
mind his duty.)


Uniting finally essential features into a comprehensive tableau after the manner of the fourth method, we discover the primary fact that in an advanced state of society most orders arise from the recognised nature and arrangement of things, and hence they have little which is arbitrary about them. In a civilised country the duties incidental to the various professions and callings are so methodically organised, that there is rarely any occasion to issue imperious behests. In a cultivated age the mental capacity of men belonging to the same class is, moreover, so similar that, as long as things go smoothly, individuals scarcely ever alter the common manners and customs of their station, but act very much in grooves and by routine. Last, not least, commands given in such a state of society are addressed to men politically free, and who are very little dependent, even pecuniarily and socially, on their employers. Hence most commands of everyday life are far more frequently directions affecting the details of practical management than arbitrary dictates which raise fresh and unexpected claims. When the baker bids his apprentice to rise before daybreak to attend to the oven, the order is a matter of course, the only question left for personal decision being whether a thing necessary to the trade shall be done half an hour sooner or later, which, again, depends less upon choice than upon the particular requirements of the shop. Receiving such-like orders, subordinates have no occasion to feel coerced. They are, on the contrary, perfectly aware that their movements are being directed only to an extent indispensable to the effectual performance of joint-work. The minimum of obedience exacted from persons in such independent positions is rendered palatable by the probability that the apprentice may later rise to his master's rank, when he himself will give the usual orders of his trade. All this tends to raise modern servants to the comparatively independent position of temporary helps. To persons in this comfortable situation directions are issued by means of the easy-going verb order.'

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