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mere effusion of friendship or gratitude, Pittites, they will share the fate of all tembut an indication of a settled purpose to porizers; they will verify the old saying inpolde the Prince's ministry in a participation of the two stools. Their adversaof the Pitt system of rule. Indeed, this ap- ries understand the system better than pears evident enough from what is pub- they do. George Hose or Mr. Huskislished as a report of the debate last re son would beat them off their ground, and ferred to, where Mr. Canning is repre-render them an object of ridicule with the sented as baving asked, whether he was very clerks in their offices. They have no to consider the opinion of Sir Samuel Ro- idea of the ludicrous fate that awaits them, milly as an intimation, that the coming if they attempt to bolster up ibis hated ministry meant to depart wholly from Mr. system; and, if they do attempt it, they Pitt's system. The answer of Mr. Pon will, to all their other mortifications, have sonby, disclaiming, apparently, what had to add that of hearing me remind them of been said by Sir Samuel Romilly, was this prediction, and seeing me take my ' noticed in my last; and, Mr. Canning is motto from the Political Register, Vol. reported to have said, that he was satisfied | XIX, page 33,4. There never were men with Mr. Ponsonby's declaration. --So so deceived as they, if they imagine, that am not I, and so is not, and never will they will be able to jog quietly on in the be, the people of England, who if they old track. The country expects a change of were polled, would be found, ninety nine system. This is the expectation of the qut of a hundred, of Sir Samuel Romilly's country; the promise of it would be, in itopinion, and who are now against all limi- self, a tower of strength; but, without tations on His Royal Highness, because something in that way be done, there will they hope and believe, that he never can be no real strength, and the thing will exbe prevailed upon to suffer a ministry to bibit something worse than weakness. act upon the Pitt system ; but that, on What is it that has made the people cold the contrary, he will be surrounded by and silent, upon many late occasions ? Is men determinedly hostile to that system, it supposed, that they did not feel for the which has brought so much misery upon sufferings of our armies under Sir John the country, This casting. of Sir Sa Moore and Lord Chatham? Is it supposed, muel Romilly overboard has produced al- that they were indifferent to the fate of so ready a deep impression ; and for an many of their countrymen and kindred ? opinion, too, to which every heart re Is it supposed, tbat they had no feeling sponses. What! is His Royal Highness for them; and that they were also insento be saddled with this system ?. Are his sible of the cost to themselves ? Is it supministers pever to dare to open their posed that they were deaf alike to the lips opon the evils of the measures of the voice of humanity and of self-interest ? last 20 years? Is he, who has been one There is no one who can suppose this. of the victinus of that system, now to take it | No; the truth is, that the people were under his fostering care ? Is he indeed withheld from stirring upon these occaheir apparent to Mr. Pitt's measures, his sions, which were of a nature to move intaxation, his wars, his Bank Restriction, animate clay, because they saw no hope his paper-money, all his pauperising in any change of ministry that their stirmeasures? Oh, no! He is beir apparent ring might tend to accelerate; because to none of them; be had no hand in their they; in the conduct of those who were invention or their adoption ; he is, as yet, candidates for office, saw no indications of free from all connection with them; and an intended change of system ; because, in be will not be so easily persuaded to ally short, they® saw, that, when the accusation himself with them; to embark his for- of seat-selling was brought before the tones and his fame in the same boat with Commons House, and proof of the fact metsures so hateful to the people. offered to be produced at the bar, both Whoever may become ministers, their sides join in “ making a stand agninst poputate, as such, will wholly depend upon whe lar encroachment." This was the cause ther they do or do noć pursue that fatal of their silence; this was the cause why system, which it is necessary for them their voice was not heard ;. this was the distinctly to disclaim at the outset, if they cause of their taking no more interest in

mean to possess the confidence of the the questions than they would have done · people, or even to retain their power. If in a question of who should possess

they temporize; if they attempt to steer such or such a sinecure. Their feeling is a middle course between the people and very different now. They are well con

vinced of the benignant intentions of His | beseech of him is, that he will, whenever Royal Highness towards them, and they he shall be invested with Royal authority, hope from his long experience and sound resolve to be the ruler of a free people, and judgment for such a selection of ministers not the leader of a fuction. as shall give operation and effect to those

WM. COBBEFT. intentions. This is the reason why they State Prison, Newgate, now take an interest in what is passing ;

Tuesday, 8th Jan. 1811. this is the reason why they are anxious to see him possessed of all the powers and at

It was my intention to offer some retributes of the kingly office. But, if they marks upon the Message of the American could suppose, that there was no change of President, which will be found below, and system intended; if they could suppose, which is, at this time, worthy of particular that they were still to hear measures pro attention. posed and defended upon the ground of

The Documents, too, relating to Lord the example of the great statesman now no

Lauderdale's negociation, and the subsequent more," does any one think, that they negociation (last Winter) with the Dutch would stir an inch? -The public espectation is on tip-toe. It never was more

government, demands the attention of the

--We must not cease to look

public.alive. Every man asks his neighbour abroad, because we have such important what his hopes are ;. but all hope for some

matters going on at home. thing; and, if nothing is to be done, if every one is to be thrown overboard, like a Jonas; who does not believe Mr. Pitt to

COBBETT'S be a great man, it is hardly necessary to say, that this pleasing expectation

will be Parliamentary Debates: changed into disgust. - It is thought by sone, perchance, that a peace would do

The FIFTEENTH, SIXTEENTH, and SEVENevery thing. It would do just hothing, if

TEENTH Volumes, comprising the whole of unaccompanied with a reform. And, be

the Debates and Proceedings in both sides, what sort of peace could be made ? | Houses, during the Last Session of ParliaSweden, Holland, the Hans Towns, Spain, ment, are now ready for delivery. Portugal, Naples, all must be left in the hands of France. All the sea-ports, all

OFFICIAL PAPERS. the arsenals, all the maritime means of Europe. Could we disarm in such a peace? | AMERICAN States.- President JAMES MAWhat, then, would be the use of peace ?

dison's Messuge to the Congress, dated But, reform and tranquillize Ireland and

at Washington City, 5 Dec. 1810. reform England, and you may almost

The embarrassments which have predisarth in war.

It is at home, therefore, that vailed in our foreign relations, so much the preparations for peace ought to be employed the deliberations of Congress, begun. Being all right at home first, we make it a primary duty, in meeting you, might talk of peace in a bold tone; and, to communicate whatever may have oce jf we obtained not safe and honourable curred, in that branch of our national terms, we might still 'set the enemy affairs.-- The Act of the last Session of at defiance, and convince him that Congress “ concerning the Commercial we dreaded not perpetual war. - Intercourse between the United States and know it has been said, that we (for Great Britain and France and their depenbe where I may I will ever venture to dencies,” having invited in a new form a rank myself amongst the friends of free: termination of their Edicts against our dom) are bidding for the Prince. And, neutral commerce, copies of the Acts who have a better right? Who can bid were immediately forwarded to our miabove us? We have to offer him hearts and nisters at London and Paris, with a view sinews, and lives if he need them, and we that its object might be within the early ask for nothing but our well-known rights attention of the French and British goin return. We want nothing from him vernments.--By the communication rebut those rights. We want to strip him ceived through our Minister at Paris, it of nothing. We grudge him and his fa- appeared that a knowledge of the act by mily nothing that the constitution awards the French Government was followed by them, or that they would ever wish for in a declaration that the Berlin and Milan the way of splendour. All we have to decrees were revoked, and would cease to

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bave effect on the first day of November be comprehended in the explanation of ensuing. These being the only known the requisites to be a compliance with it. edicts of France, within the description of The British Government was accordingly the act, and the revocation of then being arprised by our Minister near it, that such that they ceased, at that date, to such was the light in which the subject violate our neutral commerce; the faci, as was to be regarded. - In this new posture prescribed by law, was announced by a of our relations with these powers, the conproclamation bearing date the 2d day of sideration of Congress will be properly November. It wouid have well accorded turned to a removal of doubts which may with the conciliatory views, indicated by occur in the exposition, and difficulties this proceeding on ihe part of France, to in the execution of the act above cited. have extended them to all the grounds of The commerce of the United States, with just complaint, which now remain unad- the north of Europe, heretofore much justed with the United States. It was vexed by licentious cruisers, particularly particularly anticipated that, as a further under the Danish flag, has latterly been evidence of just dispositions towards them, visited with fresh and extensive depreda. restoration would have been immediately tions. The measures pursued in behalf of made of the properly of our citizens our injured citizens, not having obtained seized under a misapplication of the prin- justice for them, a further and more formal ciple of reprisals, combined with a mis- interposition with the Danish Government construction of a law of the United States. is contemplated. The principles which This expectation has not been fulfilled. have been maintained by that Government From the British Government no commu- in relation to neutral commerce, and the nication on the subject of the act has been friendly professions of his Danish Majesty received. To a communication from our towards the United States, are valuable Minister at London of the revocation, by pledges in favour of a successful issue. the French Governmeni, of its Berlin and Among the events growing out of the Milan Decrees, it was answered that the state of the Spanish Monarchy,' our atten. British system would be relinquished as tion was imperiously attracted to the soon as the repeal of the French Decrees change, developing itself in that portion þare actually taken effect, and the com- of West Florida, which though of right merce of neutral nations have been re-appertaining to the United States, had restored to the condition in which it stood mained in the possession of Spain, awaitpreviously to the promulgation of those ing the result of negociation for its actual Decrees.—This pledge, although it does delivery to them. The Spanish authority not necessarily import, does not exclude was subverted : and a situation produced, the intention of relinquishing, along with exposing the country to ulterior events, the Orders in Council, the practice of which might essentially affect the rights these novel blockades which have a like and welfare of the union. In such a coneffect of interrupting our neutral com- juncture, I did not delay the interposition merce. And this further justice to the required for the occupancy of the territory United States is the rather to be looked west of the river Perdido, to which the for, inasmuch as the blockades in question title of the United States extends, and to being not more contrary to the established which the laws provided for the territory law of nations, than inconsistent with the of Orleans, are applioable. With this: rules of blockade formerly recognised by view the proclamation, of which a copy Great Britain herself, could have no af. is laid before you, was confided to the ledged basis other than the plea ot re- governor of that territory, to be carried taliation alledged as the basis of the Or- into effect. The legality aud necessity ders in Council. Under the modification of the course pursued, assure me of the of the original Orders in Nov. 1807 into favourable light in which it will present the Orders of April 1809, there is indeed itself to the legislature; and of the prompscarcely a nominal distinction between titude with which they will supply whatthe Orders and the blockades. One of ever provisions may be due to the essenthese illegitimate blockades, bearing date tial rights and equitable interests of the in May 1806, having been expressly people thus brought into the bosom of the avowed to be still unrescinded, and to be American family.--Our anity with the in effect comprehended in the Orders in powers of Barbary, with the exception of Council, was too distinctly brought within a recent occurrence at Tunis, of which the purview of the act of Congress, not to an explanation is just received, appears to

have been uninterrupted, and to have be- l.out of the vacant grounds which have accome more firmly established. With the crved to the nation within those limits.Indian tribes, also, the peace and friend. Such an institution, though local in its leship of the United States are found to be so gal character, would be universal in its eligible, that the disposition to preserve beneficial effects. By enlightening the both continues to gain strength. I feel opinions; by expanding the patriotism ; particular satisfaction in remarking that and by assimilating the principles, the senan interior view of our country presents timents and manners of those who might us with grateful proofs of its substantial resort to this temple of science, to be reand increasing prosperity. To a thriv- distributed, in due time, through every ing agriculture, and the improve- part of the community, sources of jealousy ments relating to it, is added a highly in- and prejudice would be diminished, the teresting extension of useful manufactures, features of national character would be the combined product of professional oc- multiplied, and greater extent given to socupations, and of household industry. cial harmony.-- But above all, a well conSuch, indeed, is the experience of econo- stituted seminary in the centre of the namy, as well as of policy, in these sub- tion is recommended by the consideration, stitutes for supplies heretofore obtained by that the additional instruction emanating foreign commerce, that, in a national from it, would contribute not less to view, the change is justly regarded as of strengthen the foundations, than to adorn itself more than a recompence for those the structure of our free and happy system privations and losses resulting from fu- of government.--Among the commercial reign injustice, which furnished the abuseş still committed under the American general impulse required for its accom- flag, and leaving in force my former replishment. How far it may be expe- ferences to that subject, it appears that dient to guard the infancy of this im- American citizens are instrumental in carprovement in the distribution of ba. rying on a traffic in enslaved Africans, bour, by regulations of the commercial equally in violation of the laws of humanity, tariff, is a subject which cannot fail to sug- and in defiance of those of their own coungest itself to your patriotic reflections. try. The same just and benevolent moIt will rest with the consideration of Con- tives which produced the interdiction in gress also, whether a provident, as well as force against this criminal conduct, will fair encouragement, would not be given to doubtless be felt by Congress, in devising our navigation, by such regulations as will further means of suppressing the evil.-In place it on a level of competition with fo- the midst of uncertainties, necessarily conreign vessels, particularly in transporting nected with the great interests of the the important and bulky productions of our United States, prudence requires a con: own soil. The failure of equality and re tinuance of our defensive and precauciprocity in the existing regulations on this tionary arrangements. The Secretary of subject, operates, in our ports, as a pre War and Secretary of the Navy will submium to foreign competition; and the in- mit the statements and estimates which convenience must increase as these may may aid Congress, in their ensuing probe multiplied under more favourable cii visions for the land and naval forces. The cumstances, by the more than countervail. statements of the latter will include a view ing encouragements now given them by of the transfers, of appropriations in the the laws of their respective countries. - naval expenditure, and the grounds on Whilst it is universally admitted that a which they were made.-The fortifications well-instructed people alone can be per- for tbe defence of our maritime frontier, manently a free people ; and whilst it is have been prosecuted according to the plan evident that the means of diffusing and im- laid down in 1808: The works, with some proving useful knowledge form so small a exceptions, are completed, and furnished proportion of the expenditures for national with ordnance. Those for the security of purposes, I cannot presume it to be un New York, though far advanced towards seasonable to invite your attention to the completion, will require a further time and advantages of superadding, to the means of appropriation. This is the case with a few education provided by the several States, others, either not completed, or in need of a seminary of learning, instituted by the repairs—The improvements, in quality national Legislature, within the limits of and quantity, made in the manufactory of their exclusive jurisdiction, the expence of cannon; and of small arms, both at the which might be defrayed or reimbursed public armories, and private factories, war

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Jant additional confidence in the compe-| principles of war can be taught without actency of those resources, for supplying the tual war, and without the expense of extenpublic exigencies.— These preparations forsive and standing armies, have the precious arming the militia, having thus far provid- advantage of uniting an essential preparaed for one of the objects contemplated by tion against external danger, with a scrupu. the power vested in Congress, with respect lous regard to internal safety. In no other to that great buiwark of the public safety, way, probably, can a provision of equal it is for their consideration, whether fur- efficacy, for the public defence, he made ther provisions are not requisite, for the at so little expence, or more consistently other contemplated objects, of organization with public liberty.-The receipts into the and discipline. To give to this great Treasury during ihe year ending on the mass' of physical and moral force, the ef- 30th of September last (and amounting to ficiency which it merits, and is capable of more than eight millions and a half of dolreceiving, it is indespensible that they lars), have exceeded the current expenses should be instructed and practised in the of the Government, including the interest rules by which they are to be governed. of the public debt. For the purpose of reTowards an accomplishment of this im- imbursing at the end of the year 3,759,000 portant work, I recommend, for the con- dollars, of the principal, a loan, as authosideration of Congress, the expediency of rised by law, had been negociated to that a system, which shall, in the first instance, amouni, but has since been reduced to call into the field, at the public expence, 2,750,000 dollars; the reduction being and for a given time, certain portions of permitted by the state of the Treasury, in the commissioned and non-commissioned which there will be a balance remaining officers. The instruction and discipline at the end of the year, estimated at 2,000,000 tbus acquired would gradually diffuse thro' dollars. For ihe probable receipts the the entire body of militia that practical next year, and other details, I refer to stateknowledge and promptitude for actual ser ments which will be transmitted from the vice, which are the great ends to be pur- Treasury, and which will enable you to sued. Experience has left no doubt, either judge what further proceedings may be of the necessity, or of the efficacy of com- necessary for the ensuing.-Reserving to petent military skill, in those portions of future occasions, in the course of the Sesan army, in fitting it for the final duties sion, whatever other communications may which it may have to perform.-The corps claim your attention, I close the present, of engineers, with the military academy, by expressing my reliance, under the blessare entitled to the early attention of Con- ing of Divine Providence, on the judgment gress. The buildings at the seat fixt by and patriotism which will guide your law, for the present academy, are not so measures, at a period particularly calling far in decay, as not to afford the necessary for united 'councils, and inflexible exeraccommodatiou. But à revision of the tions, for the welfare of our country; and law is recommended, principally with a by assuring you of the fidelity and alacriview to a more enlarged cultivation and ty with which my co-operation will be afdiffusion of the advantage of such institu- forded. tions, by providing professorships for all the necessary branches of military instruc- France.—Napoleon's Message to the Contion, and by the establishment of an additional academy, at the seat of govern

servutive Senate, laying before them a rement, or elsewhere. The means by which

port of the State of the Empire, and of his

measures relative to Holland, the North war, as well for defence, as for offence, are now carried on, render these schools

of Europe, England, Prisoners of War, of the most scientific operation an indis

the Valais, &c. 10th Dec. 1810. pensible part of every adequate system. Senators—I have ordered my Minister Even among nations whose large standing for Foreign Affairs to communicate to you armies and frequent wars afford every the several circumstances which occasion other opportunity of instrpction, these the junction of Holland with the Empire. establishments are found to be indispensi- - The Orders published by the British bje for the due attainment of the branches Council in 1806 and 1807 have rent in of military science, which require a regular pieces the public law of Europe. A new course of study and experiment. In a go- order of things governs the Universe. vernment, happily without the other oppor- New securities becoming necessary to me, tunities, seminaries where the elementary | the junction of the mouths of the Scheldt,

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