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NOW KNOW YE, that in compliance with the said proviso, I, the said Job Cutler, do hereby declare the nature of my said Invention, and the manner in which the same is to be performed, are fully described and ascertained in and by the following statement thereof, reference being had to the Drawing hereunto annexed, and to the figures and letters marked thereon, that is to say :

My Invention relates, first, to certain novel constructions of wrought-iron chains, wherein the parts are so formed and combined as to offer greater security, and chains so constructed are less liable to fracture and derangement than the various wrought and other iron chains heretofore constructed.

Secondly, the Invention relates to the means of forming the links, bars, and bolts of such novel constructions of chains.

And in order to give the best information in my power, I will proceed to describe the Drawing hereunto annexed, in which the same letters of reference are used to indicate similar parts wherever they occur.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING. Figure 1 represents a plan of part of a chain constructed and combined according to my Invention ; Figure 2 is an edge view of Figure 1 ; and Figures 3 and 4 show separate

Cutler's Improved Method of Constructing Chains for Suspension Bridges, &c.

parts of such chain. The principle on which this chain is constructed is such that one set of bars, links, or bolts have circular, by preference cylindrical, projections formed thereon, and the other set of bars, links, or bolts have corresponding circular and by preference cylindrical sockets or cavities formed therein, so that when a projection of one bar enters a socket or cavity of another bar, the one shall correctly fit the other, yet allow of the projection turning in the socket or cavity, and in addition to such sockets and projections there are to be holes formed through the bars passing through the centre of each cylindrical projection, and also through the cavities or sockets, through which a pin is passed ; hence, when any number of pairs of links, bars, or bolts are combined together they will each and all be capable of movement on the pin ; and further, each bar or link with a socket will be capable of movement on circular projections, and the bars or links with projections will be capable of movement in their respective sockets, all which will readily be understood on a careful examination of the Drawing, aided by the following explanation thereof. a, a, represent the outside bars, links, or bolts of the chain ; they have each hollow cylindrical projections b, b, as is clearly shown in the Drawing; C, c, are the minor links, bars, or bolts which have each four cylindrical projections b, two at each end, but on opposite sides of the bars ; d, d, d, d, are links, bolts, or bars, each having four cylindrical cavities or sockets b' to receive the projections b of the bars a, c. It will be seen that there are four bars, bolts, or links a, c, to three of the links, bolts, or bars d ; consequently, in order to make all parts of the chain equally strong or as nearly so as possible, the three bolts, bars, or links d should be each somewhat stronger than a bar, bolt, or link a, c. The two sets of bars, bolts, or links are combined together by means of the wrought-iron pin e, which is passed through the holes formed through the centres of the cylindrical projections and through the holes in the sockets; the pins e may be fastened by riveting or by har


Cutler's Improved Method of Constructing Chains for Suspension Bridges, &c.

ing a head at one end and screw and nut at the other; f, g, are pins which pass through the links, bars, or bolts a, c, and d, by which the parts are more closely combined, and offer a means of holding the chain together even though a pin e should be broken or fall out, for it will be evident that the sockets and projections, being retained together by the pins f, g, the chain would work safely, but I consider the pins e should at all times be employed, though the pins f and g may be dispensed with when desired, and when used they may be riveted or have screws or nuts, as shown.

Figure 5 shows a plan, and Figure 6 an edge view, of chains constructed according to another part of my Invention, differing in some respects from that already described.

Figure 7 and Figure 8, showing separate views of the two descriptions of bars, links, or bolts employed. In this case there is one class of bolts, bars, or links which have cylindrical projections similar to those already described, the other bars, links, or bolts having holes formed through them of the same form as the projections, in place of having recesses ; consequently two bars with projections being laid together, having another bar d with holes through it (of the required size) the projections may be said to act as an axis to the other or intermediate bolt, bar, or link d, on which the same may turn freely. In this case I have only shewn two bars a, a, to one bar d, but it will be evident that by forming some of the bars a like the bars c of the former chain, that is, having four projections b on each, a wide chain may be made according to the purpose to which it is to be applied, and it will be evident that by combining the links, bars, or bolts a, a, in pairs with one link d to each pair, a chain may be made only half the width of Figure 1 ; and further, by using more of the links, bars, or bolts c and d, wider chains may be made than those shewn at Figure 1. I would remark that the chains shown at Figure 1 is suitable for pit chains, cables, and suspension bridges, the only difference being that in making chains for suspension bridges the links, bolts, or bars must be longer and stronger

Cutler's Improved Method of Constructing Chains for Suspension Bridges, &c.

in proportion to their increased size, and the chain, Figure 5, is suitable for driving machinery or other purposes, my Invention only relating to the modes of forming the junctions of the links, bolts, or bars for whatever purpose they may be applied. I have not thought it necessary to show many different lengths of links or bars, and they will necessarily be varied according to the purpose to which they are to be applied, as will also their figure or shape, whilst the modes of connection will remain the same. It is important that the various parts of such chains should be made with care and with considerable accuracy, in order that one link, bar, or bolt should not have to bear more strain than another, and that the sockets and projections should accurately fit, allowing, however, of the same turning with freedom, and in order to accomplish such accuracy of the parts I have invented suitable dies for stamping the bars, links, or bolts a, c, d. For making the bars a I have two dies fitting accurately together, and having projecting studs and holes to receive them, whereby the two dies are at all times ensured going accurately together. In one of such dies is formed a recess of the figure of the bar, link, or bolt a, and of such a depth as to receive about half the thick. ness of such link a. The other die is similarly sunk to the first, but in addition thereto there are two recesses therein equal to forming or shaping the projections b with a nipple or stud in the centre for the purpose of piercing the necessary hole for the pin to pass through, but if such hole should not be pierced entirely through by stamping, the piercing may be perfected by the means of a pair of piercing tools in a press. And in forming the bars c two dies, such as the one last described, are to be used, in order to form or shape the projections b on each side of the bars, links, or bolts c with nipples or studs therein to pierce the hole for the pins to pass through, as before described. In making the bars, bolts, or links d the dies are to be the reverse of those for producing the projections b, such dies having projections formed therein to produce the sockets. I would

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