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GERMAN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. - The catalogues of new works, issued between January and July 1839, which we have received, do not offer so many promising titles as usual. We notice a falling off in the department of Philosophy and Theol. ogy in particular, but there appears no diminution of “ Handbuchs," “ Conversations-Lexicons," “ Lebenbeschreibungen," and that miscellaneous "stuff" which abounds on this side of the water.
The most important works we have noticed are the following. A new edition of Plato is in progress, which is published in numbers, and is to be completed in 1842. It is edited by Messrs. Baiter, Osell, f. Winckelmann. F. W. Krummacher, author of the parables, has published a little work called Elias der Thisbiter nach seinem äussern und innern Leben. — H. P. Fichtes Leitschrift für Philosophie und speculative Theologie, still continues its existence.
G. E. Leo Geschichte der Reformation in Dresden and Leipsic.
Israelitische Annalen, (a Periodical for the history, literature, and culture of the Israelites of all times and countries, published weekly in 4to.)
J. L. König Alttestamentliche Studien, 2 vols. 8vo. The first volume was published 1836, and this contains Deuteronomy and Jeremiah. The book is written to counteract the logical ” views of von Bohlen.
Marriot's Collection of English miracle-plays, or mysteries, containing ten dramas from the Chester, Coventry, and Townly series. 1 vol. 8vo.
Auslegung des Speculativen Theiles Ev. Johannis, durch einen deutschen mystischen Theologen, (of the 14th century) ed. Engelhardt.
A new Edition is publishing of Hoffmann's Works.
Leben und Thaten der Heiligen, von Sinzel, (a collection of legends &c., relating to the lives of the Saints, publishing in numbers.)
Hengstenberg Beiträge zur Einleitung in A. T. Vol. III. (This contains a defence of the authenticity and genuineness of the Pentateuch.)
N. H. Julius Nordamerikas sittliche Zustände, 2 vols. 8vo. (This contains the results of his observations in America during the years 1834 – 1836. Vol. I. treats of the Country, its History, Religion, Education, Labor, and Society. Vol. II. of Crime and Punishment.)
J. C. F. Bähr Geschichte der Romischen Literatur (the 3d supplemental volume which treats of the Christian Literature down to the end of the Carlovingian period.)
Leben des St. Thomas of Canterbury, herausgegeben von Im. Bekker, 1. 8vo., (in ancient Norman French.)
Von dem Siben Slasaeren (a poem of the 13th century on the Seven Sleepers.”) heraus von Karajan, 1 vol. 8vo.
C. F. Von Ammon Fortbildung der Christenheit, vol. 4th. (The three first volumes are in the course of translation for Mr. Ripley's Library of Foreign Standard Literature. The 4th contains an account of the latest Theology of Germany.)
Gesenius anecdota orientalia P. II. 4to. - H. Heine, Buch der Lieder, 3d ed. - Lochner's Geschichte des Mittelalters, 1 vol. 8vo. (This first volume comes down to the end of the crusades.)
F. Rückert Bramanische Erzählungen. – Bernhardy ed. Suidas Lexicon, 2 vols. 4to.
F. Strauss Zwei friedliche Blätter, 1 vol. 8vo. - Hirzel Rede für die Berufung des Dr. Strauss. (A small pamphlet containing a short, life of Dr. S. We notice 12 other pamphlets relating to the affairs of this gentleman.)
J. G. F. Grätie Lehrbuch ezner allg. Literärgeschichte aller bekannter Volker, vol. 2. 8vo., (to be continued.)
The large works mentioned in a former number of this Journal still continue to appear in regular numbers from time to time, e. g. Oken's Natur-Geschichte. Ersch & Grubers Encyclopedia. Corpus Reformatorum, and the various “Bibliotheken," of Greek, Latin, and German literature. Besides these, we notice a “classical library of English Novelists, (e. g. Fielding, Smollet, Goldsmith, &c., &c.,) and another of English Dramatists. There is also a Bibliotheca Patrum, conducted by Gersdorf and Goldhorn, 8vo. Vols. III. and IV. contain the works of Cyprian and Tertullian : – and a Bibliotheca portatil Española, which comprises a collection of the best poems, novels, dramas, &c. written in Spanish in this century. Thiele's commentarius on N. T. has reached the XIIIth volume, the last volume contains Hoele. mann's Commentary on Ephesians and Philippians. The first part of the 2d volume of Gesenius's Thesaurus is published with the promise that the next shall appear early in 1840. We learn that a periodical is established at Athens; it is published twice every month, and the first number appeared April 1, 1839. It is called “O Néos dóylos ’Equis.” is conducted by a large body of gentlemen, and edited by A. M. Anselmos. It is devoted to Theology, Philosophy, physical and mathematical Sciences, Antiquities, Philology, History, and public Instruction.
ERRATA FOR LAST VOLUME.
Page 92, 11 lines from top, for " inquiries” read “ injuries."
348, 17 lines from bottom, for "mood ” read “ mind."
ART. I. - Specimens of Foreign Standard Literature. Ed
ited by GEORGE RIPLEY. Vols. V. and VI. Containing Introduction to Ethics, including a Critical Survey of Moral Systems. Translated from the French of Jouffroy. By William H. CHANNING. Boston: Hilliard, Gray & Co. 1840.
The German and English poets are not much indebted to the French for such criticisms and translations, as the countrymen of Voltaire have sent forth. It is far otherwise, however, with German and English philosophers. They are indebted to the French for the clearest exhibition of their various systems. The wrong, that Shakspeare and Milton, Goethe and Schiller have in time past experienced at the hands of Gallic critics, both by way of eulogy and satire, has been fully made up by the justice done by the philosophers of France to Cudworth, and Berkeley, and Kant, and other leading minds of English and German schools. We are indebted to Cousin for our clearest ideas of modern German philosophy. It is to be doubted whether so distinct a view of the aim and results of the Scotch metaphysicians is to be found elsewhere, as in the pages of Jouffroy's edition of Stewart. The French, indeed, are masters of the intellectual mint; they understand how to give thought such shape, that it will pass current. Commend us to the Germans for skill, ardor, and patience in digging out the precious metal from its depths, and to the English for readiness and talent to use it in actual business; but - 30 s. VOL. X. NO. 11.
it must first pass through the French mint, and take the form and beauty, that fit it for practical purposes.
The efforts of Cousin to give a clear view of the progress of Psychology, in modern times, are familiar to most readers. Some are acquainted with the attempts of a far feebler genius, Baron Penhoën, to present a survey of recent German philosophy. But no French writer has appeared, whose labors can be so agreeable to English minds, as those of Jouffroy. To full enough of his national enthusiasm he adds all the cautious logic of the Scotch school, to which he has given so large a portion of his studies. There is cause for joy, that he has now turned his attention to Ethics, not only on account of the value of his own generous and rational ethical system, but for his inestimable survey of the most prominent of modern ethical systems.
The work, which Mr. Channing has so admirably translated, that the English seems like the original dress of the thoughts, and none of the usual marks of a translation appear, presents Jouffroy's Introduction to a long and elaborate course of ethical inquiries. The volumes now translated give the author's view of the Object and Division of Ethical Science, and of the Facts of Man's Moral Nature, but are chiefly taken up by a survey of the various ethical systems. Jouffroy's own system is not here fully presented, but will be given in the third volume of the Introduction, which is soon to be forthcoming from the the author, — quite soon, we fervently hope. We trust, that Jouffroy's entire plan will ere long be executed, and the series thus introduced will be followed by his courses of Lectures on Personal Ethics, or a system of the duties, which a man owes himself. Actual Ethics, or the principles of conduct, by which a man should be governed in his relations to things; Social Ethics, or the science of rights and duties arising from the various relations, in which man stands to man ; lastly, Natural Religion, which has for its subject the relations of man toward God, and a determination of the duties resulting thence.
We pass over the Preface of the translator, observing, that to such completeness it so adds the grace of brevity, as to make it more advisable to refer the reader to it directly, than to afford him any mutilated extracts.
It must not be forgotten, that the work now before us in a translation has been elaborately reviewed from the original in a former number of our journal, by one who is master of the sub
ject. That review so well indicated Jouffroy's position among the French Eclectics, and the worth of his philosophical labors, as to render further comment upon these points needless. It, moreover, explained sufficiently the aim of Jouffroy's ethical labors, and gave an outline of his own system. A very humble task is ours. We will take up the subject, where the, former review left it, and give a brief account of the able and interesting survey of the various moral systems, which are examined by the author.
In the opening lecture, the author, having previously inquired into the destiny of man in the present life, and his future being, proceeds to unfold his subject by presenting the question, The end, to which man is destined, being known, what should be bis conduct under all possible circumstances ?” or, in other words, “What are the proper rules of human conduct?” This question into the proper rules or laws of human conduct, of course, implies the idea of obligation. Now, if there be no such thing as obligation, there can be no laws of action, and consequently no system of ethics; and since the reality of any such obligation is denied, actually by some, and virtually by others, the science of ethics must be preceded by an examination of such denials, and a proof of the reality of moral obligation. This examination the author proceeds to make, after having briefly stated his division of the science of ethics into four parts, corresponding to man's four great relations, and after having given a summary of the facts of man's moral nature.
A knowledge of the facts of man's moral nature is, of course, necessary to an understanding of the nature and reality of moral obligation ; for moral obligation can have no existence for us, unless it be founded in the nature of man. With singular clearness and fulness, the author, in two lecturés, presents a view of these facts. The first class of facts are the impulses or the primitive tendencies of human nature, which, from infancy, carry the being forward, and independently of all calculation, lead it towards particular ends, which, taken together, make up its final end. Later in life, we call these tendencies the passions. Soon, the active principle borrows the aid of the understanding, and the being begins to compare the different desires and objects of desire, and to seek that, which promotes his greatest pleasure ; and then cornes the period of self-interest. Finally, reason awakes, and, not content with consulting for