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The National Gallery of Art
Source: An Oficial of the Institution The National Gallery of Art. situated on the area also to be an art reference library on the ground bounded by Seventh Street, Constitution Avenue, floor. The equipment of the Gallery is of the Fourth Street, and Madison Drive on the Mall in latest and most modern type, and the entire buildWashington, D. C., was established by the Act of ing is air conditioned. Congress of March 24, 1937. The National Gallery
Collections is a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution.
The principal collections of art comprise over 500 The building. costing about $15,000,000,
was erected with funds given by
paintings and pieces of sculpture. the late Andrew W.
In addition to Mellon. It was completed under the direction of
providing the building, Mr. Mellon also gave his Paul Mellon, Donald D. Shepard, and David K. E.
collection consisting of 126 paintings and 24 pieces Bruce, Trustees of The A. W. Mellon Educational
of sculpture, the latter largely from the Dreyfus
Collection. and Charitable Trust. The architect for the build
These paintings cover the various ing was the late John Russell Pope. Following his
European schools from the 13th Century to the death in 1937, his associates, Otto R. Eggers and
18th, and include such masterpieces as Raphael's Daniel P. Higgins of New York, carried the work
Alba Madonna." "The Niccolini-Cowper Mato completion.
donna,' and Saint George and the Dragon": Van The building is one of the largest marble struc
Eyck's "Annunciation': Botticelli's "Adoration of tures in the world, 785 feet in length and built in
the Magi"; nine Rembrandts, and three Vermeers. a dignified and simple classical style.
Twenty-one paintings in the Mellon Collection The ex
came from terior walls are of rose-white marble. The Gallery
the famous Hermitage Gallery in contains over 500.000 square feet of floor space. Of
Leningrad. this approximately 238,000 square feet are for
In giving the building and his collection for the exhibition purposes. At the time of its inaugura
National Gallery, Mr. Mellon expressed the hope tion by the President of the United States on
that others would contribute works of art of a March 17, 1941. only about half of the space avail
similar standard of quality for the benefit of the able for exhibition was opened to the public. The
public and as a lasting contribution to the cultural remainder has been left for development as ex
advancement of the Nation, panding collections in the future may require.
The first great collection to come to the Gallery The central architectural feature of the Gallery
since Mr. Mellon's death, was that of Mr. Samuel is the rotunda, vaulted with a coffered dome sup
H. Kress of New York. This collection of Italian ported by 24 columns of dark green marble. The
art, one of the most complete ever amassed by a diameter of the rotunda and the height of the
single individual, contains 375 paintings and 18 dome from the marble floor both measure 100 feet.
pieces of sculpture. Included in the Kress ColFlanking the rotunda on either side are two long
lection are such masterpieces as "The Calling of galleries for larger pieces of sculpture. At the end
Peter and Andrew" from Duccio's "Maesta": of each of these galleries is a garden court, with a
Giotto's "Madonna," formerly in the Goldman colonnade of 16 monoliths of Indiana limestone.
Collection; and Giorgione's Adoration of the In the center of each court has been installed a
Shepherds," from the collection of Viscount Allen17th Century fountain from the Park of Versailles,
dale. Exhibits of plants and flowers are rotated during
Works of virtually all the important Italian the year. At the time of the opening of the
painters from the 13th to the 18th Centuries, and Gallery, the exhibit of flowers was devoted to a
varied representation of Italian Renaissance collection of acacias given by Mr. Joseph E.
sculptors are included. In addition, Mr. Kress has Widener of Philadelphia.
placed on loan to the National Gallery a number From the two large sculpture galleries, open
of fine paintings and several outstanding pieces of smaller and more intimate rooms in which are
Italian and French sculpture. shown paintings and smaller pieces of sculpture.
In 1940, the Trustees of the Gallery acquired The lighting of these galleries is from above,
from The A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Special glass filters an abundance of clear, diffused
Trust eleven early American portraits including a light into the exhibition galleries. Natural light is
Vaughan-type portrait of Washington by Gilbert supplemented by artificial light on dark days.
Stuart, and The Washington Family" by Edward The style of the exhibition galleries is varied Savage. This gift was followed by a loan of according to the type or school of art shown.
several portraits of the same period. A group of Plaster walls with travertine trim are used for the
early American portraits has also been lent to the early Italian rooms. Damask wall coverings with
National Gallery from the well-known Chester travertine trim are used for the later Italian
Dale Collection of New York, The permanent paintings. Later Flemish and Dutch masters are collection of paintings and sculpture has also been shown against oak panelling. Eighteenth Century supplemented by a gift of prints from Miss Ellen French, English, and American paintings are shown
T. Bullard and three anonymous donors. The against wood panelling painted in colors ranging
print collection which covers the most important from light ash green to white. Galleries already periods of print-making contains examples of fine inished and ready to receive at some time in the impressions from Pollaiuolo to Turner. future 19th and early 20th Century paintings have
The Widener Collection, Elkins Park, Philawalls hung with denicron cloth with wood trim delphia, is expected to become a part of the painted light gray.
permanent collection at a date not yet announced. On the ground floor, galleries have been opened The collection is one of the finest and best known to the public for the purpose of showing a sup
in the United States. plementary collection of paintings. In addition, a Space does not permit a complete listing of the large gallery has been prepared for showing prints,
works of art now in the National Gallery. It is drawings, and temporary exhibitions of paintings. nevertheless, possible to suggest the richness of Likewise on the ground floor, have been installed the permanent collection by a brief enumeration for the benefit of the public a smoking room, an of some of the more important painters whose auditorium for lectures, and a cafeteria. There is works are now on exhibition:
Italian School-Fra Angelico, Antonello da MesAmerican School-Copley, Savage, Stuart, Trum
sina, Giovanni Bellini, Botticelli, Cimabue. Duccio. bull, West.
Filippino Lippi, Masaccio, Masolino, Perugino, British School-Constable, Gainsborough, Law
Raphael, Titian, Veronese.
Spanish Schools Goya, El Greco, Velazquez, rence, Raeburn, Reynolds. Romney. Turner.
Sculpture Dutch School Cuyp, Frans Hals, Hobbema, French School-Clodion, Legros. Maes, Mor, Metsu, Rembrandt, Terborch, Vermeer. Italian Schools---Agostino di Duccio, Amadeo,
Flemish School-David, van Eyck, Memling. Desiderio da Settignano, Donatello, Giovanni Rubens, Van Dyck, van der Weyden.
Bclogna, Laurana. Mino da Fiesole. Andrea della French School-Chardin, Lancret.
Robbia, Antonio Rossellino, Jacopo Sansovino, German School-Durer, Holbein the Younger. Verrocchio.
KRESS COLLECTION OF ITALIAN ART Painting-Fra Angelico, Andrea del Sarto, Baldo- Rotari, Salviati, Sassetta, Sodoma, Tiepolo, Tintovinetti, Bartolommeo Veneto, Giovanni and Jacopo retto, Titian, Veronese, Verrocchio. Bellini, Bordone, Botticelli, Canaletto, Carpaccio. Sculpture-Amadeo, Benedetto da Malano. Civi. Catena, Cima, Correggio. Cossa, Crivelli, Daddi, tale. Desiderio da Settignano, Pietro Lombardo, Domenico Veneziano, Duccio, Gentile da Fabriano, Mino da Fiesole, Andrea della Robbia, Antonio Giorgione, Giotto, Giovanni di Paolo, Guardi, Rossellino, Tino di Camaino, Verrocchio. Filippino and Filippo Lippi, Pietro Longhi, Pietro In addition Mr. Kress has placed on loan Lorenzetti, Lotto. Luini, Magnasco, Mantegna, sculptures by Coysevox, Carpeaux, Pilon, Bernini, Masolino, Moroni, Panini. Perguino, Piero di Co- and Vittoria. simo. Pintoricchio, Pontormo, Raphael. Roberti. Prints --The print collection contains over 300 NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART (Continued) items. Among the artists represented are: Alt- Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays. Arrangedorfer, Baldung. Blake, Jacopo de Barbari, ments may be made for the members of the guide Brueghel, Canaletto, Dürer, Duvet, Goya, Ingres,
and docent staff to conduct the public and school Lucas van Leyden, Manitegna, Meryon, Nanteuil,
classes through the building without charge. Piranesi,
Board of Trustees and executive officers of the Raimondi, Rembrandt, Schongauer.
National Gallery of Art-Ex Officio: The Chief Turner, Whistler.
Justice of the United States, Chairman; the SecGallery Free to the Public
retary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, The National Gallery of Art is open to the General-David K. E. Bruce, President: Ferdipublic every day in the year except Christmas Day nand Lammot Belin, Vice President; Duncan and New Year's Day from 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Phillips. Samuel H. Kress, Joseph E. Widener. on weekdays, and from 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. on Secretary-Treasurer and General Counsel: Donald Sundays. There is no charge for admission. Copy- D. Shepard; director, David E. Finley: administraing is permitted upon application for permission tor, Harry A. McBride: chief curator, John Walker: during the hours the Gallery is open, except on assistant director, Macgill James.
The Pierpont Morgan Library
Source: Officials of the Institution The Pierpont Morgan Library, 29-33 E 36th Italian playing cards, 15th Century, illustrates the St., N. Y. City, consists of collections formed by game of Tarocco.
Authors' the late J. P. Morgan, who died in 1913, with addi
Autograph Manuscripts, principally
English, American, French, and Italian. tions made by his son and namesake, present head of the banking house. The Library was incorpo
Autograph letters and documents of Western
European and American historical and literary rated, March 26, 1924, by the Legislature-"to pre
personages, artists, and others, dating from the serve, protect and give permanence to the collec- Eleventh to the Twentieth Century. tions ... to render them available, under suitable Printed books dating from the inception of regulations and restrictions having regard to their printing in Europe (ca. 1455) to the Twentieth nature and value, to scholars and persons en- Century gaged in the work of research and to those inter- This section includes first and early editions of ested in literature, art and kindred subjects, to classical, mediaeval, and Renaissance texts in the disseminate and contribute to the advancement of fields of science, history, liturgy, theology, literauseful information and knowledge, to encourage ture, romance, etc. The section devoted to French and develop study and research and generally to dramatists and other French writers of the sixconduct an institution of educational value to the teenth to the eighteenth century is nearly complete public and fulfil the objects and purposes set forth in first as well as in later editions. The Library and expressed in said Deed of Trust."
is particularly strong in the field of English history. In this way the Collections were freely dedicated liturgy, and literature, generally first editions, to world scholarship.
commencing with an important collection of books
from the press of the first English printer, William Facilities Available to Students
Caxton (1475-1491), through the nineteenth cenThe facilities of The Pierpont Morgan Library tury are freely available to all students pursuing study
Early Gospel Texts or research in the fields covered by the various collections in the Library. A summary of these col- Among the early printed books are the Bible in lections will be found below.
Latin. Mainz Johann Gutenberg, ca. 1455. Printed The entire Library (2 buildings) is open daily on Vellum, 2 volumes. The so-called "Gutenberg except Saturday afternoons, Sundays, legal holi- Bible" is the first printed Bible and the first work days, and the month of August, from 9:00 a, m. to
of any considerable size to have been printed in 4:45 p. m. There is no charge at any time. Open
Europe. This Bible must have been printed before to the public.
24 August 1456, on which day the rubricator of the Original material from all divisions in the Li- copy now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris brary, with the exception of paintings and works of completed his work. As the copy in the Mazarin art, may be used by the students in the Reading Library was the first to attract general interest, Room. A large collection of reference material, in- this Bible has been known as the "Mazarin Bible. cluding many volumes now rare or out of print, is
The Bible, in Italian, Vindelinus de Spira, 1471also available.
Printed on vellum. Two volumes. The first Bible A card permitting the holder to use the Reading to appear in Italian. The translator was Niccolo Room will be issued to accredited students either Malermi, a Venetian, and the Bible is sometimes on application at the Library or upon written re- spoken of as the 'Malermi Bible.' The present quest.
copy is extremely fine, being ornamented with Upon reasonable advance notice, special exhibi- splendid illuminations, the work of a Venetian tions will be arranged for classes pursuing study miniaturist. This Italian Bible is considerably in a particular field. The Reading Room is at the rarer than the somewhat more famous 'Gutenberg disposal of such classes except when a lecture is Bible.' Only five complete copies are known; this ing held there.
one is the only copy in America. The staff of the Library is glad to render any The Bible, in llebrew. Soncino, Joshua Salomon possible assistance either in person or by correspon- ben Israel, 1488 --The first edition of the Hebrew dence.
Bible, i.e. Old Testament. The only copy in
America. Although portions of it had appeared The Exhibition Room
prior to this edition, the whole of the Old TestaExhibition Room, 29 East 36. Exhibitions of ment here appears in print for the first time. material are held throughout the year, They are Costume, Collection of books and prints, reprofrequently changed.
ducing and detailing costumes of all ages. Principal Collections in the Library--Assyrian
Bookbindings, including metal bookcovers, from and Babylonian Seals, Cylinders, and Cuneiform the Eighth to the Twentieth Century. Tablets Egyptian, Greek, and other Papyri. Mediaeval
Jeweled Book Covers and Renaissance Manuscripts from the Sixth to Included in the examples of metal book covers is the Sixteenth Century.
a gold and jeweled cover, French, 9th Century, The collection of over eight hundred volumes is considered the most finished specimen of Carolin. especially notable for its Illuminated manuscripts, gian goldsmith's work in existence. The figures as well as for those of particular interest for their in repoussé relief depict Christ crucified, mourned textual content.
by the sun and moon, the Virgin Mary, St. John, Among these are the Four Gospels, in Latin, two Holy Women, and four angels. French, 9th Century. The entire text is written Original drawings by European artists from the in letters of burnished gold on vellum of varying Fourteenth to the Nineteenth century. shades of purple. There are lectionaries, psalters, Etching by Rembrandt, Including examples of missals and breviaries. A description of animals nearly all of his work in this medium, in first as in Persian, dates from the 13th Century.
A copy well as in later states. The finest and most comof Aesop's Fables in Greek, was done in Italy in the plete collection in the country. ulth Century A manuscript, illuminated, of Frois- English and other Mezzotints from the first sart's chronicles, is in French, 15th Century. Hours mezzotint by von Siegen (ca. 1609--ca. 1680) of the Virgin manuscripts and those of the Four through the artists of the Nineteenth Century. The Gospels abound in the collection. A set of 35 collection numbers over 2000 items.
The Frick Collection
Source: Officials of the Institution The Collection, 1 E. 70th St., N. Y. City. was Adriaen de Vries, Jonghelinck, Derbais, Girardon, formed by the late Henry Clay Frick (1849-1919) Pajou, and Houdon--of whose famous Diana & of Pittsburgh and New York. In his will he
unique terra cotta version is here. directed that his New York house and the art
The Collection further includes Limoges painted
enamels of the 16th century, with pieces by collection it contained be made permanently
Nardon Pénicaud, Léonard Limosin, Martial Reyaccessible to the public, for the purpose of "en- mond, and Jean Court; 17th and 18th century couraging and developing the study of the fine
Chinese and French porcelains; English, French, arts, and of advancing the general knowledge of and Italian period furniture, and a few rare Perkindred subjects." With this end in view Mr. sian rugs. Frick provided a fund for maintenance and acqui- These works of art are not displayed as in the sitions, stipulating only that his wife should have conventional museum but are the furnishing and the right to remain in occupation during her decoration of an early 20th-century house which lifetime. After Mrs. Frick's death in 1931 the is itself a part of the Collection. One of the Trustees caused the house to be remodelled in rooms is an oak-panelled library, with all its part and considerably enlarged. The additions, books and bronzes where their owner left them. designed to harmonize with the residence built Another is a drawingroom, containing French on the site of the Lenox Library in 1913-14 by 18th-century furniture of exceptional interest and Carrère & Hastings, comprise the Entrance Hall, a notable series of wall-panels by Fragonard. A Check Room, and Catalogue Sales-room, the Court, third, reproducing an 18th-century boudoir, is the circular Lecture Room, the East Gallery, and decorated with panels which Boucher painted for the Oval Room. The doors were opened to the
Madame de Pompadour. public on December 16th, 1935.
One feature of the house is a fine organ, which The principal part of the Collection consists of a sound-transmission system makes audible in a 14th to 19th century paintings, several of which number of the rooms. have been acquired since Mr. Frick's death. Illustrated talks on the schools and masters Among the masters represented are Duccio, Cas- represented in the Collection are given every aftertagno, Piero della Franceseca, Gentile and Gio- noon except Monday and Tuesday. at 3 o'clock. vanni Bellini, Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese, Hol- Admission free. Closed on Mondays; also on bein, Hals, Van Wyck, Rembrandt, Terborch. Ruis. Decoration Day. Independence Day, Labor Day. dael, Vermeer, El Greco, Velasquez, Goya, Gauguin, and Christmas; but open from 1 to 5 on New Boucher, Fragonard, Chardin, Ingres, Cézanne, Ho- Year's Day, Lincoln's Birthday, Columbus Day, garth, Gainsborough, Reynolds, Romney, Rae- Election Day and Thanksgiving. burn, Constable, Turner and Whistler.
Hours: 10 to 5 on week days; 1 to 5 on Sundays. There are also bronzes and portrait busts by Children under ten not admitted; those under Vecchietta, Laurana, Bertoldo, Pollaiuolo, Bellano, sixteen to be accompanied by adults. Riccio, Cellini, Giovanni Bologna, Hans Vischer, A wheeled chair is at the disposal of visitors.
The National Gallery of Canada
Source: Officials of the Institution The National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa was Hunt, Millais, Leighton, Brangwyn, McEvoy, John, founded by the Marquis of Lorne, Governor-General McTaggart, Orpen, Lavery and others. of the Dominion, in 1880, and was organized in its
The collection of Canadian painting, sculpture, present form under a Board of Trustees in 1913.
and graphic arts is the most complete in existence. Its purposes are: to build up as representative as
The National Gallery is also entrusted with the
care of the Canadian War Memorials Collection, possible a collection of the art of all periods; and
comprising over one thousand works, mainly by to encourage and cultivate correct artistic taste
Canadian and British artists, and Canadian public interest in the fine arts.
The Department of Prints and Drawings conContinual additions to the collection in the past tains some fine examples of the great Italian, thirty years have helped to fulfil the first func- Netherlands, German, French and English schools tion. The collection includes works by the follow- of engraving from their beginnings to present ing artists: Italian--three Giottesque panels, times, and drawings and watercolors by various stucco statuette by Desiderio da Settignano, Neri masters of the same schools, including such ardi Bicci, Giovanni Bellini, Botticelli, Piero de Co- tists 45 Raphael, Bassano, Jan Brueghel, Elsimo, Cariani, Sebastiano del Piombo, Montagna, sheimer, Goya, Claude, Watteau, Daumier, and Luini, Andrea del Sarto, Bronzino, Moroni, Vero- Rowlandson. nese (3), Titian, Tintoretto (3), Canaletto (4) Pa. To discharge its second function, the National nini. Luca Giordano, Baldrighi; Netherlands and Gallery has evolved a system of loan exhibitions German-Van Scorel, Solomon Van Ruysdael, Jan which cover the Dominion from coast to coast. Lievens, Anthony More (2). Jan Prevost, Rubens These are collections of from ten to twenty pic(2), Van Dyck (2), Rembrandt, Lucas Cranach the tures, mostly Canadian, which are sent to any Elder, Bartel Beham, de Bruyn, Spanish--El Greco, institution or art body having facilities for keepRibera, Murillo, Goya; French-Claude, Chardin, ing them on free public exhibition. They are Perroneau, Corot (3) Millet, Boudin, Cottet, Degas, usually lent for a year, and the only expense to Monet, Pissarro. Sisley, Cézanne; British-14th the borrower is the cost of transferring the pictures Century Primitive, Hans Eworth, Lely, Hogarth, from and to Ottawa. The National Gallery also Kneller, Ramsay, Reynolds (3), Hoppner, Gains- circulates in the chief cities exhibitions of British borough (2), Morland, Crome (2), Romley, Beechey, and foreign works, brought to Canada for that Constable, Turner (2), Bonington, Etty, Holman purpose.
California Palace, Legion of Honor, San Francisco
Source: An Official of the Institution The California Palace of the Legion of Honor approximately 100 pieces, many of them selected by was built and given to the City of San Francisco the Master himseli. in 1924 by the late Adolph B. Spreckels and his The building contains many gifts, including wife, Alma de Bretteville Spreckels, as a memorial those presented by the French Government at the to the 3,600 California heroes who gave their lives time the Museum was opened. Among these are in the last World War.
tapestries, representing the life of Jeanne d'Arc, a Situated in Lincoln Park, the Museum overlooks collection of Sevres, photographs and books on art the Golden Gate and the Pacific Ocean. The struc- for the library. ture is acclaimed by many world travelers as "more More recent gifts are paintings, sculpture, beautiful than the Taj Mahal."
tapestries and furniture from the Collis Potter A Triumphal Arch, surrounded by colonades, Huntington Memorial Collection and the Mildred constitutes the entrance to the Palace, and extends Anna Williams Collection. The latter (originally into the Court of Honor, surrounded by Ionic col- containing some 60 paintings by many of the leadumns. In the center of the Court is Rodin's ing masters of the principal European schools from "Thinker."
the 16th to the 19th centuries, three tapestries and Inside the building are 19 galleries filled with furniture of the Louis XV Period) is being enriched paintings, sculpture, tapestries, porcelains, furni- through gifts of H. K. S. Williams, husband of ture and other treasures. There are two palm the late Mildred Anna Williams. courts where semi-tropical plants and flowers Throughout the Museum are objects of art given abound. A little theatre and specially designed by the Spreckels family. These include a group o? organ afford opportunities for plays and concerts. works of Theodore Reviere, comprising almost i
Two entire galleries are devoted to the Spreckels' life work of the artist, and more than 150 bron? collection of Rodin sculptures, of which there are by the late Arthur Putnam, animal sculptor.
The Library of Congress
Source: An Official of the Institution The Library of Congress was established April | those made by the Historical American Buildings 24, 1800, by Act of Congress; was burned by British Survey) and a Cabinet of American Illustration troops August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812, (a collection of originals of published drawings by and was re-established by the purchase of Thomas American artists). Jefferson's Library, January 30, 1815. It is now The Music Division, besides possessing what is one of the largest libraries in the world, occupying probably the largest collection of music in the two buildings opposite the United States Capitol world, administers the Archive of American Folk. providing altogether nearly 36 acres of floor space, Song. In specially constructe
Age Cham414 miles of bookshelves and 20 reading rooms, ber Music Auditorium are presented series of pubbesides 225 individual study tables and 266 study lic concerts provided by the income from the rooms for the use of research workers.
Coolidge and Whittall Foundations. of recent On March 1, 1941, the Library contained 6,253,800 establishment is its sound laboratory, equipped to books and pamphlets, 1,469,207 maps and charts, make recordings both of concert music and of folk 1,622,923 volumes and pieces of music, over half music in the field, to provide transcriptions of such a million prints (etchings, engravings, woodcuts, recordings to be sold at cost, and to accomplish lithographs, photographs, etc.) and uncounted mil- other projects in recording and broadcasting. lions of items of manuscript material.
In addition to the usual library functions, the The collection, covering every branch of human Library of Congress maintains a legislative referknowledge and culture, is especially strong in ence service for assistance to Congress; it not only United States and Hispano-American history, has its own service of embossed books and phonoAmerican and foreign newspapers (over 100.000 graph book-recordings for the blind, but it is also bound volumes), government documents (federal, the agency for supplying copies of these books to state, municipal and foreign), maps and atlases. twenty-six other distributing libraries for the blind The law library comprises nearly half a million throughout the country. It effects large savings volumes; the aeronautics library is the largest in to other libraries through the sale of its printed the world; the collection of Chinese and Japanese catalog cards (current stock, 125,000,000 cards). It books is unequalled outside of China or Japan; maintains a union card catalog containing over the Russian books outnumber those in any other ten million entries for the more important books library outside of Russia and the Semitic collec- in 800 American and foreign libraries, a complete tion is of outstanding importance.
photoduplication service (photostat and microThe collections of the Division of Manuscripts Alm), and an interlibrary loan service. relate chiefly to American history and civilization; The Copyright Office, administered by the Regthey include the original records of the Conti- ister of Copyrights, forms part of the Library of nental Congress, many colonial and revolutionary Congress. It receives annually over 250,000 books, documents and the papers of nearly all the Presi- pamphlets, prints, maps, etc., as deposits which dents of the United States, as well as many leaders for the most part become part of the permanent in political, industrial and cultural life. They con- collections of the Library; and it turns into the tain also photographic reproductions of over two Treasury over $300,000 a year collected as fees. million pages of manuscripts in English, French, On permanent exhibition in the Library are the German, Spanish and other European libraries and originals of the Declaration of Independence and archives made on account of their importance for of the Constitution of the United States, also the American history.
Whittall collection of Stradivari violins, housed in The rare book collection includes about 128,321 the Whittall Pavilion. items, among them 5.000 incunabula, 25.000 early The Library is open to the public every day in Americana, many rare editions and fine bindings the year except Christmas: week-days 9 a.m. to 10 and one of the three or four perfect vellum copies p.m. (except Saturdays, July-September to 1 p.m.; of the Gutenberg Bible. The Fine Arts Division October-June to 6 p.m.); Sundays and holidays. comprises, in addition to books, a notable collec- 2 to 10 p.m. tion of classic and modern prints, a Pictorial Ar- The Librarian of Congress, Archibald MacLeish. chive of Early American Architecture (28.000 pho- The Librarian of Congress Emeritus, Herbert tographs and 20,000 measured drawings, including 1 Putnam.
The Smithsonian Institution
Source: An Official of the Institution The Smithsonian Institution at Washington, and ethnology of America, and has large and imD. C.. was established by statute in 1846, under portant collections illustrating American history, the terms of the will of James Smithson, an
including military and naval material, as well as
valuable series relating to engineering and indusEnglishman, who bequeathed his fortune in 1826
tries. It is an educational and research museum, to the United States to found an institution for
and issues scientific publications. Its aeronautical the "increase and diffusion of knowledge among collection includes the airplane, The Spirit of St.
Louis, deposited by Col. O. A. Lindbergh, in the The Smithsonian Institution throughout its his Spring of 1928. tory has conducted and encouraged important The buildings are open to the public 9 A. M. to scientific researches, explorations, and investiga- 4:30 P. M., week days, and Sundays, 1:30 P. M. to tions, and Its_Secretaries-Joseph Henry, Spencer 4:30 PM F. Baird, S. P. Langley, Charles D. Walcoit and The National Collection of Fine Arts contains Dr. Abbot-have contributed largely to the ad- numerous important art works acquired by the vancement of knowledge.
Smithsonian Institution during the The Smithsonian issues 13 series of scientific century of its existence, including a valuable col
first halt publications which are distributed free to libraries, lection of etchings and engravings from George P. learned societies, and educational institutions Marsh; more recent are the Harriet Lane Johnston throughout the world. It also maintains a library bequest, comprising numerous portraits and other of 900.000 volumes
which consists mainly of works by British, Flemish, Dutch, and Italan transactions of learned societies, and scientific masters; the Ralph Cross Johnson collection of periodicals.
rare paintings by Italian, English, French, Flemish, Branches of the Institution are the National Mu- and Dutch masters; the William T. Evans' colseum, the National Gallery of Art, the National lection, comprising 150 examples of the works of Collection of Fine Arts, including the Freer Gallery contemporary American artists, the Gellatly col. of Art; the International Exchange Service, the lection of paintings, glassware, and other objects of Bureau of American Ethnology, the National Zoo- art. given to the Institution by the late John logical Park, the Astrophysical Observatory (with Gellatly in 1929. A unit of the National Collection field stations at Mt. Wilson, Calif., Table Mt. Calif.. of Fine Arts is the Freer Gallery of Art, the gift of Montezuma, Chile. Tyrone, New Mexico); and the Charles L. Freer, comprising rich collections of Division of Radiation and Organisms.
Chinese and Japanese art in every branch, with The United States National Museum is the depos-many paintings and etchings by Whistler, and the itory of the national collections. It is rich in the famous "Peacock Room," besides works by Thayer, natural history, geology, paleontology, archeology | Dewing. Homer, and Tryon.
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, WASHINGTON, D. C. Carrying out the object for which the Academy allotted an endowment of $5.000.000 for a suitable was incorporated by Congress, to report upon building for the Academy and its agent, the Namatters in science or art whenever called upon, the tional Research Council, and for the general Academy has often been of service to the Govern. maintenance of the Academy and Research Coun. ment.
cil. The building, which is at 2101 Constitution in 1919 the Carnegie Corporation of New York Ave., Washington, was opened April 30, 1924.
National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C.
Source: An Official of the Society The National Geographic Society, of which Dr. Lt. Col. O. A. Anderson piloted Explorer II, with a Gilbert Grosvenor is President, was founded in capacity 700,000 cubic feet greater, to a record 1888 "for the increase and diffusion of geographic height of 72,395 feet. knowledge." It played such an important role in In 1936, as leader of the Society's Mt, McKinley exploration and the advancement of science, and Expedition, Bradford Washburn successfully phohas so effectively interpreted and illustrated geog- tographed from the air that mountain and its raphy for the layman, that its membership exceeds related peaks. In 1938, Mr. Washburn discovered 1,125,000, its researches and expeditions range
in Alaska and Yukon one of the world's largest ice the ends of the earth, and its dissemination of fields and glacial systems outside the polar regions. geographic and other scientific knowledge extends During the summer of 1936 the National Geographic to every community in the world.
Society-Smithsonian Institution Archaeological ExThe Society pioneered in the study of Alaska and pedition to Bering Sea, under the leadership of Dr. in opening up that territory, It supported Peary H. B. Collins, Jr.. excavated mounds near Cape in his expeditions that culminated in the attain- Prince of Wales, discovering the first site of the old ment of the North Pole. It sent an expedition to
Eskimo "Thule Culture ever found in Alaska, and Greenland, with the U. S. Navy cooperating. confirming the fact that this culture spread eastthrough which Rear Admiral Byrd acquired the far ward from Alaska. northern flying experience that carried him to To study conditions in the photosphere, chromoboth of the earth's Poles. It cooperated and con- sphere, and corona of the sun during the eclipse tributed financially to the Byrd Antarctic Expedi- of June 8, 1937, the Society, in cooperation with tions and assigned scientific observers.
the U. S. Navy, sent an expedition to Canton A Joint expedition of the Society and Yale Uni- Island, which is on the air route from Hawaii to versity discovered the ancient city of the Incas of
New Zealand. Peru, Machu Picchu.
M. W. Stirling, leader of the National GeoIn a series of expeditions led by Dr. Neil M. graphic Society-Smithsonian Institution ArchaeoJudd, the pre-Columbian city of Pueblo Bonito logical Expedition to Vera Cruz, Mexico, Jan. 16. in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, was unearthed and
1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in restored. Other expeditions based on the work
the Americas, a Mayan stela bearing a date equivaat Pueblo Bonito, led by Dr. Andrew E. Douglass,
lent to Nov. 4, 291 B. C. In 1940, a second expediformulated a tree-ring calendar which extends the tion to Tabasco uncovered five colossal heads chronology of the southwestern United States back
sculptured in stone. Each head weighed 15 tons or to eight centuries before Columbus crossed the
more. The 1941 expedition excavating in Veracruz Atlantic
found a cache of more than 700 jade objects of Expeditions of the Society led by Dr. Joseph F. historic significance. Rock penetrated the heart of Asia Dr. Rock ex- In its work of diffusing geographic knowledge, plored gorges of the Yangtze River, rivaling those the Society relies principally on its publication, the of the Grand Canyon and sent back to America a National Geographic Magazine. rich collection of rare, ancient ceremonial books The Society has compiled and distributed among which are now in the Library of Congress.
its entire membership a series of maps. The Sociey has encouraged public interest in The Headquarters of the National Geographic National Parks and conservation. At a cost of Society in Washington contains galleries for the $100.000 it purchased and presented to the Govern- exhibition of enlarged photographs taken by its ment 2,239 acres of the finest giant sequoia and red specialists in all parts of the world. The Society and yellow pine within the Sequoia National Park. maintains a geographic library, enriched with
In 1934, the Society in cooperation with the New such collections as the Arctic and Antarctic literaYork Zoological Society made a series of deep sea ture gathered for a generation by the late Maj. explorations off Nonsuch Island, Bermuda, under Gen. Adolphus W. Greely. the leadership of Dr. William Beebe. A world The Society has awarded the Hubb Gold record depth of 3,028 feet was attained.
Medal to Peary. Amundsen, Gilbert, Shackleton, In 1934 the Society and the United States Army Stefansson, Bartlett, Byrd, Lindbergh, Andrews, Air Corps jointly sent up from the Black Hills of Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Stevens, Anderson, and South Dakota the Explorer, with a gas capacity of Ellsworth. It also awarded special gold medals to 3,000,000 cubic feet, the largest free balloon ever Peary, Amundsen, Goethals, Eckener, Byrd, Amelia constructed, which reached an altitude of 60.613 Earhart, and Thomas C. Poulter, and a gold meda) feet. On Nov. 11, 1935, Lt. Col. A. W. Stevens and to Floyd Bennett.
American Geographical Society of New York
Source: An Oficial of the Organization The American Geographical Society, Broadway 2,000 atlases, and 22,000 photographs. The read. and 156th St., N. Y. City, was organized in 1852 ing room is open to the public daily from 9 A. M. and is primarily a research institution. Its object to 4:45 P. M. (closed Saturdays during the sum
mer). is the advancement of geographical knowledge. To
From Nov. 1917 to Dec. 1918 the Society's buildthis end it carries on original investigations, issues
ing was the headquarters of experts engaged at the publications, maintains a library and map collec
request of the Department of State to compile mation, presents an annual course of lectures, and
terial for use at the Peace Conference in Paris. awards honors.
Thousands of the Society's books and maps were In 1920 intensive studies in the geography of loaned to the American Commission to Negotiate Latin America were begun, the results of which Peace. During the recent international crisis are appearing in the form of maps, monographs, wide use has been made of the Society's facilities and bibliographies, including & map of the
by agencies of the government. American continent from the Mexico-United States For outstanding achievement in exploration and boundary to Cape Horn, in conformity with the geographical research the Society awards four gold scale and style of the International Map of the medals: The Cullum Geographical Medal, founded World on the scale of 1: 1.000.000. Certain sheets by the will of Gen. George W. Cullum (awarded 37 have been used officially in negotiations for the times to date); the Charles P. Daly Medal, founded settlement of international boundary disputes in by the will of Charles P. Daly, LL.D. (awarded 30 Central and South America.
times to date); the David Livingstone Centenary Studies of the problems of settlement in the Medal, founded by the Hispanic Society of America pioneer regions of the world and in the tropics in 1913 on the One Hundredth Anniversary of the were begun in 1926 with the cooperation of the birth of David Livingstone and awarded by the National Research Council and the Social Science American Geographical Society "for scientific Research Council. And the Society has also co- achievement in the field of geography of the operated with the Canadian Pioneer Problems southern hemisphere" (awarded 17 times to date); Committee in that organization's work.
and the Samuel Finley Breese Morse Medal, The Society is aiding in the development of new founded by the will of Samuel F. B. Morse (awardand improved methods and instruments for ex- ed once). Among the Society's medalists have been ploratory surveying and in particular for mapping Robert E Peary, Fridtjof Nansen, Robert F. from air photographs.
Scott, Sir E. H. Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, The Society has sponsored many important polar Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Robert A. Bartlett, Linexpeditions, and polar explorers avall themselves coln Ellsworth, Sir Hubert Wilkins. of the facilities of the Society's library and staff in The affairs of the Society are managed by a planning new expeditions.
Council and the work of the Society is conducted The Society's collections contain more than 130,- by a professional and technical staff. The presi000 volumes of books and periodicals, 100,000 maps, dent is Roland L. Redmond.