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and even Leo and some of the Cardinals thought of conciliation ; but Eck fanned the flame of strife, and as Luther said, pierced the depths of hell for weapons. A poor priest in a humble town of Switzerland, it was Zuingle, endeavored by intercession with the Pope's Legate there, to prevent the blow, but in vain, it had already fallen. The mixture of fear in the Roman councils somewhat moderated their proceedings. It was decided, that the works of the Reformer should be condemned and burnt, and if he and his adherents failed to recant in sixty days, the direst terrors of excommunication should fall upon them. Melancthon, who drew around him two thousand students, was at this time married, and he added a domestic hearth to the Reformation. Luther too had just published his famous tract on the “Babylonish Captivity of the Church,” in which he maintained, “The Papacy is a general chase, led by the Bishop of Rome, and having for its object the snaring and ruining of souls." He reduced the seven sacraments to baptism, penitence, and the Supper. “Neither Pope nor Bishop has authority to impose the least thing upon a Christian without his consent. “I hear that new papal excommunications have been concocted against me; if so, let this book be my future recantation.'»
Miltitz, to humble his rival Eck, still endeavored to keep peace. He induced Luther to agree to write to the Pope, and to keep silence for the future, if his adversaries would. The letter may be called affectionate and respectful to the Pontiff, wishing him all good, but resolute in the vindication of truth and purity and Scripture. Now Eck arrived with the Bull of the Pope, his “ bill of divorce” from Jesus Christ. The bearer of it was treated with scorn, mobbed in the streets, and ridiculed in a ballad, sung in his ears. Miltitz chuckled at the discomfiture of his rival, but soon after died by falling, when intoxicated, into the Rhine. Eck found it difficult to post the Bull in different towns, and when he succeeded, the students tore it down. All eyes were turned upon Luther, when he became aware of it, to see whether he would yield or advance. He affected to believe it a fraud of Dr. Eck, and answered it in his famous treatise Against the Bull of Antichrist.” On the 17th of November, Luther protested against the Pope, as an unjust judge, a heretic, and apostate, an enemy, an antichrist, and a blasphemer; and he appealed to a general council. But this was not the extremity of his daring. He has uttered sentence against sentence; he will now kindle pile for pile. On Dec.
10th, he burnt, publicly at Wittemberg in the midst of a great concourse, the Canon Law, the decretals, &c., and after all the Pope's Bull. He had broken forever from the communion of the Roman church. Luther had his firm and his timid friends, and he was overwhelmed with reproaches by his enemies. Melancthon stood calm and firm. The Pope had two envoys in Germany to assist in the coronation of the young Emperor. They used all their art to win him to take sides against Luther, so far as to cause him to be burnt, or sent to Rome. But he wisely refused this exercise of his young power, and referred them to the Elector Frederick. His nephew, John Frederick, and several nobles and scholars represented to him that he could not now abandon the Reformer. The elector, after deep thought, demanded that Luther should be furnished with a safe conduct, and be heard before a competent tribunal. While the great ones of the earth were thús debating upon the
course which they should pursue, the humble and the lowly had also their struggles. It was, as we have seen in the confessional, that Luther first set at nought the power of Rome in her indulgences; it was in the confessional, that the feeble proselytes of his doctrine had their hard struggle. " Have you the writings of Luther? Have you read them ?
read them? Do you judge them true or heretical ? ” were questions which must be satisfactorily answered before absolution. Luther boldly preached that absolution was not needed. With the vivid and startling delineations of fulfilled prophecy, he depicted the Pope as Antichrist. Pictures were published, contrasting the glory and magnificence of the Pope with the humiliation of Christ. They won upon the minds of the people. Three presses were constantly employed in extending his writings.
Book VII. “The Diet of Worms,” January to May, 1521. pp. 212-346.
The first Diet under the new emperor was summoned to meet at Worms, January 6. It was attended with usual numbers, magnificence, and interest. Many political subjects of great importance were to be discussed, and the emperor had likewise mentioned the Reformation in his letters of convocation. He commanded Frederick to bring Luther with him, promising protection and an impartial hearing. Luther had determined to go; but the elector fearing danger for him, had written a letter of excuse to the emperor, and had set off without him. In the meanwhile, Alexander, the Pope's envoy, thinking it scandalous that Luther should have the audacity to VOL. XXVIII. - 3D S. VOL. X. NO. I.
present his cause to laymen, when it had been settled by the Pope, won upon the emperor to forbid the appearance of the reformer; which was done, much to the grief of Luther. Rome then in reality poured out its thunders; he and all his adherents were excommunicated, deprived of their honors and worldly goods, to be shunned and accursed. Each Sabbath witnessed a repetition of the dire sentence with all its paraphernalia of
There was religious and political intrigue at the Diet, to bring about the condemnation of Luther ; at last, Alexander won over the emperor to allow him to present the matter before the assembly. He spoke for three hours with impetuous eloquence, saying all in behalf of Rome that faith or ingenuity could devise. His speech produced a strong but temporary feeling against Luther. But the speaker had overdone his cause. There were some who hated the Reformer, but demanded moral and civil Reform. Among these, was Duke George, of Saxony. He made a speech a few days after, in which he set out, as boldly as Luther, the grievances which the empire endured from Rome. Other members of the Diet, and even ecclesiastical princes enlarged the list of grievances, until at last, a committee drew up an enumeration of one hundred and one, which was presented to the emperor, with the request that it might be fully considered. The emperor was so far acted upon, as to change the decree for the burning of Luther's books, to a committal of them to the magistrates. But neither friends nor enemies were satisfied; and after much debate and discord, it was agreed, that the emperor should cite Luther to appear before the Diet, furnished with a safe conduct from himself, and from the princes through whose territories he passed. In the usual ceremonies at Rome, preceding Easter, Luther and his adherents were added to the list of heretics, pirates, &c., then solemnly cursed by the Pope. Bugenhagen, a new convert, and Melancthon, promised to make the Reformer's place good in his absence, though they trembled at his journey. Hütten wrote in his behalf a solemn and warlike appeal to Charles. He set out on April 2d. Never before nor since has Germany witnessed the passage of a single traveller, who moved so many hearts. He was joined on the route by a friend of his childhood, and by one of his brothers. He preached stirringly at Erfurth, in the church, which he had once swept. Not a word did he say about himself, though all eyes rested on him. His enemies turned every stone to prevent by stratagem his reach
ing Worms, for they were dismayed at his approach. His friends, too, sent on messages to warn him. But he could not be turned from his purpose, -" Though there should be as many devils at Worms, as there are tiles on its roofs, I would
He entered on April 16th, amid a vast concourse. The son of the miner drew a larger crowd than the emperor. He was gazed at as a wonder. He strengthened himself by struggling prayer, to appear before the august assembly, of an emperor, an archduke, six electors, twenty-four dukes, or territorial sovereigns, eight margraves, thirty archbishops, seven ambassadors, princes, counts, barons, &c.; and Martin Luther, an Augustine monk, appealing from the Papacy, and heard with respect. This of itself was a revolution. In his first appearance, he was asked two questions, whether he owned the authorship of his writings, and whether he would retract their contents. To the first, he answered, yes ; on the second, he asked time for deliberation, which was granted, on the promise, that his reply should be spoken, not written. In the meanwhile, there were violent tumults in the city. On bis second hearing, he delivered a noble and impressive speech, demanding conviction of error, before he would retract. He withdrew. Upon the yea or nay of that assembly depends the peace of the world for ages. Political and party manoeuvrings delayed for a time the issue, and thus disseminated the views of Luther, ranging around him, and against him, men of various minds. It was impossible for the Diet to come to any other decision than to send Luther back to his home, which was accordingly done by letter of the emperor. The Reformer retraced his steps, still preaching, and revered by the way. He wrote to Charles a humble letter, avowing his allegiance first to the Scriptures, then to him. The Diet ratified an edict which placed him under the ban of the empire. He turned off from his direct route, into the forest of Thuringen, to visit his grandmother and other relatives. In that forest, he was afterwards seized as if a prisoner, though by a friendly party, in masks, arranged by connivance of the elector, and borne off to the lofty and isolated castle of Wartburg. Here he was kept in the strictest secrecy, attired in a knightly dress, bis beard and hair growing, and known even by the servants, only as Knight George. Here he passed a year, while some thinking him murdered, his friends larenting, his foes triumphing, the seed which he had sown_was growing. He is left here by the author, to follow the Reformation in other countries. We shall pursue his subsequent history with its publication.
G. E. E.
ART. III. — De l'Education des Meres de Famille ou de
la Civilisation du Genre Humain par les Femmes : par L. AIMÉ MARTIN. On the Education of Mothers, or the Civilization of the Human Race by Women: by L. Ammé MARTIN. 2 vols. Brussels. 1837.
THREE systems have severally claimed the rule in the education of woman, and each of these has found many followers both in doctrine and practice.
1. The old-fashioned system, which is not without its advocates even in these days, regarded women merely as destined to become housewives. They must accordingly be taught to cook, and sew, and spin, take care of the sick, do the duties of the household, and concern themselves with nothing more. If they could faithfully discharge these duties, it was of little consequence, whether they could boast of much more ambitious learning and accomplishment, or could claim any intimacy with the muses, or the graces. If a young lady knew how to mix a good pudding, or make a nice pie, it was no matter how little she could tell of the compounding of gases, or the other mysteries of chemistry. The busy hum of her spinning-wheel, accompanied by some simple song, was deemed good music enough, and no mention was made of harp and piano. She was taught to prize the early voice of the birds far more, than the midnight concert of the elegant warblers of the drawingroom. Even her most showy accomplishments leaned towards domestic utility. The boasted sampler, with its varied alphabets and fanciful mottoes, displayed a skill that was destined to be used not in any rich and ostentatious embroidery, but in marking and adorning the family stockings. The highest achievement of the needle, -- the mourning piece, - while it proved the skill of the patient embroiderer, proved also her power of being useful, showed that her most elegant was one of her