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"in the Donets Basin German troops entered Kramatorsk.

-Rome asserted that in a three-day attack on a British convoy off Libya, two British cruisers were sunk.

Oct. 29-A Hitler headquarters bulletin states that "infantry divisions with air units forced an entry into the Crimean Peninsula in stubborn fighting. Rumanian troops took one island lying off the northwest coast of the Sea of Azov and cleansed it of the enemy.

-The Russians said they had evacuated Kharkov "for strategic consideration at a time when the Soviet Command deemed it expedient and not when the Germans wanted."

-Washington reported an American plane missing
since yesterday, with a Navy crew of 11, and
an Army officer aboard, crashed in the "Atlantic
Ocean" area. All were killed.
Nov. 4 German forces reported capture of the
Black Sea port of Theodosia, at the southeast
end of the Yaila Mountains in Crimea. In the
Atlantic, Berlin said, 11 merchant vessels of
53,000 tons, and one destroyer, were sunk in a
single Atlantic convoy by U-boats and that
bombers sank three merchant vessels of 20,000
tons off the east coast of Scotland.
Finnish troops have occupied the Koivisto Is-
lands in the Gulf of Finland, driving Russian
forces from all former Finnish soil except the
Hangoe naval base near Helsinki.

-In Detroit, women threw eggs and tomatoes at
Viscount Halifax, British Ambassador, as he
entered the Chancery Building with Archbishop
Edward Mooney, head of the Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Detroit.

Oct. 30-German forces headed for Moscow en-
circlement got through the Russian lines 90
miles to the south, and they pushed up the east
bank of the Oka River "not far" south of
Serpukhov, 70 miles from Moscow. The fighting
was hand to hand in the approaches to Tula.
At Maloyaroslavets, 65 miles southwest of Mos--The
cow, another German break-through, just south
of the city, a salient up to the banks of the Nara
River, to the north, snow and rain still hinder
operations in that region.

-At Washington, John L. Lewis called off the
captive mine strike at 11:30 A. M. At 2 P. M.
he announced that he had set a new strike dead-
line for Nov. 15.

-By Presidential order the Army took possession of the Bendix, N. J., plant of Air Associates, Inc., after demonstrations by non-striking employes inside the plant had forced the removal of reinstated C. I. O. strikers under police guard. -Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, U. S. Senator Burton

K. Wheeler, and John Cudahy, ex-Ambassador to Belgium, addressed 20,000 persons in Madison Square Garden, N. Y. City, under the auspices of the America First Committee.

British Admiralty announced that 1,276 officers and men had been rescued from sunken enemy U-boats and are held prisoners of war. Of these 467 are Italians. The Admiralty added: "Last week when the German High Command claimed to have sunk 14 ships totaling 47,000 tons from a convoy homeward bound from Gibraltar, in fact four ships totaling 8,772 tons, were sunk. This was only achieved by the enemy at a cost to himself." Nov. 5-Berlin said German troops had driven. through the Yaila Mountains to the Black Sea, moved beyond Theodosia and got closer to Sevastopol. West of Rostov they were reported digging for a siege. Other German forces were within 31 miles of Moscow, Berlin stated. Heavy fighting was going on at Tula and Kalinin. Nov. 6-German and Rumanian forces were said by Berlin to have pushed through the Yaila Mountains to the Black Sea coast between Yalta and Theodosia.

lost 4,500,000 men killed, wounded or captured since the invasion of Russia began on June 22. Russian losses, he said, were 350,000 killed, 378,000 missing and 1,020,000 wounded. Berlin replied that Russian losses were 7,000,000 to 8,000,000 men killed, wounded, captured or missing.

ment of Maxim Litvinov to be Ambassador to the United States.

Oct. 31-The U. S. destroyer, Reuben James, was sunk by a torpedo "while on convoy duty" in the North Atlantic, west of Iceland, the Navy De--Joseph Stalin asserted that the Germans had partment announced. Of the crew of 145 officers and men 98 were missing and believed dead, 45 were rescued, 2 were known to be dead. The Navy Department holds little hope for rescue of the seven officers and 87 men who have not been accounted for, it was stated on Nov. 4. The captain of the ship was Lieut. Comdr. Heywood L. Edwards, 35, of San Saba, Tex. The destroyer-The Soviet Government announced the appointwas commissioned Sept. 24, 1920. It was 314 feet long and had a maximum width of 30 feet. It displaced 1,190 tons and was armed with four 4-inch naval rifles and a battery of anti-aircraft guns. To this original equipment had been added the modern secret detectors developed in the last two years. On Nov. 26 Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox made public the fact that two of the Reuben James' depth bombs exploded after being torpedoed by the submarine and while members of the crew were struggling in the water. Some of the survivors had charged that a considerable number of those in the water had been killed by the exploding bombs. -The Germans reported taking of Kalinin, northwest of Moscow. Leningrad, they said, is encircled except as to the small strip of between that city and Lake Ladoga.

1941-NOVEMBER

-The U. S. Government announced a billion dollar advance to Russia, under the Lend-Lease act. The loan carries no interest charge and is for strategic raw materials and commodities. -Twenty members of an alleged Czech arson gang who specialized in burning food stores faced a firing squad in Vienna.

-A merchant ship, alleged to be the Odenwald, laden with raw rubber and tires, bound from Yokohama for Bordeaux, France, was seized in the equatorial Atlantic by a U. S. cruiser. The Navy reported that the Odenwald was sailing under the name Willmoto and flying a U. S. flag. land-Canadian Navy Minister Angus Macdonald announced German submarines were operating off the coast of Newfoundland, within sight of the shore.

Nov. 1-The German Government denied cate-
gorically White House charges that Chancellor
Hitler had planned to organize Central and
South America into vassal states. He denied,
also, any thought of an International Socialist
Church in place of existing denominations. He
denied, further, that German warships had
"begun the shooting," putting that responsi-
bility on the U. S. warboats. Quite on the
contrary, Hitler declared, the two American
destroyers (Greer and Kearny) "had attacked
German submarines and that therefore the
United States had attacked Germany, a fact
which has also been confirmed by the American
naval authorities."

-An Army bomber plane from Dayton Field
crashed near Findlay, O., and five persons were
killed.
-London had its first air raid alarm since July 27.
Nov. 2 The German High Command reported
capture of Simferopol, capital of the Crimea.
German planes bombed Sevastopol.

-"British supply shipping" sunk during October
totaled 441.300 gross tons.

-A U. S. Army bomber's tail was blown off when 12,000 feet high; two of the crew were sucked out and parachuted safely; the seven others died. Nov. 3-Berlin said that Kursk, a Russian provincial capital between Moscow and Kharkov, had been taken.

Nov. 7-The U. S. Senate, 50 to 37, voted to change
the 1939 neutrality act to permit American
merchant ships to arm and to traverse combat
areas to carry supplies to ports of belligerents.
Nov. 8-In Munich, at the celebration of the beer-
hall putsch, Chancellor Hitler said: "Mr. Presi-
dent Roosevelt has commanded his ships to
shoot as soon as they see German ships. And I
have commanded German ships, whenever they
see Americans, not to shoot thereupon but to
defend themselves as soon as they are attacked.
The German officer who does not defend him-
self I will place before a court martial. If,
therefore, an American ship on the basis of the
command of its President, shoots, then it will
do so at its own danger. The German ship will
defend itself and our torpedoes will strike."
-Hundreds of British planes made one of the
heaviest raids of the war on German cities and
Axis ports on the Channel and in the Medi-
terranean. In Brindisi alone 127 persons were
killed.

-Secretary of the Navy Knox announced that a
Naval Operations Base had been established in
Iceland under the Commander in Chief of the
U. S. Atlantic Fleet "both for administrative
and task purposes.

Nov. 9-Berlin reported Axis bombers had sunk a
Soviet warship and 17 transports in the Black
Sea.

Nov. 10-Prime Minister Churchill in London said:

"Should the United States become involved in war with Japan a British declaration will follow within the hour."

-In the Leningrad area German forces announced capture of Tikhvin, to the southeast, in a "surprise attack." -The National Defense Mediation Board, 9 to 2, rejected the demands of John L. Lewis for a union shop for the 53,000 workers in the captive coal mines which supply fuel for the steel industry. Thereupon, Nov. 11, Philip Murray and Thomas Kennedy, who had cast the two dissenting votes, resigned from the Board, Murray is president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations and both are officers of the United Mine Workers. The alternates also resigned from the board.

Nov. 11-The Finnish Government made a negative reply to the United States "warning" to stop fighting Russia, having got back the territory lost in combat with that country. Nov. 12-Berlin said German and Rumanian troops had reached the Crimean coast south of Kerch.

-Russian advices were that the Germans had been pushed back five miles at Tula. -London reported British and Ethiopian forces had completed the encirclement of Gondar, in northern Ethiopia, and had captured Gianda. -In London, King Geroge opened the new session of Parliament. He said: "The United States is furnishing my peoples and my Allies with war supplies of all kinds on a scale unexampled in history."

-In the south of France, Gen. Charles L. C. Huntziger, 61, Minister of War, and

seven

others, were killed when their plane, returning from Africa, hit a hill, in a storm, at Le Figan, in the Gard Department. Nov. 13-The House of Representatives in Washington, 212 to 194, accepted the Senate's amendments to the Neutrality Act of 1939, which, by repealing sections two, three and six of that law, had opened the way for United States merchant ships to carry arms and to go through combat zones and into the ports of belligerents with war supplies for Britain, Russia, China and other Axis opponents. The vote in the House followed personal appeals by the President and the Secretary of State, the former promising to take effective action to quell labor disputes which hinder defense production. In the final count, 53 Democrats, 137 Republicans, 3 Progressives and one Farmer-Labor member voted against the measure, while 189 Democrats, 22 Republicans and one American-Labor representative voted for it; 12 votes were locked up in pairs; 4 women members (two Rep., two Dem.) voted for the bill and three (all Rep.) voted against. The Senate 50 to 37 had voted on Nov. 7 to repeal section two, three and six. The President signed the measure four days later.

-The Germans announced officially that the toll of enemy shipping sunk up to this month had reached 14,500,000 tons, about equal to the figure for four years of the World War. -The British 22,000-ton airplane carrier, Ark Royal, built in 1938, was torpedoed and sunk by German submarines in the Mediterranean about 25 miles from Gibraltar; 18 of the crew were rescued. Berlin said the sinking was the result of attacks by two U-boats. The same boats, Berlin added, "damaged the battleship Malaya so severely that she had to be towed into Gibraltar harbor. Further British units suffered torpedo hits." The aircraft carrier Ark Royal already was severely damaged Sept. 26. 1939, as a result of air attack, but after repairs she was put in service again.

Nov. 14There was no material change in the situation in the Leningrad, Moscow or Crimea areas. Violent attacks and counter attacks continued.

-Fifteen survivors of the torpedoed freighter Bold Venture, arriving at Boston, reported that 13 Ivessels in their convoy of 53 ships were sunk in the North Atlantic on the same night (Oct. 16); that the Kearny was sunk and that two others were sunk a day or so before. -Serbian Government troops killed 103 alleged Communists and captured 200, most of whom were wounded, in a battle near Svilajnac, 50 miles southeast of Belgrade, a D. N. B. dispatch from Belgrade stated.

Nov. 15-Following British plane attacks on cities and ports in Southern Italy, the Fascist Air Command was shaken up and a new commander installed. Rome said that "enemy air raids were made on Catania, Acireale and Brindisi.

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Nov. 16-Week-end conferences between the President and John L. Lewis and between the U. S. Mediation Board and both sides having come to naught, the coal strike which had been ordered began on time when the first shifts failed to report at the "captive mines" of the big steel corporations in the Pittsburgh-Youngstown and other areas. The union demand was for a "closed shop." At Detroit, the C. I. O. National Executive Board, on motion of Philip Murray, vice president of the United Mine Workers of America, voted support. This action was ratified the next day at the C. I. O. convention. -Berlin asserted German and Rumanian troops "after a stubborn fight, took the important harbor city of Kerch. The eastern part of the Crimean Peninsula was thus completely in our hands.'

Nov. 17-Berlin announced appointment of Alfred Rosenburg as "Reich Minister for the East, or chief civilian administrator of occupied Soviet territory. Nov. 18 The spearheads' of German columns struck beyond Kerch to reach the Yenikale area. Yenikale, like Kerch, is on the Kerch Straits in Eastern Crimea.

-Mass C. I. O. picketing stopped coal production in "captive" coal mines in the Appalachian areas; two members of an independent union were shot and wounded at Gary, W. Va., in a clash with pickets.

-The C. I. O. convention, in Detroit, unanimously voted support of the Roosevelt foreign policy of all-aid to Britain, Russia and China. Delegations from the United Mine Workers and the United Construction Workers abstained from voting.

Nov. 19-British forces launched a surprise offensive in Libya and advanced 150 miles on a front from the Mediterranean to Jarabub. British warships supported the attack as did the R. A. F. American made tanks and planes are part of the equipment of attacking British forces.

-The Germans and Russians were in violent conflict in the Moscow and Rostov areas. In the Crimea, Sevastopol is under daily air and artillery bombing.

Nov. 20-Marshal Petain retired Gen. Maxime Weygand, 74, as delegate general and military commander of French North Africa, and that area was placed under the direct control of Vice-Premier Admiral Jean Darlan.

Nov. 21-At the H. C. Frick Coke plant in Edenborn, Pa., 11 C. I. O. pickets were shot and wounded in a row with workers. It was estimated that 214,000 captive and commercial mines in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky and Ohio which employ 350,000, were idle, including 53,000 captive mine employes on strike for the union shop. The strike had spread to Kentucky and Ohio. A survey indicated that 48,000 commercial miners were idle in Kentucky; 61,000 in Pennsylvania; 48,000 in West Virginia; 1,200 in Ohio and 3,000 in Maryland.

-In Libya, the crossing by British troops of Premier Mussolini's barbed wire barricade along the Libyan-Egyptian boundary was opposed. -In the Moscow area, Russian forces evacuated the Volokolamsk sector as far as the eastern banks of the Lama River.

-The 35,000-ton U. S. battleship, Indiana, was launched at Newport News, Va. --President Roosevelt accepted the credentials of Thor Thors, first Minister to the United States from Iceland, whose territory is jointly policed by American and British forces. Nov. 22-The German High Command announced capture of the "Caucasus gateway" City of Rostov, on the River Don, and were 15 miles beyond in the direction of Astrakhan, with 435 miles to go.

-In Libya, New Zealand troops entered Fort Capuzzo.

-John L. Lewis, head of the United Mine Workers of America, accepted a proposal by President Roosevelt to appoint a board of three to arbitrate the "closed shop" dispute that caused the strike in the "captive mines" of the steel producers. The board consists of Lewis, Benjamin F. Fairless, president of the U. S. Steel Corp., and John R. Steelman, director of the U. S. Conciliation Service.

Nov. 23-In Libya, New Zealand troops, it was claimed, had entered the Mediterranean port of Bardia, "which apparently had been evacuated by the Axis soldiers"; seizure of the towns of Sidi Azeiz and Sidi Omar also was asserted.

This was denied by Rome and Berlin. -Germany has cut the cost to France of the army of occupation from 400,000,000 to 300,000,000 francs a day.

-The U. S. Consulate at Saigon, French IndoChina, was wrecked by a bomb, but none of the consular staff was injured, the State Department announced. French Indo-China is occupied by Japanese troops.

Nov. 24-Surinam (Dutch Guiana) which lies on the northeast coast of South America, between British Guiana and French Guiana, has been added to the chain of U. S. military outposts in foreign countries. Brazil is to share in the arrangement, chiefly to guard her border there. The U. S. already has a military outpost in British Guiana. The bauxite mines in Surinam furnish upward of 60 per cent of the requirements of the United States aluminum industry which is vital to the defense of the United States, the Western Hemisphere and the nations actively resisting aggression, the White House explained.

-The German High Command stated that "on the central sector of the Eastern Front our offensive gained further territory. After embittered fighting, the city of Solnechnogorsk, 31 miles northwest of Moscow, was taken by tank troops. Break-out attempts by the opponent from Leningrad again collapsed under heavy losses."

-In Libya, London said, New Zealand troops captured Gambut, an Axis supply station. -The bulk of the Australians who comprised the main force in the Tobruk garrison were recently withdrawn secretly by night, and relieved by a force of British, Poles and East Indians; 500 of the Australians had died and were buried there. Nov. 25-Tanks dominate the fighting in Libya and Germany is sending both tanks and infantry by planes across the Mediterranean. The German High Command reports "embittered" fighting is increasing daily in violence. London said New Zealand forces, supported by British tanks, continued their general advance toward Tobruk. -Delegates from 12 Governments met in Berlin and signed a renewal of the five-year-old AntiComintern pact, technically directed not against Russia but the activities of the Moscow Internationale. Japan cabled her adherence. The new members are Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Rumania, Slovakia and Nanking. Those renewing_adherence are the old members, Germany, Japan, Italy, Hungary, Spain and Manchukuo.

-The Ankara radio quoted German reports that Axis armored units were within 181⁄2 miles of Moscow, advancing from the Volokolasmk sector, northwest of the capital.

Nov. 26-In Libya, the main battle front was in the Rezegh area, which the Axis forces were trying to encircle. The British said they were bringing up tank reinforcements. Germany also was striving to get more tanks and men from across the Mediterranean. South of Rezegh, London added, "Britain and South African mechanized forces in cooperation with Indian troops have captured Gialo, taking 200 Italian prisoners together with quantities of stores and equipment. Operations in this area continue to develop satisfactorily. Our air forces continue to cooperate with bombing attacks on enemy motor transport and armored fighting vehicle concentrations in the battle area." The Italian High Command asserted that "in the central sector enemy units encircled in a pocket south of the city of Rezegh were annihilated. Among 5,000 and more prisoners counted in camps up to now, besides General Sperling, commander of an armored brigade, of the First South African division, as well as two American observers and various English and American journalists." -Sergeant Delmar Park, of Phoenix, Ariz., a U. S. Army observer with the British in Libya, was killed in a German tank attack. -German forces, according to Berlin, got within 25 miles of Moscow on its northwest, by taking a town southeast of Klin. -Secretary of State Hull handed to Japan's two envoys-Saburo Kurusu and Admiral Kichisaburo Nomura, a document that was the "culmination" of their conferences with the Secretary on Japan's policy in Asia and the Pacific. -Riots were reported in Copenhagen over Denmark's signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact. -Berlin claims that a British battleship, damaged

by a U-boat on Nov. 26, off Solum, North Africa, had been identified as the 31,000-ton Malaya.

Nov. 27-In Libya, some of the besieged New Zealanders in Tobruk dashed forth under tanker

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protection and aided in recapturing Rezegh, and were awaiting infantry reinforcements, London said. Large numbers of Germans and Italians still occupy positions in areas between the New Zealanders and Tobruk. Free French bombing planes supported the forces that escaped_from Tobruk. Rome stated that "on the Solum Front, while the Savona division broke up attacks by enemy tanks, German-Italian armored units recaptured the important position of Sidi Omar. British prisoners are flowing into Bardia, which we are holding firmly." -German forces in Russia, Berlin declared, had taken Klin, 51 miles northwest of Moscow, also 14 towns lying to the rear of the Soviet lines and fortifications" in the Tula area. The German advance southeast of Moscow was reported to have resulted in Russian evacuation of Skopkin, 50 miles southeast of Stalinogorsk and about 150 miles southeast of Moscow. Soviet radio said five troop transports and 600 truckloads of Germans had been destroyed. Nov. 28-Maryland bombing planes, London said, took active part in the Libya fighting. The fall of Gondar, in Ethiopia (Italian East Africa) was announced in a British communique as having occurred on the evening of Nov. 27 with the comment: "The attack began at dawn on both flanks and was pressed home with great determination by all available forces. The battle took place in high, mountainous country very favorable to defense and averaging 7,000 feet above sea level. So falls the last enemy stronghold in East Africa which the enemy has spent six months in fortifying. Principal credit for the final battle must, however, be given to East African and patriot troops. The assault on this final position was carried almost exclusively by East Africans. Artillery of all calibers, including mediums, was also largely manned by East and West Africans. More East African soldiers took part in this battle than in any one battle of the campaign." -Berlin stated that "near Rostov and in the Donets area, strong Soviet counter-attacks supported by airplanes and tanks were repulsed with heavy bloody losses for the enemy. At several points. on the front the fight is continuing."

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-The Finnish High Command mentioned that "on the Hangoe, Karelian Isthmus and Svir River fronts the usual artillery and trench mortar harassing fire continued. Our artillery destroyed enemy fortified positions and log bunkers and silenced enemy anti-tank guns, numerous trench mortars and a battery of howitzers. Our troops repulsed an attack on the Lake Ladoga coast." Nov. 29-The Moscow communique announced recapture of Rostov and said that it was made by an attack from the northeast, adding: "In the battles for the liberation of Rostov from the German fascist invaders we completely annihilated the army group of General von Kleist consisting of the 6th, 14th, and 16th Tank Divisions, 60th Motorized Division and the Elite Guard Viking Division. German troops are retreating in disorder in the direction of Taganrog. Soviet troops are pursuing the enemy. Germans left on the battlefield more than 5,000 dead." -The tenth day of fighting in Libya, in the Marmarica Desert (Botruk) area, Rome said, saw a continuation of violent all-day fighting; and, in the central zone "bitter fighting took place between armored masses and infantry on both sides, supported by artillery and aviation, during which an entire enemy motorized brigade was annihilated and 1,000 or more prisoners fell into the hands of German and Italian troops. Among the prisoners is the English General James Karges, commander of the brigade." -Berlin's version of the Rostov situation was that "occupation troops of Rostov, in compliance with orders, are evacuating the central district of the city to make the most thorough preparations for necessary measures against the population, which, contrary to international law, participated in fighting at the rear of the German troops."

Nov. 30-In Libya, the British High Command said that "the remaining tank strength of two German armored divisions. with an Italian armored division in support, made a further attempt to break westward through defended localities held by British and New Zealand troops in the area about Rezegh-Bir el Hamed." -In Tokio, the Japanese Foreign Minister Togo officially called the United States proposals were based on "fantastic" principles, adding that Japan must go on with establishment of a new order in East Asia.

National Defense Program

The United States is working on a National Defense program entailing the authorized expenditure of $63,962,100,000. President Roosevelt has requested an additional $7,082,419,046, which, when granted, will bring the total of authorized expenditures to $71,044,519,046.

Expenditures for the current fiscal year (July 1, 1941-June 30, 1942) are expected to reach $18,000,000,000, compared to a forecast of expenditures of $10,811,000,000 when the budget was announced (Jan., 1941). The estimated defense outlay of $18,000,000,000 (announced Oct. 4, 1941 by Harold D. Smith, Director of the Bureau of the Budget) is almost three times that of the preceding fiscal year and breaks down to an expenditure of $135 for every man, woman and child in the United States.

Defense officials, in a report prepared for President Roosevelt, estimated that the United States must spend from $120,000,000 to $150,000,000 in the so-called victory program. Appropriations, contract authorizations and

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other commitments total about $58,000,000,000 (July 1, 1940 through Oct. 15, 1941). The United States Treasury has disbursed in that period $10,185,487,712. The Treasury books show that the War Department got about $5,800,000,000 and the Navy $3,600,000,000. Lend-Lease cost, exclusive of large quantities of arms transferred from stocks on hand, accounted for $350,000,000. A special defense fund of the President disbursed another $150,000,000. The administrative expenses of the Selective Service Act reached $26,000,000. The Maritime Commission, Defense Housing Office and others spent the rest.

The Office of Production Management placed September expenditures at $1,347,000,000, an increase of 17.7 per cent over August, but $238,000,000 of this went for pay, subsistence, travel and administrative expenses, leaving a total of $1,109,000,000 as payments on contracts for ships, guns, airplanes and other defense materials and on Lend-Lease shipments. Here is a table of month-by-month spending: Contract Items

Month

February

Total

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$103,000,000 March.

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154,000,000 April..

September

269,000,000

191,000,000 | May.

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238,000,000 June.

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304,000,000 July
382,000,000 August.
September.
613,000,000

Total

$ 722,000,000 $ 574,000,000 854,000,000 697,000,000 918,000,000 738,000,000 911,000,000 713,000,000 989,000,000 783,000,000

p 1,029,000,000 p 817,000,000 p 1,144,000,000 p

914,000,000 p 1,347,000,000 p 1,109,000,000

January.

(p) Preliminary.

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The value of defense construction (Sept. 1, 1941) completed, in progress and scheduled amounted to $9,669,867,000, the OPM reported.

Construction valued at $3,444,713,000 was in place. This included completed and semi-completed projects, and represented 36 percent of the defense construction program to date, 64 percent of scheduled construction remaining to be completed or undertaken. Of the work in place on Sept. 1, $543,767,000 or 6 percent of the total program was erected in August.

The milltary program involved construction valued at $4,315,169,000, of which $1,713,409,000, or 40 percent, was in place on Sept. 1. During August, $225,570,000 of the work, or 5 percent, was put in place.

The non-military defense construction program came to $5,354,698,000, of which $1,731,304,000, or 32 percent, was in place. August construction was valued at $318,197,000.

A statement of the authorized program and purchases from June 1, 1940, to the latest reporting date (preliminary) follows:

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Commitments for defense plant expansion, June, 1940-Sept. 30, 1941 (In millions)

Government commitments.
Private commitments.

Total..

p $4,122

994

D 5,116

**When figures show a decrease from previous figures the difference reflects absorption of foreign contracts by United States Government agencies.

***Includes orders and non-contractual expenses of the British Empire. (p) Preliminary estimate.

The Office of Production Management described | completely modern machines in one year, twelve the status of the defense production program as times the number produced last year. of Nov. 2, 1941, as follows:

In July, 1940, the United States produced 561 milltary planes. In September, 1941, the figure soared to 1,914. Since the start of the expansion program, the Navy has commissioned more fighting ships than in the 14 years between 1922 and 1937. In the 24-month period of 1940-41 the machine tool industry will have produced a new capacity equal to the capacity of all machine tools in existence in all the plants of the country on Jan. 3, 1940. Hundreds of light and medium tanks are rolling off the assembly lines every month. Rifles and machine guns are being produced at the rate of thousands daily. In the first nine months of 1941 ordnance equipment increased nearly three times and production of ammunition was stepped up ten times.

The production record follows:

AIRPLANE CONSTRUCTION-The products of America's defense effort are finding their way to the four corners of the globe. Flying Fortresses are no strangers to the Axis skies, while other American planes are looked upon as liberators by the conquered peoples of western Europe. With a few minor setbacks American plane production has increased steadily, as shown in the following table for 1941: January

February

March

April

May

.1,016
962 June

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It has been estimated that engineers spend from 250,000 to 500,000 man-hours at their drafting boards just turning out the designs for a fighter plane, about 3,500 separate drawings are involved, each of which must be blueprinted 15 times. The number of drawings required to put a bomber in production may run as high as 10,000.

The World War pilot flew a single-engined biplane with a horsepower between 360 and 400. His sole companion, seated in the open cockpit to the rear, was a general utility man-observer, gunner and photographer all in one. The operating speed of the plane was 70 to 100 miles an hour, and the bomb load consisted of eight 50-pound bombs strapped like eggs under the wings-a total bomb load of about 400 pounds.

Today's light bomber weighs around 20,000 pounds, about three times the weight of the World War ship in most frequent use. Today's heavy bombers weigh about 44,000 pounds, more than six times heavier than the World War ship. Its bomb load alone, running between 5,000 and 10,000 pounds, is heavier than the gross weight of the World War bomber, and amounts in weight to about one-third of all the bombs dropped by the Germans over London in the World War.

Thus it is obvious that planes cannot be produced 1,331 today simply by appropriating money for them. 1,476 The road from drawing board to the finished 1,460 product is a long and rough one. However, the 1,854 obstacles are being overcome. Of the 1,914 military planes produced in September, the majority were combat, rather than training ships.

Since the Wright brothers flew their first plane, the United States has produced about 75,000 planes. Thus the industry is being asked to produce in one year two-thirds the planes it turned out in 37 years. No other industry has ever been asked to do a job of the same proportions. It is like asking the automobile industry to turn out 53,000,000

During the nine months to Sept., 1941, the production of airplane engines increased by 88 per cent. More than a million horsepower a week is being delivered by manufacturers, an amount sufficient for about 2,000 planes monthly. The following table reveals the increase:

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To interpret these figures in terms of actual, taking into consideration the effect of the curtailplanes consider the following: The Flying Fortress, the B-17, now used by Britain for high altitude bombing, has four engines of about 1,400 H.P. each; as much power as a giant locomotive. The Douglas attack bomber, the A20-A, is powered with two 1,400 H.P. engines. The engine of an observation plane ranges from 1,000 to 1,400 H.P., and the Lockheed P-38 pursuit ship has twin engines of 1,125 H.P. each.

Thousands of 20 mm. and 37 mm. cannon are needed for this vast plane program as well as hundreds of thousands of .30 and 50 caliber machine guns. Starting in April there was a sharp rise in production of these weapons and there should be a continued steady increase.

The pilot of the World War Spad fired two and sometimes only one gun forward through the propeller. Today's pursuit ship carries two guns forward and four guns in each wing. At the press of a single trigger the pilot aims and fires a total of nearly 5,000 shots a minute at a single fixed target. These .30 and .50 caliber weapons are in effect heavy guns put into the air. The .30 caliber shells are expended at the rate of 600 a minute, or ten a second, and the .50 caliber at the rate of 400 a minute.

The Supply Priorities and Allocations Board,

ment of commercial plane construction on the airlines, recently ruled that orders could be accepted for 156 DC-3's, 52 Lockheed Lodestars and 20 DC-4's during 1942 and extending to June, 1943. However, the construction and delivery of the planes are subject to the following provisions: if the Army needs the planes on their completion, it may have them; if their construction interferes with military orders, Army planes are to have the right of way. In addition, the planes are to be built with special reinforced flooring, and with wide doors so they may be immediately adapted to use as military transport planes.

NAVAL AND MERCHANT SHIP CONSTRUCTION-TO guard the seaways for American merchant ships, the United States is constructing the most powerful naval force the world has ever Every vessel authorized by law has been contracted for. On top of the $7,234,262,178 that the Navy will spend on 2,831 ships ordered since Jan. 1, 1940, $460,000,000 has been allocated for the expansion of shipbuilding facilities.

seen.

The year 1941 will go down as one of the most notable in the history of the Navy. Two powerful battleships-the Washington and the North Carolina-were added to the battleline while in June

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