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any rate, if we did not run away, if we | men told us, that, such was the hatred of were not compelled to retreat, if we were the Portuguese to the French, the former, in no fear of the pursuers, as the venal when they caught one of the latter unhave always asserted; if this was so, the armed, INSTANTLY CUT HIS THROAT, devastations which then took place had and that Lord Talavera ias obliged to not self-preservation to plead for them ; | issue a preclamation to threaten with death and, if what we are now told by the same those who should continue in such pracpersons be true, if the French be so closely tices. This the reader will not fail io res pressed, if they be in fear of their lives of member; and, if it was true, the alledged us, self-preservation will certainly put in cruelties of the French are less to be won. a word for them, as far as the devastations dered at, though, even in that case, not were calculated to retard the progress of less to be abhorred.--Now, from a retheir dreaded pursuers.---We were told, view of all that has passed, with regard 20 indeed, that the devastations of last year devastations and cruelties, I am of opinion, were committed with the entire consent that those alledged to have been coma and approbation of the Portuguese, and, mitted by the French will not produce indeed, with the assistance of the owners the effect that is expected from them. and inhabitants, who were, we were told, They are calculated to excite horror; more eager than our army to lay waste but Portugal has supped of horrors. The their country. Now, if this was true, the minds of the people have little to do with French must have been fully convinced of the matter. Force, sheer compulsion one of two things: either that the laying will, in the end, prevail. There are waste of the country was a matter not two armies contending · for the posses: very painful to the people; or, that the sion of the country; and, I am much people bore them so mortal a hatred as to disposed to believe, that, any further prefer death by starvation to the possibi- than the parties can pay them, the people lity of affording them any aid or comfort; 1 will remain indifferent spectators.---As either of which conclusions was not very to the future operations of the two hostile well calculated to make the French ex. armies, I shall give no opinion. I hope tremely sparing when it became their that, wherever Englishmen are engaged turn to devastate and lay waste.We with the enemies of England, they will be are told, that the French have committed victorious; and I hope, of course, that the great cruelties and excesses, such as our war in Portugal will end without any disarmy never committed. It is very likely grace to the English character. But, I ain they have; and, I trust, that our army not to be made believe, that it is, as yet, never will, in this respect, become their nearly at an end. I am not to be perimitators. Nothing can justify, or palliate, suaded, that Napoleon will, without furcruelty, at any time, or in any case, or by ther and greater efforts, give up a contest, any body; and, the cutting off of ears on which so much may ultimately depend; and the splitting of noses by the French nor do I believe, that the French army has in Portugal are not to be justified any suffered in any such degree as has been more than the same cruelties by the Judges stated in our parasitical prints. There has of the Court of Star-Chamber in England, not appeared to me any proofs or marks who used to out and hack and burn, as if of discomfilure. The retreat of Massena, they had been the agents of the infernal though a severe mortification to him and regions, and who would not want for men his master, does not seem to have been atto supply their place, if the enemies of tended with any considerable losses, and, public freedom could have their will. I should not be at all surprized, to see These acts of cruelty should be left to him turn about and make a stand where such men, and should not be practised by he will not be assailed.--It this should soldiers. They are suitable to the cha be the case, another, and, perhaps, another racter of Star-Chamber Judges; but are campaign, will be the consequence. The, disgraceful to the name of soldier. cost of these will be enormous to us, while, Still, however, we must bear in mind, that, in all likelihood, they will leave Portugal as we have all along been assured, the a perfect desert. The longer the war lasts Portuguese do mortally hate the French; the worse for us and for Portugal, whether that ail the people in the country are hos- we finally succeed or not. It we are not tile to them; that they are in an enemy's to succeed in the end, the sconer that end country ; and, the reader will not forget, comes the better; for, we shall be so exshat, during the last campaign, our venal hausted and crippled, if the war continus

long, and shall be so wearied out, so dis- to upholding national honour or wenging pubappointed and disgusted, that it would be lic wrong, I do not see, that either of them impossible to rouze us to any new exer- required us to send troops to Portugal; tion, if the occasion required it. It is and, as to the notion of defending Eng. said, in defence of this Portugaese and land in Portugal, it is, in my opinion, a Spanish war, that we are there fighting the most wild and dangerous one indeed; for, battles of England; that it is there where then, if you should be beaten in Portugal, we are, by anticipation, repelling an inva- what must be the opinion of the state of sion of Ireland or England. This idea is England ? No. Give me something in clearly expressed in the following passage England itself that I can safely rely upon. of the Times news-paper, where the writer Give me something that shall unite the speaks of the ravages committed by the people of England in defence of their counFrench in Portugal. “ These," says he, try. What the safety, the independence “ are the blessings, which the ruthless ty. of England rest upon what is done, or to rant has diffused over the Continent. be done, in Portugal, or in Spain ! Never “ Spain is suffering in like manner; and was so dangerous a notion, and, at the “ France, too, we inay add, in the person same time, so degrading.--The real “ of that part of her population which has object of the war ought, with us, to be, “ been sent into the Peninsula. And sent the freeing of the Portuguese people; the “thither with what view? To uphold na- making of them, or, rather, assisting them “ tional honour, or avenge public wrong? to make themselves, a free and independent “ —to paralyze the faculty of aggression, nation. Any other object is not only un“OR ANTICIPATE THE INTENTION TO AT. worthy, but it is foolish ; and, it is the TACK ? No: for none of the objects that grossest of all follies to suppose, that we “ bave usually, as it were, hallowed war can defend Portugal or Spain, or rescue “ by the plea of justice, or rendered vic-them from the power of Napoleon, unless tory glorious by the utility of its conse- they are the principals in the war, unless

quences, is Buonaparte now contending: they carry on the war with our assistance, * his aim is to bend an independent race and not rue with theirs.--For my part I “ of men to a foreign yoke by violencem amn of opinion, that it would, in a mere " to propagate tyranny by devastation and warlike point of view, be better for us to “ murder: that is, to accomplish the most quit Spain and Portugal at once, than to “ detestable of purposes by the most hold our ground there for any length of « dreadful of means. Now, if this be time, and be obliged to quit them at last; so; if we are, as we have often been told, for, I ask how it is possible, that an occudefending England in Portugal; if we pation of those countries by Napoleon choose ihat country wherein to anticipate should do us half so much barm as the the intention to attack, the French, I am addition of 20 millions a-year to the Naafraid, might put in their word upon the tional Debt? And, what must be the occasion; for, if we are fighting for Eng. effect of failure after another year or two land on the land of Portugal, the French, of such a war. If, therefore, we are not of course, are fighting against England sure of our ground; if we have not made upon that same land. People ought to final success certain ; if there are any look well at assertions before they put doubts hanging about the result, to quit them forth, especially when they are in those countries at once, is, I am firmly tended to maintain what it is so difficult persuaded, the wisest course; and, on the to maintain.---This writer was in a hobo other hand, if Napoleon looks upon final ble. He had gone on condemning Napo- success on his side to be certain, his wisest leon for sending French troops into Por. course is to trail out the war, by which he tugal, 'till it occurred to him, that we had is sure to add len fold to the mischief troops there too; and that it was neces which the failure would occasion to us. sary to disarm his censure of all applica- For, the longer this war continues, the tion to us. Therefore, he talks of the more of men as well as of our tares will thing being justifiable, where required to have been expended upon it.

In proporuphold national honour;" to " avenge pub- tion to its cost we shall rely upon it for lic wrong;” to “paralyze the faculty of our defence at home; and, if it, at last, uggression," or to " anticipate the intention fail, in the hour of our being exhausted, to atack ;' and these objects he, of we shall be like the people of a town, course, leaves the reader to regard as who, when they come almost to their last those by which we are animated.As barrel of powder and last bag of biscuite

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see the enemy driving in the defenders of who, therefore, are coming up opon us, their out-works.

or, rather, against us, with a pack of reme

dies, wishing at the same time to evade JUBILEE DOLLARS. What effect the the tax upon Hawkers and Pedlars.proclamation of the Bank, by which In this little paragraph we have a comthis precious commodity was raised to plete view of the minds (if minds they 5s.6d. have had upon the conduct of men, have) of the men whose interest it is to in regard to the circulation of coin, the support the paper system. And, do they following facts will serve to prove. believe, that the people are to be made The first is copied from the Morning believe this ? Let them believe it. It is CHRONICLE of the 19th instant, and is in well. The time will come when if they the shape of a letter to the Editor : have not a just estimate of their own ca“ An acceptance of mine became due yes-pacity and worth, other people will. « terday, for 421. 185. 3d. and I sent 431. The next paragraph I take from the same “ in Bank-notes to the Banker's where it news-paper of the 23rd instant, and a very olay, to pay it; but because I did not send curious one it is:"A prisoner con. 183. 3d. in Cash, and they would not “ fined for debt in the Marshalsea prison, “ give the odd 1s. 9d. in change, they sent:' applied to the Court for his discharge on « the notes back and when I came to Friday last, on the ground of his creditor “ town this morning, I found the bill had “having failed to pay him his sixpences

been noted. This is a circumstance, I in a legal manner. It appeared that " think, should be made public, as a cau. " the creditor had tendered him three « tion to those who are in the habit of shillings and a piece of silver resembling “ giving their acceptances, not to accept " what now passes for sixpence ; the latter, « for other than even sums, lest they suffer “ however, upon closer inspection, ap“ the disgrace of their bills being noted, peared to he a foreign coin. The « from the want of small change.' “ Learned Judge being of opinion this This, there is no doubt, was put in by some " was not a legal tender, according to the one who had an interest in preventing the « act which directs that allowance to Silver from being forced away from the “ debtors should be paid in the larful coin Banker's. No Banker would have noted of the realm, ordered the debtor to be disan acceptance under such circumstances; charged.----Sharp's the word! How and, therefore, we must regard this as an many trials; how much litigation ; what indirect mode of persuading people not to uncertainty, will this state of the currency draw bills for uneven sums, in order that give rise to ! We have seen the beginning the Bankers might be saved the expence of of it; but, who is wise enough to guess at change silver. The following is taken the end ? --The two following passages, from the same news-paper ; but, it is ma the first from the Morning Chronicle and nifestly a circular, it having appeared in the other from the Times, both of the all the daily London papers :-" For some same date as the last, should go togetber; " days past a number of persons, who have they should stand side by side; but, I “ been hoarding dollars, have called on shall place them directly after one another, Bankers, Merchants, and others, offering and beg the reader's attention to them. " to provide them with change on giving them. The first treats of buying silver coin, " a certain profit. This the Bankers have and the second of buying gold coin.--dery wisely rejected, and it is with pleasure “ We recommended some time ago to the we can announce, that in the course of a “public-offices to set the necessary ex“ few days, the Bank will make a fresh issue “ ample of transacting business with as " of dollars, and we trust at five shillings each, “ little silver as possible ; and very little “ ample and sufficient to supply the pre s indeed would suffice, if the four great " sent scarcity of change. Bankers, mer. “ revenue departments of Customs, Ercise, “ chants, and shopkeepers, have only to Stamps and l’ost office would accommodate “ determine to resist, for the present week, “ those who have to pay parts of a pound. “ the speculations which have aggravated " But we lament to hear, that it is the cus“ the present artificial scarcity of silver, “ tom in some of the offices, not only to « and in A VERY FEW DAYS THE EVIL WILL refuse to give change, however small the “ BE REMOVED. Bravo! This beats “ fraction may be, but that certain clerks the Scotch Reviewers, who, in their eager

ARTICLE, AND hunger for place, cannot endure the idea “ SUPPLY THE BANKERS WITH SILof an end to jobbing and corruption, and « VER AT 31. PER CENT.”. -Now,



reader, when you have well considered gives 25s. 6d. His profit cannot be supthis, look at the next paragraph.-posed to be less than 18. 6d. and this « Yesterday a person, who lately acted as brings the guinea to 27s. Indeed, the "guard to one of the mail-coaches, was Dollar passes, in some places, for 68. " apprehended, and carried before the Lord and, in that case, the guinea is worth Mayor, on a charge of being a common 24s. all but a trifling fraction. As

buyer of guineas, at a price above the legal to this Dealer, his case is exactly the «I value. He acknowledged in the course same as that of De Yonge, who, though “ of his examination, that he had pur- found guilty, has not yet been brought up " chased several guineas, which were for judgment. Indeed he demanded a “ found on his person, at the price of one new trial, which was only deferred, because pound five shillings and sixpence each.--the question was to be argued before the We are not told what was done with this Judges. So that, what the venal man of Gentleman. We are not told how the Lord the Morning Post has been publishing Mayor decided upon his case, which is a against this gentleman only serves to show, second De Yonge's case, except that De that stupidity and venality are still, in Yonge bought puper, and this man sold the case of that paper, inseparable compaper ; for, it was the paper and not the panions.--For a long time I was ancoin that was, or that could be, the object of swered by muddy-headed pamphleteers, purchase or sale. -In my Number of who, like Sir John Sinclair, said, that a the 27th of March (see page 737), I shew- pound note and a shilling would buy as much ed, that, if gold was worth what it was bread as a guinea. Will they do it now, SiB then said to be, namely, 5£. an ounce, the John ? No: for you may get 25s. 6d. in guinea of full weight was worth 278. I paper for a guinea from this dealer; and explained this very clearly in that page. surely that will buy you more bread than a

This dealer, it seems, gave only 255. pound note and a shilling? The day for hood6d. but, then, he had his profit to make. If winking is over. It is gone by; and never the dollar be worth only 5s. 6d. then the to return ! -Below I insert MR. HORguinea is worth no more than 253. 6d. - NER’S RESOLUTIONS, which are now The real sterling value of the Spanish Dol- before the House of Commons, and upon lar is 4s. 6d. and, at that rate, the real which the discussion is to take place.value of the English Guinea is 21s. but, if I beg the reader to look at them; but I you put the Dollar at 5s. 6d. you must, of have, at present, no room for any remarks. course, raise the guinea in the same pro

WM. COBBETT. portion --It is a plain question in the State Prison, Newgate, Tuesday, Rule of Three, or Golden Rule, and is April 23, 1811. stated thus :

If 4s. 6d. give 5s. 6d. what will 218. ?

Or, reduced to Pence, it is stated and 22 April 1811. worked thus :

RESOLUTIONS If 54d. give 66d. what will 252d.?



1.-THAT the only Money which can 1512

be legally tendered in Great Britain, for

any sum above twelve pence in the 54)16632(308

whole, is made either of Gold or Silver ; 162..

and that the weight, standard, and deno

mination, at which any such Money is 12)308


authorized to pass current, is fixed, under 432

his Majesty's prerogative, according to Answer; 25s. 8d.

law. O

2.—THAT since the 43d year of the

reign of Queen Elizabeth, the Indentures But, the Dollar is worth more than 5s. 6d. of his Majesty's Mint have uniformly die eherefore the guinea is worth more than rected that all Silver used for Coin should 255. 8d. And, that it sells for more in the consist of 11 03. 2 dwts. of fine Silver, and end is very clear from the fact above 18dwts of Alloy in each pound Troy, and stated, that the dealer, or middle man, that the said pound Troy should be divided

into 62 Shillings, or into other Coins in / o parts of 5 dwts. g ers. of Standard Gold that proportion.

for each Pound Sterling, specified in the 3.-THAT since the 15th year of the said contract; nor in Silver Coin, for reiga of King Charles the Second, the a sum exceeding £. 25. upless such Coin Indentures of his Majesty's Mint have uni- shall weigh in the proportion of of a formly directed, that all Gold used for Pound Troy of Standard Silver for each Coin, should consist of 11 oz. of pure Pound Sterling specified in the contract. Gold and 1 o. of Alloy in each pound 8.—THAT the Promissory Notes of the Troy; and that the said pound Troy should Bank of England are stipulations to pay, be divided and coined into 44 Guineas on demand, the Sum in Pounds Sterling, and one Half-Guinea, or into other Coins respectively specified in each of the said in that proportion.

Notes. 1.—THAT by a Proclamation of the 9.-THAT when it was enacted by the 4th year of the reign of King George anthority of Parliament, that the Paythe first, it was ordered and directed, that ment of the Promissory Notes of the Guineas and the several other Gold Coins Bank of England in Cash should for a therein named, should be current at the time be suspended, it was not the intention Rates and Values then set upon them; of Parliament that any alteration whatviz. The Guinea at the rate of 21 Shillings, soever should take place in the Value of and other Gold Coins in the same propor- such Promissory Notes. tion: thereby establishing, that the Gold 10.—THAT it appears, that the actual and Silver Coins of the Realm should be Value of the Promissory Notes of the a legal tender in all Money Payments, and Bank of England, (measuring such value a Standard Measure for ascertaining the by weight of Standard Gold and Silver as value of all contracts for the payment of aforesaid,) bas been, for a considerable Money, in the relative proportion of period of time, and still is, considerably 15158 Pounds weight of Sterling Silver less than what is established by the laws to one Pound of Sterling Gold.

of the Realm to be the legal Tender in pay5.—THAT by a Statute of the 14th ment of any Money contract or stipulayear of the reign of his present Majesty, tion. subsequently revived and made perpetual 11.—THAT the Fall which has thus by a Statute of the 39th year of his reign, taken place in the Value of the Promis. it is enacted, That no tender in payment sory Notes of the Bank of England, and of Money made in the Silver Coin of this in that of the Country Bank Paper which Realm, of any sum exceeding the sum of is exchangeable for it, has been occasioned £. 25. at any one time, shall be reputed by too abundant Issue of Paper Currency in law, or allowed to be legal tender, both by the Bank of England, and by within Great Britain or Ireland, for more the Country Banks; and that this Excess than according to its value by weight, bas originated, from the want of that after the rate of 58. 2d. for each Ounce of Check and Controul on the Issues of the Silver.

Bank of England, which existed before 6.—THAT by a Proclamation of the the Suspension of Cash Payments. 16th year of the reign of his present Ma 12.–THAT it appears, that the Exjesty, confirmed by several subsequent changes with Foreign Parts have, for a Proclamations, it was ordered and directo considerable period of time, been unfa. ed, that if the weighi of any Guinea shall | vourable to this Country, in an extraordibe less than 5 dwts. 88rs. such Guinea shall nary Degree. cease to be a legal tender for the payment 13.—THAT, although the adverse cirof any Money within Great Britain or cumstances of our Trade; together with Ireland ; and so in the same proportion the large amount of our Military Expendifor any other Gold Coin.

ture Abroad, may have contributed to 7.-THAT under these laws (which render our Exchanges with the Continent constitute the established policy of this of Europe unfavourable ; yet the extraRealm, in regard to Money), no contract ordinary degree, in which the Exchanges or, undertaking for the payment of Mo- have been depressed for so long a period, ney, stipulated to be paid in Pounds has been, in a great measure, occasioned Sterling, or in good and lawful Money of by the depreciation, which bas taken place, Great Britain, can be legally satisfied and in the relative Value of the Currency of discharged, in Gold Coin, unless the Coin this country as compared with the Money tendered shall weigh in the proportion of of Foreign Countries.

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