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Fees to n gents for leases.

Limitation of leases.

Proviso.

other damage that may be done to the same, whether by persons residing thereon or others; and the said agents are hereby authorized, when waste or trespass shall be committed, to proceed against the person or persons committing the same, according to the laws in such case made and provided; and actions in the cases aforesaid shall be sustained by the agents, and the damages recovered shall be one half to the use of such agents, and the other half to be applied to the same purpose as the proceeds of rents from the land on which the damage was sustained.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That for each lease executed by the agents, they shall be entitled to receive the sum of two dollars, to be paid by the lessees respectively.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That every lease which may be granted in virtue of this act, shall be limited to the period of the termination of the territorial form of government, in the said territory; and shall cease to have any force or effect after the first day of January next succeeding the establishment of a state government therein: Provided, That outstanding rents may be collected, and damages for waste or trespass may be recovered in the same manner as if the leases had continued in full force.

Approved, January 9, 1815.

Statute III.
Jan. 9, 1815.
[Repealed.]

Act of March 3, 1815, ch. 91.

Direct tax of six millions imposed.

Apportionment among the states.

New Hampshire. Massachusetts.

Rhode Island.
Connecticut.

Vermont.
New York.
New Jersey.

Chap. XXI.—An Act to provide additional revenues for defraying the expenses of government, and Tnaintaining the public credit, by laying a direct tax upon the United States, and to provide for assessing and collecting the same, (a)

Beit enactedby the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That a direct tax of six millions of dollars be and is hereby annually laid upon the United States, and the same shall be and is hereby apportioned to the states respectively in manner following:

To the state of New Hampshire, one hundred and ninety-three thousand five hundred and eighty-six dollars and seventy-four cents.

To the state of Massachusetts, six hundred and thirty-two thousand five hundred and forty-one dollars and ninety-six cents.

To the state of Rhode Island, sixty-nine thousand four hundred and four dollars and thirty-six cents.

To the state of Connecticut, two hundred and thirty-six thousand three hundred and thirty-five dollars and forly-two cents.

To the state of Vermont, one hundred and ninety-six thousand six hundred and eighty-seven dollars and forty-two cents.

To the state of New York, eight hundred and sixty thousand two hundred and eighty-three dollars and twenty-four cents.

To the state of New Jersey, two hundred and seventeen thousand seven hundred and forty-three dollars and sixty-six cents.

(a) Notes of tho acts which have hoen passed relating to the assessment of lands for direct taxes. Vol. i. page 5S0.

Decisions of the courts of tho United States, on the acts of Congress laying direct taxes on lands, &c.

A collector selling land for taxes, must act in conformity with tho law from which his power is derived, and the purchaser is bound to inquire whether he has so acted. It is incumbent on the vendor to prove his power to sell. Stead's Executors v. Course, 4 Cranch, 403 ; 2 Cond. Rep. 151.

Under tho act of Congress to lay and collect a direct tax, (July 14, 1798,) before tho collector could sell the land of an unknown proprietor for non-payment of this tax, it was necessary that he should advertise the copy of the list of lands, kc. and the statement of the amount due for the tax and the notification to pay in sixty days, in four gazettes of the state, if there were so many. Parker v. Rule's lessee, 9 Cranch, 64 ; 3 Cond. Rep. 271.

In tho case of a naked power not coupled with an interest, every pre-roquisite to the exercise of that power, should precede it. In the case of lands sold for the non-payment of taxes, the marshal's deed is not prima facie evidence that the prc-requisites of the law have been complied with; but the party claiming under it must show positively that the law has been complied with. Williams et al. v. Peyton's lessee, 4 Wheat. 77i 4 Cond. Rep. 395. Thatcher r. Powell, 6 Wheat. 119; 5Cond. Rep.28.

To the state of Pennsylvania, seven hundred and thirty thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight dollars and thirty-two cents.

To the state of Delaware, sixty-four thousand ninety-two dollars and fifty cents.

To the state of Maryland, three hundred and three thousand two hundred and forty-seven dollars and eighty-eight cents.

To the state of Virginia, seven hundred and thirty-eight thousand thirty-six dollars and eighty-eight cents.

To the state of Kentucky, three hundred and thirty-seven thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven dollars and fifty two-cents.

To the state of Ohio, two hundred and eight thousand three hundred dollars and twenty-eight cents.

To the state of North Carolina, four hundred and forty thousand four hundred and seventy-six dollars and fifty-six cents.

To the state of Tennessee, two hundred and twenty thousand one hundred and seventy-three dollars and ten cents.

To the state of South Carolina, three hundred and three thousand eight hundred and ten dollars and ninety-six cents.

To the state of Georgia, one hundred and eighty-nine thousand eight hundred and seventy-two dollars and ninety-eight cents; and

To the state of Louisiana, fifty-six thousand five hundred and ninety dollars and twenty-two cents.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this act, the act of Congress, entitled " An act for the assessment and collection of direct taxes and internal duties," passed on the twentysecond day of July, one thousand eight hundred and thirteen, shall be and the same is hereby repealed, except so far as the same respects the collection districts therein and thereby established and defined, so far as the same respects internal duties, and so far as the same respects the appointment and qualifications of the collectors and principal assessors therein and thereby authorized and required; in all which respects, so excepted, as aforesaid, the said act shall be and continue in force for the purposes of this act: Provided always, That for making and completing the assessment and collection of the direct tax laid by virtue of the act of Congress entitled "An act to lay and collect a direct tax within the United States," passed on the second day of August, one thousand eight hundred and thirteen, the said first mentioned act of Congress shall be and continue in full force, any thing in this act to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That each of the principal assessors heretofore appointed, or hereafter appointed, shall divide his district into a convenient number of assessment districts, within each of which he shall appoint one respectable freeholder, to be assistant assessor: Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury shall be, and is hereby authorized to reduce the number of assessment districts, in any collection district in any state, if the number shall appear to him to be too great; and the principal assessors respectively, and each assistant assessor so appointed, and accepting the appointment, shall, before he enters on the duty of his appointment under this act, take and subscribe, before some competent magistrate, or some collector of the direct tax and interna] duties, (who is hereby empowered to administer the same) the following oath or affirmation, to wit: " I , do swear or affirm, (as the case may be,) that I will, to the best of my knowledge, skill, and judgment, diligently and faithfully execute the office and duties of principal assessor (or assistant assessor, as the case may be,) for (naming the district,) without favour or partiality, and that I will do equal right and justice in every case in which I shall act as principal assessor (or assistant assessor, as the case may be.") And a certificate of such oath, or affirmation, shall be delivered tq the collector of the district for which

Pennsylvania.

Delaware.

Maryland.

Virginia.

Kentucky.

Ohio.

North Carolina.

Tennessee.

South Carolina.

Georgia.

Louisiana.

Repeal of part of the former act.

Act of July 22, lN13,ch.l6, withexceptions.

Proviso.

Act of Aug. 2, 1813, ch. 37.

Principal assessors to divide their districts, and appoint assistants.

Number of assessment districts to be reduced.

Oaths of office.

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such assessor shall be appointed, and every principal or assistant assessor acting in the said office, without having taken the said oath or affirmation, shall forfeit and pay one hundred dollars, one moiety to the use of the United States, and the other to him who shall first sue for the same; to be recovered, with costs of suit, in any court having competent jurisdiction.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the Secretary of the Treasury shall establish regulations suitable and necessary for carrying this act into effect; which regulations shall be binding on each principal assessor and his assistants in the performance of the duties enjoined by or under this act, and shall also frame instructions for the said principal assessors and their assistants, pursuant to which instructions the said principal assessors shall, on the first day of February next, direct and cause the several assistant assessors in the district, to inquire after and concerning a!l lands, lots of ground, with their improvements, dwelling houses, and slaves, made liable to taxation under this act, by reference as well to any lists of assessment or collection taken under the laws of the respective states, as to any other records or documents, and by all other lawful ways and means, and to value and enumerate the said objects of taxation in the manner prescribed by this act, and in conformity with the regulations and instructions above mentioned. And it shall be further lawful for the Secretary of the Treasury to direct all errors committed in the assessment, valuation, and tax lists, or in collection thereof, heretofore or hereafter made in the valuation, assessment, and tax lists of the direct tax, laid by virtue of the said act of Congress entitled "An act to lay and collect a direct tax within the United States," and also, all such errors as may from time to time be committed in the assessment, valuation, and tax lists, or in the collection thereof, as may hereafter be made in the assessment of the direct tax by this act laid, to be corrected in such form, and upon such evidence, as the said secretary shall prescribe and approve.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the said direct tax laid by this act shall be assessed and laid on the value of all lands and lots of ground with their improvements, dwelling houses, and slaves, which several articles subject to taxation, shall be enumerated and valued by the respective assessors at the rate each of them is worth in money : Provided hmeevcr, That all property, of whatever kind, coming within any of the foregoing descriptions, and belonging to the United States, or any state, or permanently or specially exempted from taxation by the laws of the state wherein the same may be situated, existing at the time of the passage of this act, shall be exempted from the aforesaid enumeration and valuation, and from the direct tax aforesaid; And provided also, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to exempt from enumeration and valuation and the payment of the direct tax, any public lands which heretofore have been, or hereafter may be sold in the States of Ohio and Louisiana, under any law of the United States, the compact between the United States and the said states to the contrary notwithstanding.

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the respective assistant assessors shall, immediately after being required as aforesaid by the principal assessors, proceed through every part of their respective districts, and shall require all persons owning, possessing, or having the care or management of any lands, lots of ground, dwelling houses, or slaves, lying and being within the collection district where they reside, and liable to a direct tax as aforesaid, to deliver written lists of the same, which lists shall be made in such manner as may be directed by the principal assessor, and, as far as practicable, conformably to those which may be required for the same purpose under the authority of the respective states; Provided always, nevertheless, and it is hereby further enacted and declared, That the valuations, and assessments heretofore made and completed, or to be made and completed, by virtue of the said act of Congress, entitled "An act for the assessment and collection of direct taxes and internal duties," and the said act of Congress, entitled "An act to lay and collect a direct tax within the United States," in relation to the several states wherein the same has been assessed or is assessing, shall be and remain the valuations and assessments for the said states respectively, subject only to the revision, equalization, and apportionment, among the several counties and state districts, by the board of principal assessors hereinafter constituted, to be made as is hereinafter directed, for the purpose of levying and collecting annually the direct tax by this act laid, in the manner hereinafter provided, until provision shall be made by law for altering, modifying, or abolishing the same. And the principal assessors in the said several states wherein a direct tax has heretofore been assessed as aforesaid, shall, at the time and times herein and hereby prescribed for making the valuation and assessment in the states wherein a direct tax has not heretolbre been assessed (in consequence of the legislative assumption of the quotas of the direct tax by such states respectively,) proceed to revise and shall revise, their several and respective valuations, assessments, and tax lists, correcting therein all errors, and supplying all omissions, which have been or shall be therein discovered and ascertained. And in making the said revisal as aforesaid, it shall be the duty of the said principal assessors, to inquire and ascertain what transfers and changes of property in lands, lots of ground, dwelling houses and slaves, have been made and effected since the time of the original valuation and assessment aforesaid; and also what changes of residents and non-residents have occurred; and also what slaves have been born, or have died, or have run away, or become otherwise useless; and also what houses or other improvements of real estate have been burned or otherwise destroyed; and thereupon to make such changes, additions, or reductions, in the said valuations and assessments respectively, as truth and justice shall require. And for the purpose of making the said revisal as aforesaid, of the said valuations, assessments, and tax lists, the principal assessors shall take and pursue all lawful measures, by the examination of records, by the information of the parties in writing, or by any other satisfactory evidence or proof. And in case of any alteration made upon such revisal affecting the property or interests of any person, so as to charge such person with any greater amount of tax, or to transfer the charge of the tax from one person to another person, there shall be the like proceedings as is herein provided in the case of appeals upon an original assessment. And the principal assessors, after hearing such appeals, shall proceed to make out and to deliver revised lists of their valuations and assessments, respectively, to the board of principal assessors, to be constituted as is hereinafter mentioned. And thereupon, the said board of principal assessors shall proceed in the like manner as is hereinafter provided in the case of an original assessment, submitted to the said board of principal assessors, for the purpose of an equalization and apportionment of the direct tax by this act laid to and among the counties and state districts of the states respectively.

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That if any person owning, possessing, or having the care or management of, property liable to a direct tax as aforesaid, shall not be prepared to exhibit a written list when required as aforesaid, and shall consent to disclose the particulars of any and all the lands and lots of ground, with their improvements, dwellinghouses, and slaves, taxable as aforesaid, then and in that case it shall be the duty of the officer to make such list, which, being distinctly read and consented to, shall be received as the list of such person.

Sec 8. And be it further enacted, That if any such person shall deliver or disclose to any assessor appointed in pursuance of this act, and requiring a list or lists, as aforesaid, any false or fraudulent list, with intent u, defeat or evade the valuation or enumeration hereby intended to be

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Duties of principal asses

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Lisls to be made out by the officer where the owner of property shall neglect to furnish, &c.

Penalties for furnishing fraudulent lists.

Absentees to be notified to furnish lists.

Penalty for refusing to furnish lists.

Non-residents' property how to be assessed.

Property not lying within assessment district where owners reside, how to be entered.

made, such person so offending, and being thereof convicted before any court having competent jurisdiction, shall be fined in a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, at the discretion of the court, and shall pay all costs and charges of prosecution; and the valuation and enumeration required by this act, shall in all such cases be made as aforesaid, upon lists according to the form above described, to be made out by the assessors respectively, which lists, the said assessors are hereby authorized and required to make according to the best information they can obtain, and for the purpose of making which they are hereby authorized to enter into and upon all and singular the premises respectively, and from the valuation and enumeration so made there shall be no appeal.

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That in case any person shall be absent from his place of residence at the time an assessor shall call to receive the list of such person, it shall be the duty of such assessor to leave at the house or place of residence of such person, a written note or memorandum, requiring him to present to such assessor the list or lists required by this act, within ten days from the date of such note or memorandum.

Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That if any person, on being notified or required as aforesaid, shall refuse or neglect to give such list or lists as aforesaid, within the time required by this act, it shall be the duty of the assessor for the assessment district within which such person shall reside, and he is hereby authorized and required, to enter into and upon the lands, dwelling houses, and premises, if it be necessary, of such persons so refusing or neglecting, and to make according to the best information which he can obtam, and on his own view and information, such lists of the lands and lots of ground, with their improvements, dwelling houses, and slaves, owned er possessed, or under the care or management of such person, as are required by this act: which lists so made and subscribed by such assessor, shall be taken and reputed as good and sufficient lists of the persons and property for which such person is to be taxed for the purposes of this act: and the person so failing or neglecting, unless in case of sickness or absence from home, shall, moreover, forfeit and pay the sum of one hundred dollars, to be recovered for the use of the United States, with costs of suit, in any court having competent jurisdiction.

Sec. 11. And be it further enacted, That whenever there shall be in any assessment district, any property, lands, and lots of ground, dwelling houses, or slaves, not owned or possessed by, or under the care or management of any person or persons within such district, and liable to be taxed as aforesaid, and no list of which shall be transmitted to the principal assessor in the manner provided by this act, it shall be the duty of the assessor for such district, and he is hereby authorized and required, to enter into and upon the real estate, if it be necessary, and take such view thereof, and of the slaves, of which lists are required, and to make lists of the same, according to the form prescribed by this act, which lists being subscribed by the said assessor, shall be taken and reputed as good and sufficient lists of such property, under and for the purposes of this act .

Sec. 12. And be it further enacted, That the owners, possessors, or persons having the care or management of lands, lots of ground, dwelling houses, and slaves, not lying or being within the assessment district in which they reside, shall be permitted to make out and deliver the lists thereof required by this act, (provided the assessment district in which the said objects of taxation lie, or be, is therein distinctly stated,) at the time, and in the manner, prescribed to the assessor of the assessment district wherein such persons reside. And it shall be the duty of the assistant assessors, in all such cases, to transmit such lists at the time, and in the manner, prescribed for the transmission of the lists of

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