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31. In eo, etc. Literally, that the safety of the girl turned 69 upon that circumstance, namely, if he should be ready, etc. Render, that the safety of the girl depended upon his being present in time on the next day, to defend her from injury. Injuriæ, objective gen. = contra injuriam.


Claudius now

34. Ut vindicaret sponsoresque daret; sc. Icilius. urges Icilius to proceed in accordance with the above words of Appius, vindicarique puellam, etc., i. e., to claim the girl's liberty, and give securities for her appearance on the morrow.

36. Dum præciperent, etc. Dum has here nearly the same force as ut. "That the messengers might gain time," etc.-Hand, Turs. 2, p. 819; H. 521.

13. Virginius sordidatus filiam secum...deducit.

Secum is the read

ing of the best MSS., and must be referred, not so much to deducit as to sordidatus and obsoleta veste. "Virginius in mourning attire brought down his daughter to the forum, dressed as he was in mourning.”—Alschefski. "In the same manner as in times of distress and mourning, whether for public or domestic calamities, the sufferers testified their affliction by sedulous neglect of their personal appearance; so they, over whom the danger of a heavy accusation was impending, appeared in sorry apparel, with disordered hair, and divested of all insignia and ornaments, sordidati."-Becker's Gallus, p. 115, note.

16. Non orare solum...petere; "not only begged their aid as a favor, but also demanded it as a due."

21. Hæc prope concionabundus. The adjectives in bundus govern the acc. like participles. Uttering these things almost in the same manner

as if he were addressing an assembly.

26. Ultro; may here be rendered even; it was of course only a feint, that Claudius complains of the decemvir's having proceeded from a desire for popular favor.

29. Quem decreto...tradiderint, etc. Forsan (fors-an) means it may be that, perhaps. The sentence expresses the conjecture on the part of Livy, that the real sermo, verum sermonem, was recorded by some ancient author. Literally, thus: It may be, that ancient authors recorded some real discourse, which Appius prefixed to his decree. Render: It may be that some ancient author recorded the pretence actually alleged by Appius for this decree. The sense of the whole passage is thus given by Hand (Tursell. 2, p. 718): facile credo auctores antiquos etiam verum sermonem tradidisse, sed in iis, qui nunc exstant, auctoribus, non invenio sermonem, qui cum tanta fœditate decreti conveniat. Ullum-veri similem; literally, any one like a true one; i. e., any probable one for such a profligate decree.

XLVIII. Appius orders the delivery of Virginia to Clau- PAG dius; upon which Virginius, drawing his daughter 71 aside, under the pretence of speaking with her, snatches a knife from a butcher's stall, and stabs her to the heart.

9. Alienatus...animo. Animo limits alienatus as abl. of specification. Ad has the force of pro, for, as in I. 7, ad desiderium; so Hand, in Tursell. I. p. 112. Or with ad in its common meaning of to, estranged in mind (from what is natural and right) to lust. It may be translated : quite beside himself for lust.

18. Mancipium; the word for a slave considered as property, and so subject to purchase and sale; from manu and capio, because, in selling, the property was literally taken with the hand, as we also say of property, that it changes hands, or passes from one man's hands to another's.

26. Cloacinæ ; sc. ædem. Cloacina from cluere = purgare, to purify. The story was, that the Romans and Sabines, when reconciled, after the rape of the Sabine women, were purified by the myrtle, which was sacred to Venus; so Pliny, 15, 29.

27. Novis; dat. of appositive, by attraction to quibus. The Novæ Taberna were on the northern side of the Forum, called Novæ, in distinction from older ones, called Sub Veteribus, which were on the southern side of the Forum. Becker's Rom. Antiqq., p. 296.

28. Hoc...modo; in this way, the only one in my power.

30. Te...consecro; on thee and on thy head, Appius, be the curse of this blood.-Arnold.

32. Ille ferro...perrexit. He forced his way with the knife, wherever he went, until, protected also by a multitude who followed him, he reached the gate. "And as Virginius through the press his way in silence cleft, Ever the mighty multitude fell back to right and left.

And he hath passed in safety unto his woful home,

And there ta'en horse to tell the camp what deeds are done in Rome."


1. Esse; the infinitive, according to H. 530, II. 2. 2. Quo...subjicit. Comp. the passage in I. 59, quæ-subjicit. Quo -mæstior and co-magis are correlative; suggests to them in their mourning, the more pitiable, in proportion as it is deeper felt in their tender heart. 4. Tota.....potestatis...erat; had exclusive reference to the withdrawal of the power of the tribunes and the right of appeal to the people. Potestatis is predicate genitive.

XLIX. A tumult is raised in the forum, and Appius is driven out.-Appius orders a meeting of the senate.

14. Vindicare se a privato. Privato refers to Appius. Horatius and Valerius contended, that, as the year of the decemvirate had expired,


PAGE and there had been no new appointment, Appius and his associates were 72 simply private citizens, and no more authorized than themselves to exercise the privileges of the magistracy. In preceding chapters, 39, 40, 41, Livy has done full justice to the spirit and resolution with ́which they maintained this view in the senate, and in the presence of the de



20. Pro imperio, etc. Hand (Turs. 3, 587) makes pro imperio equiv. alent to secundum imperium, or nomine imperii, in an authoritative manner. For a privato see note above. Valerius claims as much authority as Appius, and orders the lictors to leave Appius, as he was only a private citizen.

25. Agitatus deinde consiliis...atque, etc. The reading and punctuation of Alschefski, the former in accordance with all the MSS. Alschefski considers the clause atque-trepidaverat explanatory of agitatus-consiliis, atque meaning and indeed, in truth.

L. The uprising in the camp on Mt. Vecilius.-The army occupy the Aventine.

33. In Monte Vecilio. See second note on this book, c. 44. The Vecilius was probably near Tusculum. Niebuhr thinks it is the modern Monte Cavo.

35. Nam, præterquam...convertit. The clause strictum—convertil, connected by etiam, is additional to praterquam quod-conspectus est. In addition to the fact that he attracted attention, i. e., besides attracting attention by coming with a band, etc., his drawn sword also, etc.

14. Nec se...futurum fuisse; nor would he have survived his daughter. In direct speech it would be nec fuissem. See note on et futurum fuisse, I. 46.

21. Victura fuerit. See n. on facturus fuerit, II. 1.

25. Consulerent; for the subjunctive, II. 530, II. In the oratio recta it would be consulite.

26. Et immixti...insecutisque, etc. Quum—simul = quum—tum, et— et, partly-partly. I give insecutisque, the conjecture of Alschefski, as on the whole the best reading. He considers insecutisque-dicerent explanatory of the preceding clause, and persons having arrived who said, etc.; their later intelligence thus confirming the previous announcement, that the decemviral power was already in a desperate condition. But this conjecture does not relieve the passage of its difficulty. It remains so involved, and singular in construction, that we must be content with con sidering the text corrupt.

36. Inhiberet. Inhibere is used by Livy in the sense of exercere.

LI. The army on the Aventine elect ten military tribunes; and the army on the Sabine territory also elect the same number of tribunes, and then march to the Aventine, to join their comrades.

27. In Sabinis. See note on honestum ordinem, etc., II. 44.

29. Siccii cædis. The fate of Siccius is recorded by Livy in a previous chapter. He was a veteran soldier in the army sent against the Sabines, and tradition ascribed to him prodigious exploits and honors. As he was understood to be disaffected and inclined to promote a secession, the generals determined on his death. According to Livy's account, he was sent out, "with a band of assassins, to view the country, and choose a place for a camp. In a lone spot his companions fell on him, when he suspected no danger: he died, but not unavenged, amid a heap of traitors whom he slew."-Niebuhr, 2, p. 347.

32. Ne...prærogativam... sequerentur. I give prærogativam, the common reading, and certainly the usual expression, in preference to prærogativa, the reading of Alschefski. Prærogativa, sc. centuria, means primarily the century that voted first-so too with tribus in the same sense. At the comitia, it was decided by lot which century should vote first; and as the Romans regarded the result of the lot as an intimation of the divine will, the following centuries ordinarily voted in the same way as the centuria prærogativa. To this fact Cicero alludes in the Orat. pro Muræna, c. 18, tanta illis comitiis religio est, ut adhuc semper omen valuerit prærogativum. Hence, by a natural transition, the expression prærogativa came to mean vote, choice, whence too our word prerogative.



10. Quo anno... ...abissent. Quo refers to magistratus, and depends 75 upon abissent. Abire magistratu, go out of office, substantially the same as the preceding expression, deponere insignia magistratus. In this connection it may be rendered, which had expired the year before.

11. In ordinem cogi. In ordinem cogere is a military expression, used of an officer, when deprived of his command, as, in English, to reduce to the ranks, to degrade.

LII. The second secession to the Sacred Hill.

19. Sciturosque, quam, etc. Alschefski adopts this reading, the conjecture of Rhenanus: and that they would know how impossible it would be for affairs to be restored to harmony without the restoration of the tribunician


21. Ficulensi; by attraction appositive to cui, instead of being ap. positive to nomen.


22. Patrum suorum, etc. In reference to the first secession. See 75 note on secessione, II. 34.



37. Ubi...moveatur. Parum, too little, scarcely any thing. When (i. e., so soon as) scarcely any thing is effected by the secession.

3. Nos...plebeiis; we would sooner be without patrician magistrates, than they without plebeian.

6. Ne...ferant desiderium.

Ne= nedum, not to mention that, much

less. Hand, Turs. 4, p. 54; H. 493, 4.

7. Quum præsertim...egeant; especially as we do not restrain the exercise of our authority, to prevent their needing protection. Imperiis in dative, limiting temperemus; and the subjunctive in egeant, according to H. 499, the idea of hindering being implied.

LIII. Valerius and Horatius persuade the citizens to return to the city.

13. Conditionibus quibus videretur; on such conditions as should seem proper to them. Compare note on absolverent, II. 8.

18. Ob hæc...actæ. For these things, thanks were rendered them on their coming.

28. Vivosque igni, etc. On this demand Dr. Arnold remarks: "The friends of the commons had met this fate within the memory of men still living, and certainly not for greater crimes."-Vol. 1, p. 195. This remark doubtless refers to his account in vol. 1, p. 154, of a story concerning the burning of nine men as traitors. The subject is there discussed in full, and the fact itself thus recorded: "We only know that at some time or other during the latter half of the third century of Rome, nine eminent men who advocated the cause of the commons were burned alive in the circus." Compare Niebuhr, vol. 2, pp. 126, 7.

29. Quæ...postulastis; such of your demands as have come from deliberation, are so just. Consilii in predicate genitive.

33. Quippe qui...raitis. The indicative (contrary to the usual prac tice), in order to represent the thing as a fact; see H. 519, 3.

LIV. The decemvirs resign their office, and the citizens elect tribunes of the people.

7. Facerent; for subjunctive, H. 493, 2.

13. Haud ignaro; sc. mihi; literally, hangs over me not ignorant; that is, I am aware of the doom that hangs over me.

15. Nihil ne ego quidem, etc. Two negatives, which, however, do not destroy each other. So also, non-ne-quidem. See Z. § 754, note; and H. 585, 2.

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