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The Library of Congress
Source: An Official of the Institution
The Library of Congress was established April 24, 1800, by Act of Congress; was burned by British troops August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812. and was re-established by the purchase of Thomas Jefferson's Library, January 30, 1815. It is now one of the largest libraries in the world, occupying two buildings opposite the United States Capitol providing altogether nearly 36 acres of floor space, 414 miles of bookshelves and 20 reading rooms, besides 225 individual study tables and 266 study rooms for the use of research workers.
On March 1, 1941, the Library contained 6,253,800 books and pamphlets, 1,469,207 maps and charts, 1,622,923 volumes and pieces of music, over half a million prints (etchings, engravings, woodcuts, lithographs, photographs, etc.) and uncounted millions of items of manuscript material.
The collection, covering every branch of human knowledge and culture, is especially strong in United States and Hispano-American history, American and foreign newspapers (over 100,000 bound volumes), government documents (federal, state, municipal and foreign), maps and atlases. The law library comprises nearly half a million volumes; the aeronautics library is the largest in the world; the collection of Chinese and Japanese books is unequalled outside of China or Japan; the Russian books outnumber those in any other library outside of Russia and the Semitic collection is of outstanding importance.
The collections of the Division of Manuscripts relate chiefly to American history and civilization; they include the original records of the Continental Congress, many colonial and revolutionary documents and the papers of nearly all the Presidents of the United States, as well as many leaders in political, industrial and cultural life. They contain also photographic reproductions of over two million pages of manuscripts in English, French, German, Spanish and other European libraries and archives made on account of their importance for American history.
The rare book collection includes about 128,321 items, among them 5.000 incunabula, 25,000 early Americana, many rare editions and fine bindings and one of the three or four perfect vellum copies of the Gutenberg Bible. The Fine Arts Division comprises, in addition to books, a notable collection of classic and modern prints, a Pictorial Archive of Early American Architecture (28,000 photographs and 20,000 measured drawings, including
those made by the Historical American Buildings Survey) and a Cabinet of American Illustration (a collection of originals of published drawings by American artists).
The Music Division, besides possessing what is probably the largest collection of music in the world, administers the Archive of American FolkSong. In its specially constructed Coolidge Chamber Music Auditorium are presented series of public concerts provided by the income from the Coolidge and Whittall Foundations. Of recent establishment is its sound laboratory, equipped to make recordings both of concert music and of folk music in the field, to provide transcriptions of such recordings to be sold at cost, and to accomplish other projects in recording and broadcasting.
In addition to the usual library functions, the Library of Congress maintains a legislative reference service for assistance to Congress; it not only has its own service of embossed books and phonograph book-recordings for the blind, but it is also the agency for supplying copies of these books to twenty-six other distributing libraries for the blind throughout the country. It effects large savings to other libraries through the sale of its printed catalog cards (current stock, 125,000,000 cards). It maintains a union card catalog containing over ten million entries for the more important books in 800 American and foreign libraries, a complete photoduplication service (photostat and microfilm), and an interlibrary loan service.
The Copyright Office, administered by the Register of Copyrights, forms part of the Library of Congress. It receives annually over 250,000 books, pamphlets, prints, maps, etc., as deposits which for the most part become part of the permanent collections of the Library; and it turns into the Treasury over $300,000 a year collected as fees.
On permanent exhibition in the Library are the originals of the Declaration of Independence and of the Constitution of the United States, also the Whittall collection of Stradivari violins, housed in the Whittall Pavilion.
The Library is open to the public every day in the year except Christmas: week-days 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. (except Saturdays, July-September to 1 p.m.; October-June to 6 p.m.); Sundays and holidays. 2 to 10 p.m.
The Librarian of Congress, Archibald MacLeish. The Librarian of Congress Emeritus, Herbert Putnam.
The Smithsonian Institution
Source: An Official of the Institution The Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D. C.. was established by statute in 1846, under the terms of the will of James Smithson, an Englishman, who bequeathed his fortune in 1826 to the United States to found an institution for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge among men."
The Smithsonian Institution throughout its history has conducted and encouraged important scientific researches, explorations, and investigations, and its Secretaries-Joseph Henry, Spencer F. Baird, S. P. Langley, Charles D. Walcott and Dr. Abbot-have contributed largely to the advancement of knowledge.
The Smithsonian issues 13 series of scientific publications which are distributed free to libraries, learned societies, and educational institutions throughout the world. It also maintains a library of 900,000 volumes which consists mainly of transactions of learned societies, and scientific periodicals.
Branches of the Institution are the National Museum, the National Gallery of Art, the National Collection of Fine Arts, including the Freer Gallery of Art; the International Exchange Service, the Bureau of American Ethnology, the National Zoological Park, the Astrophysical Observatory (with field stations at Mt. Wilson, Calif., Table Mt., Calif.. Montezuma, Chile, Tyrone, New Mexico); and the Division of Radiation and Organisms.
The United States National Museum is the deposItory of the national collections. It is rich in the natural history, geology, paleontology, archeology
and ethnology of America, and has large and important collections illustrating American history. including military and naval material, as well as Valuable series relating to engineering and industries. It is an educational and research museum, and issues scientific publications. Its aeronautical collection includes the airplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, deposited by Col. C. A. Lindbergh, in the Spring of 1928.
The buildings are open to the public 9 A. M. to 4:30 P. M., week days, and Sundays, 1:30 P. M. to 4:30 P. M.
The National Collection of Fine Arts contains numerous important art works acquired by the Smithsonian Institution during the first half century of its existence, including a valuable collection of etchings and engravings from George P. Marsh; more recent are the Harriet Lane Johnston bequest, comprising numerous portraits and other works by British, Flemish, Dutch, and Italian masters; the Ralph Cross Johnson collection of rare paintings by Italian, English, French, Flemish, and Dutch masters; the William T. Evans' collection, comprising 150 examples of the works of contemporary American artists, the Gellatly collection of paintings, glassware, and other objects of art, given to the Institution by the late John Gellatly in 1929. A unit of the National Collection of Fine Arts is the Freer Gallery of Art, the gift of Charles L. Freer, comprising rich collections of Chinese and Japanese art in every branch, with many paintings and etchings by Whistler, and the famous "Peacock Room," besides works by Thayer, Dewing. Homer, and Tryon.
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, WASHINGTON, D. C. Carrying out the object for which the Academy was incorporated by Congress, to report upon matters in science or art whenever called upon, the Academy has often been of service to the Govern
In 1919 the Carnegie Corporation of New York
allotted an endowment of $5.000,000 for a suitable building for the Academy and its agent, the National Research Council, and for the general maintenance of the Academy and Research CounThe building, which is at 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, was opened April 30, 1924.
National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C.
Source: An Official of the Society
The National Geographic Society, of which Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor is President, was founded in 1888 for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge." It played such an important role in exploration and the advancement of science, and has so effectively interpreted and illustrated geography for the layman, that its membership exceeds 1,125,000, its researches and expeditions range to the ends of the earth, and its dissemination of geographic and other scientific knowledge extends to every community in the world.
The Society pioneered in the study of Alaska and in opening up that territory. It supported Peary in his expeditions that culminated in the attainment of the North Pole. It sent an expedition to Greenland, with the U. S. Navy cooperating. through which Rear Admiral Byrd acquired the far northern flying experience that carried him both of the earth's Poles. It cooperated and contributed financially to the Byrd Antarctic Expedítions and assigned scientific observers.
A Joint expedition of the Society and Yale University discovered the ancient city of the Incas of Peru, Machu Picchu.
In a series of expeditions led by Dr. Neil M. Judd, the pre-Columbian city of Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, was unearthed and restored. Other expeditions based on the work at Pueblo Bonito, led by Dr. Andrew E. Douglass, formulated a tree-ring calendar which extends the chronology of the southwestern United States back to eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic.
Expeditions of the Society led by Dr. Joseph F. Rock penetrated the heart of Asia. Dr. Rock explored gorges of the Yangtze River, rivaling those of the Grand Canyon and sent back to America a rich collection of rare, ancient ceremonial books which are now in the Library of Congress.
The Sociey has encouraged public interest in National Parks and conservation. At a cost of $100,000 it purchased and presented to the Government 2,239 acres of the finest giant sequoia and red and yellow pine within the Sequoia National Park. In 1934, the Society in cooperation with the New York Zoological Society made a series of deep sea explorations off Nonsuch Island, Bermuda, under the leadership of Dr. William Beebe. A world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained.
In 1934 the Society and the United States Army Air Corps jointly sent up from the Black Hills of South Dakota the Explorer, with a gas capacity of 3,000,000 cubic feet, the largest free balloon ever constructed, which reached an altitude of 60,613 feet. On Nov. 11, 1935, Lt. Col. A. W. Stevens and
Lt. Col. O. A. Anderson piloted Explorer II, with a capacity 700,000 cubic feet greater, to a record height of 72,395 feet.
In 1936, as leader of the Society's Mt. McKinley Expedition, Bradford Washburn successfully photographed from the air that mountain and its related peaks. In 1938, Mr. Washburn discovered in Alaska and Yukon one of the world's largest ice fields and glacial systems outside the polar regions. During the summer of 1936 the National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution Archaeological Expedition to Bering Sea, under the leadership of Dr. H. B. Collins, Jr., excavated mounds near Cape Prince of Wales, discovering the first site of the old Eskimo "Thule Culture" ever found in Alaska, and confirming the fact that this culture spread eastward from Alaska.
To study conditions in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona of the sun during the eclipse of June 8, 1937, the Society, in cooperation with the U. S. Navy, sent an expedition to Canton Island, which is on the air route from Hawaii to New Zealand.
M. W. Stirling, leader of the National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution Archaeological Expedition to Vera Cruz, Mexico, Jan. 16. 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas, a Mayan stela bearing a date equivalent to Nov. 4, 291 B. C. In 1940, a second expedition to Tabasco uncovered five colossal heads sculptured in stone. Each head weighed 15 tons or more. The 1941 expedition excavating in Veracruz found a cache of more than 700 jade objects of historic significance.
In its work of diffusing geographic knowledge, the Society relies principally on its publication, the National Geographic Magazine.
The Society has compiled and distributed among its entire membership a series of maps.
The Headquarters of the National Geographic Society in Washington contains galleries for the exhibition of enlarged photographs taken by its specialists in all parts of the world. The Society maintains a geographic library, enriched with such collections as the Arctic and Antarctic literature gathered for a generation by the late Maj. Gen. Adolphus W. Greely.
The Society has awarded the Hubbard Gold Medal to Peary, Amundsen, Gilbert, Shackleton, Stefansson, Bartlett, Byrd, Lindbergh, Andrews, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Stevens, Anderson, and Ellsworth. It also awarded special gold medals to Peary, Amundsen, Goethals, Eckener, Byrd, Amelia Earhart, and Thomas C. Poulter, and a gold medal to Floyd Bennett.
American Geographical Society of New York
Source: An Official of the Organization
The American Geographical Society, Broadway and 156th St., N. Y. City, was organized in 1852 and is primarily a research institution. Its object is the advancement of geographical knowledge. To this end it carries on original investigations, issues publications, maintains a library and map collection, presents an annual course of lectures, and awards honors.
In 1920 intensive studies in the geography of Latin America were begun, the results of which are appearing in the form of maps, monographs, and bibliographies, including a map of the American continent from the Mexico-United States boundary to Cape Horn, in conformity with the scale and style of the International Map of the World on the scale of 1: 1,000,000. Certain sheets have been used officially in negotiations for the settlement of international boundary disputes in Central and South America.
Studies of the problems of settlement in the pioneer regions of the world and in the tropics were begun in 1926 with the cooperation of the National Research Council and the Social Science Research Council. And the Society has also cooperated with the Canadian Pioneer Problems Committee in that organization's work.
The Society is aiding in the development of new and improved methods and instruments for exploratory surveying and in particular for mapping from air photographs.
The Society has sponsored many important polar expeditions, and polar explorers avail themselves of the facilities of the Society's library and staff in planning new expeditions.
The Society's collections contain more than 130,000 volumes of books and periodicals, 100,000 maps,
2,000 atlases, and 22,000 photographs. The reading room is open to the public daily from 9 A. M. to 4:45 P. M. (closed Saturdays during the summer).
From Nov. 1917 to Dec. 1918 the Society's building was the headquarters of experts engaged at the request of the Department of State to compile material for use at the Peace Conference in Paris. Thousands of the Society's books and maps were loaned to the American Commission to Negotiate Peace. During the recent international crisis wide use has been made of the Society's facilities by agencies of the government.
For outstanding achievement in exploration and geographical research the Society awards four gold medals: The Cullum Geographical Medal, founded by the will of Gen. George W. Cullum (awarded 37 times to date); the Charles P. Daly Medal, founded by the will of Charles P. Daly, LL.D. (awarded 30 times to date); the David Livingstone Centenary Medal, founded by the Hispanic Society of America in 1913 on the One Hundredth Anniversary of the birth of David Livingstone and awarded by the American Geographical Society "for scientific achievement in the field of geography of the southern hemisphere" (awarded 17 times to date); and the Samuel Finley Breese Morse Medal, founded by the will of Samuel F. B. Morse (awarded once). Among the Society's medalists have been Robert E Peary, Fridtjof Nansen, Robert F. Scott, Sir E. H. Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Robert A. Bartlett, Lincoln Ellsworth, Sir Hubert Wilkins.
The affairs of the Society are managed by a Council and the work of the Society is conducted by a professional and technical staff. The president is Roland L. Redmond.
United States Army Medical Museum
Source: An official of the Institution
The Army Medical Museum, 7th St. and Independence Ave., Washington, was founded in 1862 by Surgeon General William A. Hammond with some 7,000.specimens from the battlefields of the Civil War. The original purpose was to make it a museum for the study of war wounds, but it's scope has enlarged with the years to include the whole medical field. It now functions as a diagnostic center for the entire Army for the study of disease and injuries. The present collection consists of more than 150,000 specimens, over 70,000 photographs and approximately 300,000 microscopic slides. More than 100,000 persons visit the museum annually.
The first floor of the museum contains exhibits on the normal structures of the human body, and collections of historic instruments and appliances. The historic section contains one of the world's largest collections of microscopes, stethoscopes, ophthalmoscopes and similar items of medical in
terest. The section on anatomy contains many skeletons, models, dissections and other specimens showing the normal aspects of the human and animal bodies. Of particular interest is the collection of human embryos which are represented by actual specimens ranging from the third week of pregnancy up to the full term baby. Several sets of twins are included, and one of the features is the famous quintuplets which were worn in Kentucky in 1896.
The second floor is the museum of pathology which contains specimens of abnormal, diseased and injured organs. Some of the feature exhibits cover the subjects of cancer, tuberculosis, venereal diseases, war injuries and diseases of the skin. There is a large display of human monstrosities or abnormal babies. A group illustrating some superstitions of medicine are especially interesting.
Admission free. Open weekdays 8:45 a.m. to 4:15 p.m., Saturdays 8:45 a.m. to 12:45 p.m.
United States Army Medical Library
(Library of the Surgeon General's This is the largest working medical library in the world. It began with a collection of books in the office of The Surgeon General of the Army, an office created in 1818. Near the close of 1840 Surgeon General Joseph Lovell compiled a list, or short catalogue, of the books in his office. This material became the nucleus out of which the present collection has evolved. Its real growth as a library began in 1865 with the assignment of Surgeon John Shaw Billings, whose fostering care laid the strong foundation for the magnificent collection it has become.
The Army Medical Library secures practically everything printed in the. field of the medical sciences, including dental and veterinary medicine. The collection consists of more than five million items, including some 400,000 books, about 534,000 pamphlets, 1,600 magazines, 9,500 portraits and photographs, and in addition, autographs, clippings, engravings, manuscripts, periodicals, as well as the enormous list of references printed in the Index Catalogue. The Library receives an average of more than 1,800 periodicals, of which more than 1,100 are in foreign languages.
The Library is catalogued with author and subject entries, involving more than two million index cards. Special indexing is also done, the present
Office, U. S. A., Washington) activities including: tracing the origin of a given disease, the uses of certain remedies, and the therapeutic value of various agents.
Special features of the Library are: Medical Incunabula, of which there are more than 460 titles of the estimated 600 known; several hundred medical manuscripts; special collections of medical biographical and bibliographical works; Federal, State, and Municipal documents on sanitation, public health and vital statistics.
The publication of the Library is the Index Catalogue, which has now reached Volume III of the Fourth Series, 1880-1938. It is used throughout the world as the standard in medical bibliography. To the left of the entrance to the main reading room (called "the hall") are shelved the incunabula, 16th century, and other rare books. In the main stacks are placed bound periodicals, transactions, monographs and texts, also leading reports of learned and scientific societies. On the first floor, directly beneath the main hall, is located the general reading room with the current periodicals. Also nearby are the shelves for various documents and the Statistical Section.
The material appearing in the Index Medicus, 1879-1931, was largely made up from the indexes of this Library.
Franklin Institute Museum; Medal Winners
Source: Records of the Organization
(Headquarters are on the Parkway at 20th Street, Philadelphia. The old Institute building, Seventh St.. south of Market St., was purchased by A. Atwater Kent and presented by him to Philadelphia, for use as a historical museum, to include, among other relics, the first draft of the U. S. Constitution.)
1921-Charles Fabry, Frank J. Sprague.
1940-Arthur H. Compton and Leo H. Kaekeland. 1941-Sir C. V. Raman, and Dr. Erwin H. Armstrong.
CRESSON MEDAL WINNERS SINCE 1920 1920-William L. Emmet; 1921-Byron E. Eldred. 1922-Lee DeForest.
1923-Albert Kingsbury and Raymond D. Johnson; 1925-Frances Hodgkinson.
1926-George E. Hale, Charles S. Hastings, and Dayton C. Miller.
1927-Gustaf W. Elmen, Vladimir Karapetoff, and Edward L. Nichols; 1928-Henry Ford, Charles L. Lawrence.
1929 Sir James C. Irvine, Chevalier Jackson, and Elmer A. Sperry.
1930-Norman R. Gibson, Irving E. Moultrop. 1931 Clinton J. Davisson, Lester H. Germer. Prof. Kotaro Honda, and Theodore Lyman. 1932-Prof. Williams Bridgman, Charles L. Fortescue, and John B. Whitehead."
1933-Senor Juan de la Cierva, and Dr. Walther Bauersfeld.
1934-Stuart Ballantine, and the Union Switch and Signal Company.
1936-George O. Curme Jr., and Robert J. Van de Graaff.
1937-Carl D. Anderson, William Bowie, J. E. Brandenberger, of France; Ernest O. Lawrence, W. F. Giauque.
1938-Edwin H. Land.
1939-George A. Campbell, John R. Carson, and Charles V. Boys.
1940-Frederick M. Becket and Robert R. Wil1941-The United States Navy.
For 1941 the following awards were made in addition-Certificate of Merit: C. W. Akers; Longstreth Medal to Benjamin J. Wilson; Wetherill Medal to Harold S. Black; Brown Medal to Willis H. Carrier; Clark Medal to Raymond M. Conner; Levy Medal to John M. Lessells and Charles W. MacGregor; Potts Medal to Harold E. Edgerton.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Source: Officials of the Institution
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, in Central | especially important, representing with characterPark, fronting on Fifth Ave., at 82nd St., contains 325,811 square feet of exhibition floor space.
Open weekdays, including holidays except Christmas, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sundays 1 to 6 p.m.. Christmas 1 to 5 p.m. Admission to the Main Building free at all times. On Mondays and Fridays admission to The Cloisters is 25 cents.
Among the objects on display are the mastaba tomb erected about 4,400 years ago in the cemetery at Sakkareh in Egypt for a Theban dignitary named Per-neb and re-erected here in its original form, with its painted scenes in low relief still preserved; a series of painted wooden funerary models, the most remarkable of their kind ever found, from the tomb of the Theban Prince MeketRe of the XI dynasty (about 2000 B. C.); Egyptian jewelry from the tomb of the Princess Sit Hat-Hor Yunet, XII dynasty, equaled only by the group in the Cairo Museum; several fine colossal and heroic stone statues of Queen Hat-shepsut of the XVIII dynasty (about 1500 B. C.); the Carnarvon Egyptian Collection, an unusually fine group of small objects, presented by Edward S. Harkness; a colossal winged bull, a winged lion, and a number of reliefs the gift of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and of J. Pierpont Morgan-from the palace at Nimrud of Ashur-nasir-apal II, who reigned over Assyria from 885 to 860 B. C. a Greek statue, the best preserved of the early Attic "Apollos"; Roman copies of two statues, the Diadoumenos and the Amazon, by Polykleitos; Greek and Roman pottery, including four colossal Dipylon vases, three large kraters-one in black-figure with the Return of Hephaistos, two in red-figure with battle scenes --and a group of Arretine ware; bronzes from the 8th century B. C. to the 3rd century A. D.; wall paintings from a villa at Boscoreale near Pompeii; a collection of ancient glass, one of the finest in the world; Etruscan antiquities, including a bronze chariot and three colossal terracottas all these for ancient art alone.
FAR EASTERN ART
The Museum possesses a collection of Far Eastern art, various phases of which are world famous from the standpoint both of extent and quality. The Chinese sculpture group is the most important unit. It contains superb pieces ranging in date from the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) to the Ming (1368-1644). Recently acquired sculptures which should be especially noted are the great Wei dynasty stele dated A. D. 533-543, a black marble stele of the Tang dynasty (undated), and a small wood figure dated A. D. 1282. A few early Chinese bronzes are among the most celebrated in the world, notably the Chou dynasty (1122-256 B.C.) altar set formerly belonging to the viceroy, Tuan Fang, and two Buddhist altarpieces of the Wei dynasty (A.D. 386-557). The collection of paintings, Chinese and Japanese, is still limited to a minor place among the collections of the world, although a few fine examples are included. In the field of the so-called decorative arts the Museum is particularly fortunate. A room of early Chinese pottery is one of the most brilliant exhibits in the Far Eastern collection, and the later decorated porcelains form a group which is surpassed nowhere. The collection of Japanese and Korean pottery and porcelain, while not so extensive, is well chosen and of fine quality. The Bishop Collection of 18th century jades is too well known to need comment, and here it should be noted that the Museum possesses also a few early ceremonial jades. Recently there has been added an adequately representative group of cloisonne. The collection of Chinese textiles of the later periods is very rich. The Japanese textile collection is steadily gaining in importance and size. and these textiles, together with the collections of lacquers, color prints, and sword guards, demonstrate the Japanese genius for design.
NEAR EASTERN ART
The collection of Near Eastern art exemplifies the decorative arts of the Muhammadan countries. A number of Syrian mosque lamps and other pieces of enameled glass of the 13th and 14th centuries are among the rarest and most precious objects. A 14th Century Iranian prayer niche of faience mosaic is an outstanding exhibit. The Persian and Indian manuscripts and miniature paintings, including those in the Alexander Smith Cochran Collection, represent some of the greatest names in Persian calligraphy and painting from the 15th to the 18th century. The collection of rugs, enriched through the gift of James F. Ballard, is
istic specimens the development of rug weaving in the Orient. Fine examples of pottery illustrate the development of ceramic art in the Near East. The domed room from a Jaina temple represents the art of woodcarving in India. It is supplemented by an extensive collection of Indian and Tibetan jewelry, Indian miniatures of all schools and periods, and some remarkable examples of early Indian stone carving.
PAINTINGS, AMERICAN AND FOREIGN
The collection of paintings, including oils, pastels, and water colors, numbers over 2,500 and represents creditably the Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Flemish, German, French, English, and American schools.
Appropriately for an American museum, American paintings occupy more gallery space than those of any other school. Among the artists whose works are represented are Abbey, Allston, Bingham, Blackburn, Blakelock, Cassatt, Chase, Copley, Eakins, Homer, Inness, Martin, Morse, Peale, Ryder, Sargent, Stuart, Sully, Trumbull, West, Whistler. Öne gallery is devoted to the showing of contemporary American paintings, acquired chiefly through funds established by George A.
The European masterpieces include two Raphaels, a large number of Rembrandts, and important works by Bellini, Botticelli, Boucher, Bouts, Bruegel, Brouwer, Cézanne, Constable, Corot, Courbet. Daumier, David, Degas, Delacroix, Dürer, Fra Angelico, Gainsborough, Giorgione, Goya, El Greco, Guardi, Hals, Holbein, Ingres, Lawrence, Manet, Mantegna, Memling, Monet, Poussin, Renoir, Reynolds, Robert, Rubens, Tintoretto, Titian, Turner, Van der Weyden, Van Dyck, Van Eyck, Velazquez, Vermeer, Veronese. Watteau, and other masters.
Special collections of note include: the Benjamin Altman Collection (notable for Dutch paintings, Renaissance decorative arts, and Oriental rugs and ceramics); the Theodore M. Davis Collection (notable for Italian paintings, Egyptian antiquities, and European and Oriental decorative arts); the Michael Friedsam Collection (notable for early French and Netherlandish paintings and European and Oriental decorative arts); the H. O. Havemeyer Collection (notable for modern French Paintings, Oriental paintings and decorative arts, and prints).
The Pierpont Morgan Collection, the gift of the late J. Pierpont Morgan and of his son J. P. Morgan, fills an entire wing and is a priceless gathering of the decorative arts of Europe from the Gallo-Roman and Merovingian periods to the end of the 18th century. The rarest and most precious section of the collection represents the supreme work of the Byzantine and mediaeval goldsmiths, enamelers, and ivory carvers.
The most comprehensive single collection included in the Pierpont Morgan Collection is that brought together by Georges Hoentschel of Paris, decorator and collector. It consists of two parts: sculpture, furniture, textiles, ivories, woodwork, and architectural fragments of the Gothic period, chiefly of French, Flemish, Dutch, German, Spanish, and Italian origin; and French decorative arts of the 17th and 18th centuries-furniture, woodwork (many examples from historic buildings), decorative paintings, and ormolu fittings. This large collection is augmented by a shop front from the Quai Bourbon, Paris, and a suite of three Louis XVI rooms (salon, library, and bedchamber) from the Hotel Gaulin at Dijon.
Among the treasures of the Pierpont Morgan Collection are five Gothic tapestries from a set known as the Sacrament Set because they picture the Sacraments of the Church; two sculptured groups, an Entombment and a Pietà from the famous Chateau de Biron in southwestern France: superb examples of the goldsmith's craft, from the 15th to the 18th century; a unique collection of snuff-boxes, vanity boxes. scent bottles, and dance programs, signed by jamous jewelers of the 18th century; and a large collection of watches, representative of the work of the best craftsmen in Europe from the 16th to the 19th century.
In addition to the material in the Pierpont Morgan Wing there are extensive collections of European decorative arts-furniture, tapestries, textiles, metalwork, ceramics, and glass-ranging from the Gothic to the modern period, in other galleries of the Museum. There is, too, an excellent representation of sculpture, both E pean and American.
AMERICAN DECORATIVE ARTS Another wing, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. de Forest, is devoted to American decorative arts from the 17th through the first quarter of the 19th century. In rooms reconstructed in most cases with original woodwork, there have been assembled furniture, metalwork, ceramics, glass, prints, and paintings to present the characteristic The third floor background of our ancestors.
rooms date from about 1640 through the first half of the 18th century; the second floor from the second half of the 18th century to 1793; the first floor from the end of the 18th century through the first quarter of the 19th. Geographically the rooms range from New Hampshire to Virginia.
One of the most interesting, both architecturally and historically, is the Assembly Room from the City Tavern, Alexandria, Va., where Washington The attended in 1798 his last birthnight ball. south exterior wall of the wing is the facade of the United States Branch Bank, formerly at 1512 Wall An addition Street, built between 1822 and 1824. to The American Wing containing the great hall from the old Van Rensselaer Manor House, at Albany, New York, and a room from Providence, Rhode Island, was completed in 1931.
Two galleries, opened in 1934, display a comGerman Pennsylvania prehensive collection of decorative arts of the 18th and 19th centuries, the gift of Mrs. Robert W. de Forest.
ARMS AND ARMOR.
The collection of arms and armor is grouped in three main divisions-Europe, the Near East with the Malay Peninsula and Netherland India, and Japan and China. The European objects, which in Scope and quality rank with those in European national collections, date mainly from 1400 to 1800. The Near Eastern section includes many noteworthy objects in the main galleries, while types which are instructive for comparison are available in the study collection. The Japanese section is the most comprehensive outside Japan.
The European collection is a representative one from the technical, historical, and artistic standpoints, including signed works of many of the best-known artist-armorers of Augsburg, Nuremberg, and Milan, and over 450 objects with historical associations. War equipment; an unusual series of horse armor; enriched harnesses for tournament, procession, or court ceremonies; enriched arms used on state occasions or in the chase-all attest to the high degree of artistic conception and skill in execution achieved in hard metal. Among many noteworthy objects are the embossed casque signed by Philip de Negroli of Milan, the Michelangelo of armorers; the embossed shield of Henry II of France; the richly etched and gilded armor for man and horse, dated 1527, of Galiot de Genouilhac, Grand Master of Artillery of France; four harnesses from the English Royal Armory at Greenwich, all having belonged to privileged nobles of Elizabeth's reign, one of whom, George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland, had been her Champion; and the chiseled sword of Ambrogio di Spinola, famous commander-in-chief in the Netherlands.
The collection of firearms is comprehensive, showing the development of the various mechanisms, as well as every form of enrichment both of barrel and stock.
The Japanese arms and armor cover the entire feudal era of Japan from the 12th to the 19th century, with many primitive elements antedating
the 7th century A.D. The armor, though beautiful in color and in treatment of its decorative detail, was worn with masks in the form of monsters to inspire terror. The sword, which for centuries has been reverenced by the Japanese, is well represented. Among the most esteemed artists of Japan are included makers of swords and sword fittings. These swords and their mountings exemplify phases of art entirely original with the Japanese, and the continuous demand for sword furniture fostered the establishment of many famous schools, most of which are well represented in the Museum's collection.
The Near Eastern section includes armor and weapons from Turkey, India, and Persia. Here is a group of Turkish helmets, which date from the time when Constantinople, taken by the Turks in 1453, ceased to be the eastern capital of the Roman Empire and became the seat of the Ottoman doSwords and daggers also form a noteminion. worthy section. Outstanding are blades of watered steel, hilts and blades set with precious and semiprecious stones, richly carved jade grips, and pierced and sculptured steel hilts from the armory collection are exhibited rich krisses from the Malay of the last king of Tanjore. With the Near Eastern Peninsula and Netherland India.
The Print Study Room makes available to the public a collection of prints and illustrated books representing the history of engraving, etching, woodcutting, and lithography. Here, for example, one may see large and important groups of prints by such famous artists as the Master E. S. Schongauer, Mantegna, Marcantonio, Dürer, Holbein, Rembrandt, Goya, Daumier, Delacroix, Meryon, Haden, and Whistler. The Print Department was started in 1917. It contains modern prints from the Harris Brisbane Dick Collection, Rembrandt etchings from the H. O. Havemeyer Collection and that of George Coe Graves, engravings and woodcuts by Dürer from the collection of Junius S. Morgan, Americana from that of Charles Allen Munn, the William E. Baillie Collection of book plates, and primitive woodcuts from the The history of James C. McGuire Collection. book illustration is shown in a special collection. THE CLOISTERS
A branch of the Metropolitan Museum devoted to European mediaeval art, located in Fort Tryon Park in a new building which was opened in May. 1938. The site and the funds for the construction were the gift of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. The collections include not only the mediaeval material brought together by George Grey Barnard, presented to the Museum by Mr, Rockefeller in 1925 and formerly shown at 698 Fort Washington Avenue, together with objects subsequently added by Mr. Rockefeller, but also many objects now exhibited at The Cloisters for the first time. Notable among the recent acquisitions are the 12th century from doorway chapter house from Pontaut, the 13th century sculptured Moutiers-Saint-Jean, four 15th century windows from Sens, and the famous 15th century tapestries depicting The Hunt of the Unicorn-the outstanding set of Gothic tapestries in this country.
The Newark, N. J., Museum
Source: An Official of the Institution
The Newark Museum, dedicated to art, science, education and industry, is on Washington Street, across from Washington Park. The original building, given to the city in 1926 by Louis Bamberger, contains the Museum's exhibition galleries, a reference library, the Science and Registrar's Departments.
The Museum owns one of the outstanding collections of Tibetan art and ethnology in this country. Among its other important possessions are Japanese netsukes and other Oriental art objects; a representative collection of American paintings and sculpture acquired gradually and with discrimination from the time of its founding, including contemporary works and "primitives"; some 6,000 coins representative of all nations; 200 moving models showing the art and science of mechanics. The collections of the Science Department cover the fields of astronomy, the earth sciences, biology and man.
The Museum's Educational work is extensive both
in direct service to the schools and independently in the Junior Museum. Close cooperation exists between the schools and the Museum. More than 12,000 school children come annually to see the exhibits, special exhibits being arranged to coincide with the school curriculum. In addition the Museum has some 8,000 objects of visual education which are lent to the schools for class use. The Junior Museum Club has an enrollment of 7,680 and an active membership of 600. In 1940 there was a total attendance of 8,000 at Club activities. such as modeling, drawing and other forms of art and craftwork, nature study, playwriting and the publication of Drums, a quarterly magazine.
The Museum has frequently changing exhibits in art, ethnology, industry and science. Each season a series of free concerts is given on Sunday afternoons, a Natural Science program is offered by the Science Department, gallery talks and demonstrations are given in connection with current exhibits. An invitingly furnished Members' Room is set aside for the use of members.