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the false heat of the friends of this cause has, for a time at least, brought it to a "stand point." There it will remain, if it do not go backwards, until temperance men retrace some of their steps, and so restore union where they have brought in division. They have assumed false positions, which they must abandon. The first, is that of placing all drinks that can intoxicate in the same condemnation with ardent spirits; as if the same reasons which operate against rum were of equal force against other drinks - which is false; and a cause based on a palpable falsehood can have no other than a momentary success. There is no more resemblance between small beer or wine, and rum and brandy, than there is between the plague and the chicken pock. Both these drinks will intoxicate, and both these diseases will kill; but there the analogy ends. A quarantine against chicken pock because some may die of it were as wise as laws of opinion, or of legislatures against small beer and wine. To attempt, all at once, to make men abstemious to the extent of renouncing every drink but water is in the present state of the world the merest Quixotism that ever possessed a community. Such a project may be reasonable a hundred years hence. Pushing the cause to such an extreme now has had the effect to leave behind some of as good friends as the temperance cause ever has had; although now-a-days if a writer or speaker dare to discriminate or modify, he is met with sneers or insult, as any one might have seen at the late Temperance Convention. The extreme side must be taken or one's standing with the temperance party is gone; though not, we hope, with temperance men. Division has been introduced by the new measures, and the moral power of the great cause in proportion diminished. The other false step in our judgment - is the resort to legislation and political action. Not but what we have a right to enact what laws we please, or can. But that force in a moral cause is not wise or expedient; and nothing but the failure of all other means can justify it. And this cause of temperance is purely a moral cause, inasmuch as the act or habit we war against is not wrong, or criminal in itself, but only in its excess. Persuasion, not force, should therefore be our only weapon. Force in such case irritates, and arms against you with bitter hostility a large portion of the community. Use persuasion, and every man is kindly disposed toward you, at least; all but a few your warm friends and cooperators. They are easily made to see the reasonableness of relinquishing altogether the use of an article which it is so certain cannot be used at all without being carried to excess. Besides, how much less to be trusted is a reformation founded on coercion. Take away the restraint, and where is the virtue that made so fair a show? But what "moral suasion" gains, though it gains more slowly, is gained forever. Still, when legislation comes in by acclamation, as the effect, and not made to be the cause of temperance, and is resorted to merely to put a bridle upon a few unprincipled men, who will persist, by their measures, to do violence to the practices and opinions of an otherwise unanimous community, then it may be wise and needful. We would say to temperance men, abandon these false principles of action, and you will again succeed, as you did, before in an evil hour you took them up. Go into the field with the gospel in your hand, and the love of man in your heart, and all the world is with you. But take instead the Scourge of the law, and fill your mouths with threats, and half the world at least, are open, irreconcilable enemies, or cold and distant friends.

Rejected Addresses, or The New Theatrum Poetarum. From the 19th London Edition, carefully revised, with an original Preface and notes. Boston: W. D. Ticknor. 1840.

We are glad to meet this litte classic in the library of wit in so neat a form. The publisher has well supplied a want that has been long felt.

Essays, in a series of Letters on the following subjects; On a Man's writing Memoirs of Himself; On Decison of Character; On the Application of the epithet, Romantic; On some of the Causes, by which Evangelical Religion has been rendered less acceptable to persons of cultivated taste. By John Foster, author of Glory of the Age, &c. Sixth American Edition, from the eighth London Edition, with Additions and Improvements, by the author. Boston. By James Loring. 1839.

A neat and cheap edition of this valuable book.

A Discourse, preached at the Ordinatlon of Mr. Robert C. Waterston as Minister at Large, November 24th, 1839. By Henry Ware, Jr., Professor in Harvard University. Boston. 1840.

The Church, the Pulpit, and the Gospel; a Discourse, delivered at the Ordination of the Rev. George Edward Ellis, as Pastor of the Harvard Church, in Charlestown, March 11, 1840. By Alexander Young, Minister of the Church at Church Green, Boston. Together with the Charge, by Rev. E. S. Gannett; the Right Hand of Fellowship by Rev. Samuel Osgood, and the Address to the People by the Rev. Dr. Walker.

Despotism in America; or an Inquiry into the Nature and Results of the Slaveholding System in the United States. By the author of Archy Moore. Boston: Whipple & Damrell. 1840.

In these pages, by the lively author of Archy Moore, an account is given of Despotism as it exists in the Southern states of our Union: showing it to be as real a dospotism as the history of the world records. In the words of the author, it is his purpose 66 to exhibit the system of social polity established in the Southern states, such as it is in its operation and effects; not in particular and accidental instances, but generally, and by virtue of those laws of human nature, upon which the working of social and political institutions must depend." He will be found, we think, to have accomplished his object in a fair, calm, wellordered discussion. He has given strongly colored, but we believe truly colored pictures of the social condition and character of the South. No other character could grow up under such an institution as slavery, than the one the author describes as that of the slaveholder. Yet this character is the one which English travellers through our country, though professedly the enemies of slavery, exalt and commend at the expense of that of the North. We do not remember an instance, in which the general impression left upon the mind of a reader would not

be in favor of the slavery-formed character and manner. Of course none have offered, however undesignedly, half so effectual defences of slavery.



Moral Views of Commerce, Society, Politics; in twelve DisBy Orville Dewey. Second Edition. D. Felt: New

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In the number of the London Eclectic for March last, there is a highly commendatory review of this volume of Mr. Dewey's Discourses, from which we subjoin a few extracts. "We regard," say the reviewers, "the views (of the author) as eminently just and wise, worthy of the attention of civilized nations, and of our own country, in particular. The perusal of them at the present time, both by our citizens and legislators, would tend greatly to restrain that violence and dishonesty, which are the disgrace of political proceedings, both in the forum and out of it. We should rejoice to be able, for once, to exercise a little arbitrary power, and shut up every political scribe from the mighty thunderer of Printing-House Square, to the little dirty squibber of the Ten-Towns Messenger in their back-parlors, or suburban villas, or smoky garrets, till they had carefully read through the whole of these admirable discourses; and if many of them, when the task was over, did not come forth with a blush of crimson upon their cheeks, the world would have a just right to say it was because they had long since sold their consciences for filthy lucre. * There is a tone of manly dignity, of calmness and discrimination preserved throughout the discussions. There are a few expressions, and but a few, that would induce us to suspect that the author is not of our own views in Theology. But while the difference is scarcely discernible in his pages, the suspicion of it has made us the more anxious to read candidly and commend warmly and honestly. We heartily wish his work as extensive a circulation as himself can expect, or his English publisher in his stead."

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Society, Manners and Politics in the United States; being a series of Letters on North America. By Michael Chevalier. Svo. pp. 467. Boston: Weeks, Jordan and Co. 1839.

The translator and publishers of this volume have together performed a useful service for the country. It is a volume which every American would be the better for reading; and the only objection we have to the size and style of the book is, that they may interfere with its sale.

Thoughts on the Laws, Government, and Morals. By a Citizen of Boston. 1840.

Oration, delivered before the Biennial Convention of the Alpha Delta Phi Society, on the Law and Means of Social Advancement. By Samuel Eells, President of the Convention. Cincinnati. 1839.

Count Julian; a Tragedy. By George H. Calvert, Translator of Schiller's Don Carlos. Baltimore. 1840.



ART. I. Das Leben Jesu, Kritisch bearbeitet von Dr. DAVID FRIEDERICH STRAUSS. Tubingen: 1837 2 voll. 8vo. The Life of Jesus, critically treated, &c. Second improved edition. (1st edition, 1835, 3d, 1839.)

JULY, 1840.

THE celebrity of this work of Mr. Strauss abroad induces us to offer some account of it. Our analysis of its contents, which is nearly all we propose to ourselves, may, to most of those who are in the good habit of reading our pages, possess little interest or value. To such we say, pass it by; little will be lost by its neglect. We write not so much for the general reader as the theological, who, we think, will be gratified to see such a sketch as will enable him to form an intelligent judgment of a book, concerning which he has heard much, and which has made itself so famous among "the minute" philosophers and theologians of Germany. We set forth in our pages these new forms of objection to the Christian History, with the less hesitation as to any possible ill effect upon any mind, inasmuch as, in our opinion, no attack upon our religion, in either ancient or modern times, ever so carried along with it, in every step of its progress, its own abundant refutation. But, without more waste of words and time by prefatory remark, we address ourselves to the task before us.


It is not our design, in the small space we can command in a periodical, to attempt any defence of the doctrines assailed by the author of the "Life of Jesus;" since that would demand great erudition and skill, and would require large volumes. We shall reserve our brief remarks for the end of the paper. VOL. XXVIII. 3D s. VOL. X. NO. III.


It is our aim, merely to "define his position," as the politicians are wont to say. The work in question comprises, first, an Introduction, relating to the formation of "the Mythical standpoint," from which the Evangelical history is to be contemplated; second, the main work itself, which is divided into three books, relating respectively to the History of the Birth and Childhood of Jesus; his Public Life; his Sufferings, Death, and Resurrection; third, a conclusion of the whole book, on the doctrinal significance of the life of Jesus. The work forms two closely printed volumes, and comprises about sixteen hundred pages, thus making a work nearly as large as Mr. Hallam's History of Literature. It is not properly called a Life of Jesus; but a better, a more descriptive title would be, A Fundamental Criticism on the Four Gospels. In regard to learning, acuteness, and sagacious conjectures, the work resembles Niebuhr's History of Rome. Like that, it is not a history, but a criticism and collection of materials, out of which a conjectural history may be constructed. Mr. Strauss, however, is not so original as Niebuhr, (who yet had numerous predecessors, though they are rarely noticed,) but is much more orderly and methodical. The general manner of treating the subject, and arranging the chapters, sections, and parts of the argument, indicates consummate dialectical skill; while the style is clear, the expression direct, and the author's openness in referring to his sources of information, and stating his conclusions in all their simplicity, is candid and exemplary.*

The introduction to the work is valuable to every student of the Scriptures, who has sufficient sagacity to discern between the true and the false; to any other it is dangerous, very dangerous, from its "specious appearances." It is quite indispensable to a comprehension of the main work. We will give a brief abstract of some of its most important matters. If a form of religion rest on written documents, sooner or later, there ensues a difference between the old document and the modern discoveries and culture shown in works written to explain it. So long as the difference is not total, attempts will be made to reconcile the two. A great part of religious documents relate to sacred history, to events and instances of the Deity stepping into the circle of human affairs. Subsequently, doubts

* He professes very honestly, that he has no presuppositions. We shall touch upon this point.

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