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In the notes which have reference to the passage of Hannibal, I have followed the route as originally made out by General Melville, the correctness of which cannot be doubted. General Melville's account of the march of Hannibal may be found in M. de Luc's “Histoire du Passage des Alpes par Hannibal," Genève et Paris, 1818; and in Wickham and Cramer's "Dissertation on the Passage of Hannibal over the Alps," London, 1828. The map, which accompanies this edition of Livy, is copied, with some changes, from that prefixed to the latter of the above-mentioned works.

The details of the route, as thus determined, are sufficiently explained in the notes. I add here, in further illustration of the map, a summary of the distances, as given by Polybius, in B. 3, c. 39:

From the Pillars of Hercules to New Carthage, 3,000 stadia, or 375 Roman miles.
From New Carthage to the Ebro,

2,600

66

325

66

66

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1420

I add here Dr. Arnold's view of Hannibal's route:

"On the whole, it appears to me most probable that the pass by which Hannibal entered Italy was that which was known to the Romans by the name of the Graian Alps, and to us as the Little St. Bernard. Nor was this so circuitous a line as we may at first imagine. For Hannibal's object was not simply to get into Italy, but to arrive in the country of those Cisalpine Gauls with whom he had been corresponding. Now these were the Boii and Insubrians; and as the Insubrians, who were the more westerly of the two, lived between the Aada and the Ticinus, the pass of the Little St. Bernard led more directly into the country of his allies, than the shorter passage into Italy by the Cottian Alps, or Mont Genevre.”—Hist., vol. 2, Note L to p. 284.

The same view is taken by Mommsen, and by Liddell.

NOTES.

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