America Past, America Present: Genes and Languages in the Americas and Beyond
Aspects of the prehistory of the Americas currently remain little understood, with suggested dates for the first human colonization varying widely between 40,000 and 14,000 years ago. In this volume, molecular geneticists and historical linguists debate the evidence for the first peopling of the Americas, and for the subsequent emergence of the remarkable genetic and linguistic diversity still seen among Native Americans to this day. Part I offers a general consideration of the theme of language distribution and genetic variation in human populations with emphasis on the population-specific polymorphism issue. In parts II and III linguistic variation in Native American populations and their accompanying molecular genetic variability are discussed by leading specialists. In the final part unanswered questions in historical linguistics are debated, including the macrofamily problem with particular reference to the postulated but contoversial Amerind family.
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allele American journal Amerind Amerindian ancestral Ashkenazic Asian Bandelt Biology branches Calafell Catrimani Cavalli-Sforza cent chromosome cladistic classification cluster cognate Cohanim Colin Renfrew comparative method consonants D.C. Wallace dialect communities differentiation discriminant analysis distribution Eastern Eskimo-Aleut estimate etal Eurasiatic Evolution Evolutionary frequency gene flow genetic variation genome geographical Golla guages haplogroup haplogroup A mtDNAs historical linguistics Hokan Human Genetics HVRbase individuals Indo-European isolates J.V. Neel journal of Human Kaufman Kolman language communities language families Latin Levites macro-unit macrofamilies markers McDonald Institute Merriwether microsatellite migration mitochondrial DNA modal haplotype molecular genetic mtDNA variation Na-Dene Native American Native American mtDNA North Nostratic origin patterns Penutian polymorphisms private polymorphisms PSPs reconstruction region regular sound relationships Renfrew RFLP Rothhammer Salzano samples Sanskrit Sephardic sequence shared SNPs sound change South America Surucucu T.G. Schurr tion Torroni tree tribal tribes UEP Group vowel wordlists World X6 and X7 Y-chromosome YanHap Yanomama villages