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formerly his Majesty's Colonies; look at Ireland; look at the Bank; look at Sweden ;

OFFICIAL PAPERS. look at Holland i look up the Scheldt; AMERICA AND Florida.- Proclamation of look back at Walcheren; or, look now at

President Madison, 27th Oct. 1810. Portugal; look any where, and produce us your marks of success. -Ilere, again, Whereas the Territory South of the 100, the systein, which has led to all the evils Mississippi Territory, and Eastward of the that these names bring to our recollection; River Mississippi, and extending to the this fa:al system is ascribed wholly to the River Perdido, of which possession was King. ----The day will, I trust, yet come, not delivered to the United States in purwhen the system and its measures will be suance of the Treaty concluded at Paris ascribed to others, and that, too, in such a on the 30th of April, 1803, has at all way as truth and justice demand.-~The times, as is well known, been considered insult here oliered to His loyal Highness and claimed by them, as being within the is truly abominable. This writer, in addi- colony of Louisiana conveyed by the said tion to all bis other insults, tells him, that Trealy in the same extent that it had in he is bound in delicacy to adhere to a sys. the bands of Spain, and that it had when iem, part of which, and no very trifling France originally possessed i. - And part, has been to misrepresent, calumniate, whereas the acquiescence of the United and degrade liimself !---Sir Samuel Roc States in the temporary continuance of Milly, in the debate of the 21st instant, the said territory under the Spanish ausaid, upon this subject, that he' neither thority was vor the result of any distrust " accused nor could he suppose Mr. Per- of their title, as has been particularly " ceval capable of offering any insult to evinced by the general tenor of their " the Prince of Wales. He wished he laws, and by the distinction made in the " could say the same of his political adhe- application of those laws between that "rents. If so, they would not have found territory and foreign countries; but was “ those public prints, which he should not occasioned by their conciliatory views, " say were under the protection of the ad. and by a confidence in the justice of their “ ministration of his right hon. friend, cause, and in the success of candid suc" but which were certainly not prosecuted cession and amicable negociation with a " with the same severity and rigour as were just and friendly Power.-And whercas a

manifested in other instances, pursuing a satisfactory adjustment, too long delayed, “ systematic course of attack upon his without the fault of the United States, has « Royal Highness, calumniating every act, for some time been entirely suspended by

and misrepresenting every word of his Royal events over which they had no controul;

Highness, and holding up to scorn and de and whereas a crisis bas at length arrived rision every member of the Royal family. subversive of the order of things under “ Neither should they have found them the Spanish Authorities, whereby a failure o incessantly imputing the basest motives to of the United States to take the said ter

many members of that House for pursuing ritory into its possession may lead to events si on this occasion what they conscientiously ultimately contravening the views of both « considered their duty.-It was well to parties, whilst in the mean time the tranpoint this out, though it could not have quillity and security of our adjoining terescaped the public attention. But, there ritories, are endangered, and new facilities is, in the present conduct of the venal given to violations of our revenue and prints towards the Prince of Wales, no commercial laws, and of those prohibiting ihing, nero. They have been constantly the introduction of slaves :-—Considering at it, in a way more or less open, ever since moreover, that under these peculiar and I have been a reader of news-papers; but, imperative circumstances, a forbearance now, they have thrown off all reserve, on the part of the United States to occupy which, to say the truth, is less objectiona- the territory in question, and thereby ble than the base eves-dropping misrepre- guard against the confusions and contin . sentations, the whispering and canting ca- gencies which threaten it, might be conLumnies, in which they have so long dealt, strued into a dereliction of their title, or but which they now perceive can no longer an insensibility to the importance of the serve their MEAN, MERCENARY and stake: considering that in the hands of MALIGNANT purposes.

the United States it will not cease to be a WM, COBBETT. subject of fair and friendly negociation Stale Prison, Newgate, Tuesday,

and adjustinent: considering finally, that January 22, 1811.

the Acts of Congress, though contemplat

ing a present possession by a foreign au- destruction, by encouraging, in the most thority, have contemplated also an event perfidious manner, the violation of orditual possession of the said territory by the nances, sanctioned and established by United States, and are accordingly, so

himself as the law of the land:-- Being framed as in that case to extend in their thus left without any hope of protection operation to the same: Now be it known, from the mother country-betrayed by a ba! I, J. Madison, President of the United magistrale whose duty it was to have proStates of America, in pursuance of these vided for the safety and tranquillity of the Feighty and urgent considerations, have people and government committed to his deemed it right and requisite, that posses. charge, and exposed to all the evils of a sion should be taken of the said territory, state of anarchy, which we have so long in the name and behalf of the United | endeavoured to avert; it becomes our States. W. C. C. Claiborne, Governor of duty to provide for our own security as a the Orleans Territory, of which the said free and independent state, ab-olving from territory is to be taken as part, will ac- all allegiance to a Government which no cordingly proceed to execute the same; longer protects us. and to exercise over the said territory the "We, therefore, the Representatives authorities and functions legally apper- aforesaid, appealing to the Supreme Ruler taining to his office. And the good peo- of the world for the rectitude of our inple inhabiting the same, are invited and tentions, do solemly publish and declare enjoined to pay due respect 10 him in that the several districts composing this tercharacter; to be obedient to the laws, to ritory of West Florida to be a Free and maintain order, to cherish harmony, and, Independent State ; and that they have a in erery manner, to conduct themselves right to institute for themselves such form as peaceable citizens, under full assu of government as they may think condurance, that they will be protected in the cive to their safety and happiness, to form enjoyment of their liberty, property, and treaties, to establish commerce, to provide religion.

for their common defence, and to do all acts which may of right be done by a sove

reign and independent nation; at the FLORIDA-WEST.-Declaration of Indepen

same time rieclaring all acts within the dence.—26 Sept. 1810.

said territory of West Florida, after this It is known to the world with how much date, by any tribune or authorities not defidelity the good people of this territory riving their powers from the people, hare professed and maintained allegiance agreeably to the provisions established by to their legitimate Sovereign, while any this Convention, to be null and void, and hope remained of receiving from him pro- calling upon all foreign nations to respect tection for their property and lives.- this our declaration, acknowledging our Without making any unnecessary inno- independence, and giving us such aid as vation in the established principles of the may be consistent with the laws and Government, we had voluntarily adopted usages of nations. This declaration, made certain regulations in concert with our

in Convention at the town of Baton Rouge, First Magistrate for the express, purpose on the 26th day of September, in the year of preserving this territory, and shewing of our Lord 1810, We, the Representaour attachment to the Government which tives, in the name aforesaid, and on behalf had beretofore protected us.—This com- of our constituents, do hereby solemnly pact, which was entered into with good pledge ourselves to support with our lives faith on our part, will for ever remain an and fortunes.- By order of the Convenhonourable testimony of our right inten- tion,

John Rhea, President. tions and inviolable fidelity to our King

AND. STEELE, Secretary. and Parent Country, while so much as a (The above act of independence was shadow of legitimate authority remained communicated to the Governor of the to be exercised over us. We sought only Mississippi Territory, requesting it might a speedy remedy for such evils as seened be transmitted to the President of the to endanger our existence and prosperity ; United States, with the expression of a and were encouraged by our Governor hope that the Government would take the with solemn promises of assistance and present Government and people of Florida co-operation. But those measures which under their immediate and special prowere intended for our preservation, he has tection. The answer of Mr. Secretary endeavoured to pervert into an engine or Smith to the Governor of Mississippi,

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states the right of the United States to the rities necessary for the accomplishment of territory of West Florida, as far as the so desirable an event, and moreover, that River Perdido, it having been fairly ac- if the attainment of this object through quired by purchase, and formally ratified your agency should be considered more by treaty; and also that the President expeditious, or otherwise preferable, it cannot recognize in the Convention of would be a course entirely satisfactory to West Florida any independent authority the United States.- I am now charged by whatever, to propose or to form a compact the President to transmit to you the enwith the United States.)

closed letter subjoined, authorising you to

resume the negociations with the British AMERICA AND ENGLAND.Letter from Mr. Government, under the full power that

Smith, Secretary of State, to Mr. had been given, severally and jointly, to PINKNEY, American Plinister in England, you and Mr. Monroe. And in your

dise relative to the recall of the latter. -15 cussion therein, you will be regulated Nov. 1810.

by the instructions heretofore given to Mr. Sir,– From a view of the conduct of Monroe and yourself. It is, however, not

intended, that you should commence this the British Government, in relation to a Plenipotentiary, successor to Mr. Jackson, shall have been made in the affair of the

negociation, until the requisite adjustment as presented in your several communica. tions, including even those brouglt by Chesapeake. And in the adjustment of this the Hornet, at which date, and on which

case, you will be guided by the instrucinviting occasion the subject does not ap from this department in relation to it.

tions which you have heretofore received pear to have been within the attention of It is moreover desirable, that preparatory Government, the President thinks it im

to a treaty upon all the points of difference proper, that the United States should con

between the two countries, an arrangetinue to be represented at London by a

ment should be made for the revocation of Minister Plenipotentiary.-In case, there

the Orders in Council. As it is uncertain fore, the appointment of a successor to

what may be the ultimate measures of Mr. Jackson, of that grade should have taken place at the receipt of this letter, be expected that the President can, at this

Congress at the present Session, it cannot you will consider your functions as suspended, and you will accordingly take time, state the precise condition to be anyour leave of absence, charging a fit person cil. But, in general, you may assure the

nexed to a repeal of the Orders in Coun. with the affairs of the Legation. Consi- British Government of his cordial dispodering the season at which this instruc- sition to exercise any power which may tion may have its effect, and the possi- be invested, to put an end to Acts of Conbility of a satisfactory change in the system of our relations with Great Britain, I gress, which would not be resorted to but the time of your return to the United time, of his determination to keep them in

for the Orders in Council, and at the same States is left to your discretion and

force against France, in case her Decrees renience.

should not also be repealed. AMERICA, ENGLAND, AND France.-Docu- Mr. Smith to Mr. Pinkney, Department of ments, laid before the Congress of America,

State, Jun. 20, 1810. by the President, relative to the Disputes

Sir; The President, anxious to adjust with England und France, 6th Dec. 1810.

the existing differences between the United Extract of a Letter from Mr. Smith to Mr. States and Great Britain, and deeming it

Pinkney. Department of the Slate, Jan. expedient to make another effort for that 20, 1810.

purpose, has given it in charge to me to In

my letter to you of the 11th Nov. | instruct you to renew negociations in Lon. 1809, you were authorised to assure the don under the commission, dated 12th of British Government, that the United May, 1806, authorising Mr. Monro and States sincerely retained the desire which yourself, severally, as well as jointly, to they have constantly professed to facilitate treat with the British Government relaa friendly accommodation of all the exist- tive to wrongs committed between the ing differences between the two countries, parties on the high seas, or other waters, and that nothing would be more agree- and for establishing the principles of naable to them than to find the successor of vigation and commerce between them. Mr. Jackson invested with all the autho- I have the honour, &c. &c. R. SMITH.

con

Mr. Smith 10 Mr. Pinkney. Departinent of inference drawn from the letter of Lord

occasion, and consequently justifying the State, May 22, 18 to.

Wellesley, the respect which the United Sir; Your dispatch of the 27th of States owe to themselves will require that March, by the British packet, was re you return to the United States, accord. ceived on the 17th of this month. The ing to the permission hereby given by President has read with surprise and re- the President, leaving charged with the gret the answers of Lord Wellesley to business of the Legation such person as your letter of the 2nd of January, and you may deem most fit for the trust. With also bis reply to your note requiring ex this view a commission, as required by a planations with respect to the blockades statute of the last session, is hereby enof France. The one indicates an appa- closed, with a blank for a Secretary, of rent indifference as to the character of the Legation. But this step you will not diplomatic intercourse between the two consider yourself as instructed to take, in coontries, and the other evinces an in case you should bave commenced, with a flexible determination to persevere in prospect of a satisfactory result, the negotheir system of blockade.-'l'he provision ciations authorised by my letter of the made for the Diplomatic Agency which 201h of January.-- In a letter of the 4th of is to succeed that of Mr. Jackson, mani. this month, I transmitted to you a copy of fests a dissatisfaction at the step necessa- the Act of Congress, at their last Session, rily taken here with regard to that Minis concerning the commercial intercourse ter, and at the same time a diminution of between the United States and Great Brithe respect heretofore attached to the diplo- tain and France. You will herewith rematic relations between the two countries.ceive another copy of the same Aci. In However persevering the President may the fourth section of this Statute you will be in the conciliatory disposition which perceive a new modification of the policy has constantly governed him, he cannot of the United States, and you will let it be be inattentive to such an apparent depar understood by the British Government, ture from it on the other side, nor to the that this provision will be duly carried daty imposed on him by the rules of into effect on the part of the United States. equality and reciprocity applicable to --A satisfactory adjustment of the affair such cases. It will be very agreeable to of the Chesapeake is very desirable. The him to find that the provision in question views of the President upon this delicate is intended merely to afford time for a subject you may collect, not only from satisfactory choice of a Plenipotentiary the instructions heretofore given to you, successor to Mr. Jackson, and that the but from the sentiments that had been mode of carrying it into effect may be manifested on the part of this Government equally unexceplionable. But whilst, l in the discussion with Mr. Rose, and from from the language of the Marquis Wel the terms and conditions contained in the lesley, with respect to the designation of arrangement made with Mr. Erskine. a Charge d'Affairs, and from the silence, And conformable with these views, thus as to any other successor to the recalled to be collected, you will consider yourMinister, it is left to be inferred that the self hereby instructed to negociate and former alone is in contemplation, it be conclude an arrangement with the British comes proper to ascertain what are the Government in relation to the attack on real views of the British Government on the Chesapeake.--I have the honour to the occasion, and should they be such as be, &c.

R. Smith. they are inferred to be, to meet them by Mr. Smith to Mr. Pinkney. Department of a correspondent change in the diplomatic establishment of the United States at Lon

State, July 2, 1810. don. The Presideni relies on your dis

Sir-Your several letters of the 8th and cretion for obtaining the requisite know- 9th of April, and 2d and 3d of May have ledge of this subject, in a manner that been received. Whilst it was not known will do justice to the friendly policy which on the one hand, how far the French Gothe United States wish to be reciprocal in vernment would adhere to the apparent imevery instance between the two nations. port of the condition as first communicated, But in the event of its appearing that the on which the Berlin Decrees would be substitution of a Charge d'Affairs for a revoked, and on the other hand, what exMinister Plenipotentiary, is to be a conti- planations would be given by the British Luance not required or explained by the Government with respect to its blockades

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prior to that Decree, the course deemed neutral rights. Such a pretext is comproper to be taken was that pointed out pletely barred, not only by the unanimous in my letter to you of Nov. 11, and in that authorities both of writers and treaties on to Gen. Armstrong of the 1st of Dec. this point, not excepting even British treaThe precise and formal declaration since ties; but by the rule of blockade commumade by the French Government, that nicated by that Government to this, in the condition was limited to the blockades the year 1809, in which it is laid down of France, or ports of France, of a date that orders have been given not to conprior to the Berlin Decree, and the ac- sider any blockade of those islands (Marknowledgment of the British Govern- tinique and Guadaloupe) as existing, unless ment of the existence of such blockades, in respect to particular ports which may particularly that of May, 1806, with a be actually invested; and then not to failure to revoke it, or even to admit the capture any vessels bound to such port, constructive extinguishment of it, heid in unless they shall have previously been your letter to the Marquis Wellesley, give warned not to enter them, and that they to the subject a new aspect and a decided (the Lords of the Admiralty) had also character. -As the British Government sent the necessary directions on the subhad constantly alledged that the Berlin ject to the Judges of the Vice-Admiralty Decree was the original aggression on our Courts in the West Indies and America. neutral commerce; that her Orders in In this communication it is expressly stated Council were but a retaliation on that that the rule to the British courts of Decree, and had, moreover, on that ground cruizers was furnished in consequence of asserted an obligation on the United the representations made by the GovernStates to take eftectual measures against ment of the United States against block'the Decree, as a preliminary to the repeal ades, not unlike that now in question, and of the Orders, nothing could be more rea- with the expression of redressing the sonable than to expect, that the condi- grievance complained of. Nor ought it tion, in the shape last presented, would be to be presumed that the British Governreadily accepted. The President is there- ment will formally resort to the plea that fore equally disappointed and dissatisfied her naval force, although unapplied, is at the abortiveness of your correspondence adequate to the enforcement of the blockwith Lord Wellesley, in this important ade of May, 1806, and that this forms a subject. ' He entirely approves the deter. legal distinction between that and the mination you took to resume it with a view Berlin Decree of November following. to the special and immediate obligation Were it admitted that an adequate force lying on the British Government to cancel existed, and was applicable to such a parthe illegal blockades; and you are in pose, the absurdity of confounding the structed, in case the answer to your letter power to do a thing, with the actually of the 30th of April should not be satis- doing of it, speaks for itself. In the prefactory, to represent to the British Gosent case, ihe absurdity is peculiarly vernment, in terms temperate but explicit, striking-a port blockaded by sea, withthat the United States consider themselves out a ship near it, being a contradiction authorised by strict and unquestionable in terms, as well as a perversion of law right, as well as supported by the princi- and of common sense. From the language ples heretofore applied by Great Britain of Lord Wellesley's two letters, it is posto the case, in claiming and expecting a sible. he may endeavour to evade the mearevocation of the illegal blockades of sure required, by subtle comments on the France, of a date prior to that of the Ber- posture given to the blockade of May, lin Decree, as preparatory to a further de 1806, by the succeeding orders of 1807. inand of the revocation of that Decree.- But even here le is met by the case of It ought not to be presumed that the Bri- blockade of Copenhagen and other ports of tish Government in reply to such a repre. | Zealand in the year 1808-at a time when scntation, will contend that a blockade, these with all Danish ports were embraced like that of May, 1806, from the Elbe to by these orders of 1807—a proof that, · Brest, a coast of not less than 100 miles, however the orders and blockades may proclaimed four years since, without hav. regarded as in some respects the same, ing been at any time attempted to be duly they are regarded in others as having a executed by the application of a naval distinct operation, and may consequently force, is a blockare conformable to the co-exist, without being absolutely merged law of nations, and consistent with the in, or superseded, the one by the other.

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