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Distances on the Highways of Europe (Kilometers)

Source: Foreign Travel Division of the American Automobile Association

Figures show kilometers; a kilometer is 5% of a mile)

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160 672 1532 774 1918) 727 88012391367 1106 208 2330 1476 374 1198 160

5981372 614 1907 807 720 1079 1207 1132 482319 14661 2141278 6721 598 1375 180 1493 696 286 1476 773 876 550 1905 1051 749 1167 1532 1372 1375 1195 2740 2086 1089 709 1247 2157|1324 3059 2205 1294 2557

774 614 180/1195 1515 868 106 1294 601 1025 566 1927 1073 778 1339 1918 1907 1493 2740 15151 13421653 2843 1234 1121 1859 797 442 2071 1483 727 807 696/2086 868 1342 9741825 1238 325 830 1754 900 1042 471 880 720 286 1089 106 1653) 974 1188 604 1069 672 1971 1117 884/1396 1239 1079 1476 709 1294 2843 1825 1188 1573 2256 1031 315723031001 2656 1367 1207 773 1247 601 1234 1238 604 1573 1235 11671871 1017 1379 1709 1106 (1132) 876 2157 1025 1121 325 1069/2256|1235 1144 1513 659 1356 494

208 481 550 1324 566 1859 8301 672 1031 1167 1144 2271|1417 2121301 2330 2319|1905 3059 1927 797 1754/1971 3157 1871 15132271 8542483 1895 1476 1465 1051/2205 1073 442 900 1117|2303 1017 6591417 854 1629 1041

374 214 749|1294 778 2071 1042 884 1001 1379 1356 212 2483|1629 1513 1198 1278 1167/2557|1339|1483 471 13962666|1709 494 1301|1895 1041 1513

Amsterdam

Geneva

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434

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1035 1431 1088434 609 2761 973 2225 1780 2003 1427 710 1308 1544 859 1035

1226 1451 958 708 843 62 2578 1574 1241 4841 691 546|14401 283 1431|1226 1154 114817241155 1165 2163 2489 1302|11521 721 625 214 943 1088

145 1154 1103 785 972 2072723 1504|1152) 339 836) 529 13681 428

958 1148 1103 1033| 3201 896 1791 2100 1926 1442 507 1108 1362) 782 609 705|1724 785 1033 7131 705 2797 1477|1922 1124 1062 1136 1935 778 276 843 1155 972 320 713

781 2050 1780 1795 1327 434 1035 1369 628 973 62 11651 2071 896 705 781 2655 1636 1333 546 629 638/1379| 221 2225 2578 2163 2723 17912797 20502565 3864 3372 3029/1959 26232377|2367 1780 1574 2489 1504 2100|1477 1780 1636 3864 2239 1279 2265 1806 2703 1857 2003 1241 1302 1152 1926 19221795 1333 3372 2239 950|14131 812 1516 1162 1427 484 1152 339 1442|11241327 546 3029 1279 950 1070 527|13661 672

710 691 721 836) 507 1062 434 629 1959 2265 1413 1070 601 935 408 1308 546/ 625 529 1108 1136 1035 638 2623 1806 812) 527 601 839| 464 1544 1440 214 1368 1362 1935 1369 1379 2377 2703 1516 1366 9351 839 1157 859 283 943 428 782 778 628 22123671857 1162 6721 408 464 11571

Cologne

15 O Lausanne

Leipsic

& Leningrad

Locarno

Lugano

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Nice

Cologne.
Lausanne.
Leipsic.
Leningrad.
Locarno.
Lugano.
Lucerne.
Lyons
Madrid
Mannheim
Marseilles
Mllan
Montreux
Munchen.
Naples.
Nice

781) 565/2050/ 851 864 662) 935 1780 273 1264 939 809 615 1795 1327 781 925 2565/ 429 378) 211 216 1636 485 483 477 281 523 1333 546 565) 925 1663/ 944

957) 756|11412201 455 1383 10101 953| 477 1709/1376 2050 2565 1663 2575 2588 2419 2782 38642118 3048 2663/2592 2203 3372 3029 851 4291 944 2575

51 189 645 1771 571677 126 401 509) 982 492 864 378 957 2588 51

202 594 17201 584) 626| 751 3501 522 931 441 662) 211 7562419 189

202

418 1840 382 685 275 239 357 1131) 543 935) 216/1141 2782 645 5941 418 1398 701 3821 474 244| 739 13951 445 1780 1636/2201/3864 1771 1720 1840 1398 17791152 1645 1664 2158 2239 1279

273485 455121181 571 5841 382 701 1779 968) 657 513 504 1523 1033 12644831383/3048) 677 626 685 382 1152 968

551 511 384 1135/ 185 939 477|1010/2663 126 75 275 474 1645 657 551

505 1006/ 856 366 809 28 953/2593 401 350) 239 244 1664 5131 511 505

551 1361 574 6151 523 477 2203 509

7392158) 38411006 504) 551 1232) 870 1795 1333/1709|3372 982 931 1131 1395 2239 1523 1135 856 1361|1232 950 13271 546 1376/3029 492 441 643 445 12791033 1851 366/ 574 870 950

522

357

Airway Distances Abroad (Statute Miles)

205:

Source: Foreign Travel Division of the American Automobile Association London to-Paris, 205; Amsterdam, 230; Rotter- Singapore, Malaya, 8,393, Palembang, Dutch E.

Indies, 8,695; Batavia, D. E. I., 8,983; Semarang. dam, 227; Cologne, 326; Brussels, 200; Berlin, 600;

D. E. 'I., 9,233; Sourabaya, D. E. I., 9,390: RamStuttgart, 496; Hamburg, 480; Warsaw, 920.

bang, D. E. I., 9,676; Koepang, D. E. I.. 10,214: Paris to Basle, 268; Basle to Zurich, 49; Berlin,

Darwin, North Australia, 10,726; Longreach, 552; Danzig. 806.

Queensland 12,049; Charleville, Q., 12,316; Bris. London to (Australian route)--Paris,

bane, Q., 12,754. Brindisi, Italy, 1,352; Athens, Greece, 1,721; Alex- London to (South Africa route)--Paris, 205 andria, Egypt, 2,308; Gaza, Palestine. 2,584; Rut- Brindisi, 1,352; Athens, 1,721; Alexandria, 2,308 bah, Iraq, 2,947; Baghdad, Iraq, 3,187; Basra, Cairo, Egypt, 2,420; Wadi Halfa, Sudan, 3.017; Iraq, 3,465; Koweit, Arabla, 3,540; Bahrein. ofi Khartoum, Sudan, 3,517; Juba, Sudan, 4,276 Arabia; Sharjah, Oman, 4,140; Gwadar, Baluchis- Entebbe, Uganda, 4,611; Nairobi, Kenya, 4,945: tan, 4,580; Karachi, India, 4,880; Jodhpur, India, Dodoma, Tanganyika, 5,317; Mbeya, Tanganyika, 5,264; Delhi, India, 5.566; Cawnpore, India, 5,809 5,603; Broken Hill, No Rhodesia, 6,116; Salisbury, Allahabad, India, 5,919; Calcutta, India, 6,386; So. Rhodesia, 6,416; Bulawayo, So. Rh. Johannes. Akyab, Burma, 6,734; Rangoon, Burma, 7.041; burg, Transvaal, 1,094; Kimberley, Cape Prov.. Bangkok, Siam, 7,405; Alor Star, Malaya, 7.960; 7,366; Cape Town, C. P., 7,904.

DISTANCES ON THE HIGHWAYS OF EUROPE (KILOMETERS) (Continued) Source: Foreign Travel Division of American Automobile Association. Figures show kilometers; &

kilometer is "& of a mile

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Dresden Dusseldorf. Florence. Frankfort. Freiburg Geneva. Genoa. Gratz. Grenoble The Hague. Hamburg Hanover. Havre. Innsbruck Interlaken Karlsbad.

716 1207 458 737 1012 1198 646 1157 9691 498 502 1242 639 9131 257 716 1310 258 560 886 1144 1198 1015 266 467 302) 756 7941 770 685 1207 1310 1060 774 713 279 774 685 1447 1571 1406/1394) 568 618 1093 4581 258 1060

286 612 886 940 7571 524 511 346 7841 521 512 427 737 5601 7741 286

326 608 881 471 751 797 632 7581 472 226 635 1012 886 713 612 326 492 12261 145 975 1123 958 708 605) 210 899 1198 1144 279 8861 608 492

9481 406 1281 1397 1232 1191 530 605 1074 646 1198 774 9401 88112261 948 1154 1464 1144 1148 1724 535 1127 615 11571015/ 6851 757 471 145 406 1154 1052 1268|1103 785 750 355 1044 969 266 1447] 524 751 975 1281 1464 1052 794 629 677 1045 899 951 498 467 1571 511 797 1123 1397 114412681 794 165 11981 944 10231 754 502 302 1406 346 632 958 1232 1148 1103 629 165 1033 824 858 634 1242 756 1394 784 758 708 1191 1724 785 677 1198 1033 11001 794 1270 639 794 568 521/ 472 605 530 535/ 750 1045) 944 824/1100 5051 525 913/ 770 618 512 226 210 605 1127 355 899 1023 8581 794 505

801 257 685/1093| 427 635) 899/10741 615 1044 9511 7541 63412701 5251 801

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1060 713 279 1447 1571 1394 1666 1790 1197 1060 293 483 277|1702876 1060

6121 886 524 511 784 606 887 579 505 1353 1139 933 1081) 736 7131 612

492 975 1123 708 12181499 503 940 1006 8801 674 1572 1022 279 886 492 12811397 1191 1492 1773 986|1022 511 657) 451 1654 1050 1447 524 975 1281

794 677 889 11701 472 1124 1732 1606 1400 1326 1260 1571 511 11231397 794 1198 95 376 1003 653 1856 1562/1356) 855 940 1394 7841 708 1191 67711198 1293 1574 205 1348 1687 1470 1264 1865 1517 1666 606121811492 889 95 1293

410 1098 748 1951 1657 1451 950 1035 1790 887 1499 1773 4701 376 1574 410 1379 808 2093 1646|1634 1010 1095 1197 579 503 986 472 1003 205 1099 1379 1159 1490 1364 1158 1650/1312 1060 505 940) 1022|11241 653 1348 748 SOS 1159 1353 780 904 632287 293 1353 1006 511 1732 1850 1687 1951 2083|1490 1353 7761 570)1913 1169 483 1139 880 657 16001562 1470 1657 1646|1364 780 776 206/1237| 493 277 933 6741 451 1400/1356 1264|1451 16341158 901 570 206 1343 599 1702 1081 1572 1651 1320 855 15651 9501010 1650 632 1913|1237(1343 744 876/ 736 1022 1050 1260 940 15171035 10951312 287|1169 493 599) 744

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23 St. Moritz

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Paris.
Prague.
Rome.
St. Moritz
Salsburg
Sarajevo.
Strasbourg
Stuttgart.
Trieste.
Turin.
Venice.
Warsaw
Vienna.
Wiesbaden
Zagreb.
Zurich.

115914901 773 100512336507 637 1364 803 1158 1650 1312 553 1730 573 1159 13331 6901 389 11051 741 508 780 1082 904 632 287 549 7051 657 1490) 1353

79110231681 1162 1251 776 694 570 1913 1169/13971281 927 7731 6901 791

360 1495 415 418 6651 315 439 1332 677 680 1095 200 1008 389 1023 360 1135 1474 3881 650 6751 574 1061 3171 563 7351 435 2336 1105 1681 1495 1135 1474 1510, 1005 1545 111/1463/ 828 1804 400/1557 507 744 1162) 445/14741474

176 1184 686 830 1301 865 271 1286| 245 637 568 1251 418 38.5|15101 176

902 669 802 1125 692 239 1110 218 1364) 750 776 665 656 1005 1184 902 640 206 1237| 493 1183 605791 803 1052 694 3151 675 1545 686 6691 640

434 1647 1033 921 11451 451 1158 904 570 459 57411111 830 8021 206 434 1343 599 977 711 595 1650 632 1913 1332/10611463 1301/1125 12371647 1343

744 1125 1162 1289 1312) 287|1169 677 317 828 8681 692 49311033599 744

7801 418 739 5531 5491397 680 563 1804 271 239 1183 921 977 1125 780 1198 480 1730 705 1281 1085 735 4001286 1110 605 1145 711|1162 418 1198 1157 573 657 9271 200 435/15571 245 218 791 451 595|1289 739 480 1157

OTHER TRAVELING DISTANCES IN EUROPE, STATUTE MILES

Source: United States War Department Oicial Table of Distances Berlin to--Berne, 611; Bremen, 215; Essen, 317; | mouth, 246; Portsmouth, 74; Sheffield, 163; SouthKiel, 225; Konigsberg. 366; Leipzig, 100; Magde- ampton, 80; Yarmouth, 122. burg. 88; Munich, 406, Nuremberg, 301; Posen, 158; Madrid to--Barcelona, 425 Bordeaux 538. St. Gall, 575; Saarbrucken. 466; Stuttgart. 438; Boulogne, 1,059; Cadiz, 439: Carthagena, 326: GibThe Hague, 422; Ulm, 437; Wiesbaden. 360.

raltar, 456; Malaga, 383: Marseilles, 765; Moscow, Istanbul,' Turkey to--Adrianople, 198; Batum, 2,764: Oporto, 381; Saragossa, 212; Valencia, 304. 674; Beirut, 976; Brindisi, 847; Gibraltar, 2,099: Paris to--Amiens, _81; Bordeaux, 363; Boulogne, Marseilles, 1,552; Moscow, 2.300; Naples, 1,101,

158; Brest, 387: Brindisi, 1,169; Calais, Odessa, 395; Smyrna, 558.

Chateau-Thierry, 59; Cherbourg, 230; Dijon, 196 London to-Aldershot, 37; Bath, 107; Bishop's Dover, 204; Havre, 142; Kiel, 652; Lille, 156: Rock, 469; Brighton, 51; Bristol, 119; Cambridge, Lyons, 318. 53; Canterbury, 60; Chatham, 34; Dover, 78: Rome to Brindisi, 394; Lausanne, 640: MarFalmouth, 307; Folkestone, 71; Glasgow. 402; seilles, 565; Milan, 404; Naples, 155; Pisa, 207: Liverpool, 200; Manchester, 184; Oxford. 64; Ply- | Spezia, 254; Turin, 413; Venice, 378.

185;

Distances Between Ports in Asia
Source: United States Hydrographic Office; statute miles, water routes

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1 Foochow

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Shang

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Welhal

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Yokohama

Amoy Batavia. Canton. Colombo. Foochow Hong Kong Manila, Shanghai. Singapore Swatow.. Vladivostok. Weihaiwei. Yokohama

Distances

541

02270 430 3724 230 334 777 683 1902 161 1596 1072) 1533 2270 0 2121 2138 2466 2052 17951 2904 606 2165 3812 3293 3678 430 2121 0 3570 624 96 8221 1077 1748 306 1990 1466 1921 3724 2138 3570 0 3914 3496| 3399 4367 1825) 36181 5280 4756 5167 230 2466 624 3914 0 529 908 541 2092 356 1457

930 1401 334 2052 96 3496 529 0 727 981

1674

211 1894 1370 1825 777 1795 822 3399 906 727 01 1338

1578 7171 2202 1725) 2023 683 2904] 1077 4367

981 1338 0 2545 808) 1135 634) 1199 1902 606) 1748 1825) 2092 1674 1578 2545 0 1796| 3458] 2934) 3345 101 2165 3061 3618 356 211

717 8081 1796 0 1722 1198 1653 1596 3812 19905280) 1457 1894 2202) 1135 34581 1722 0] 1153 1093 1072 3293 14661 4756 930 1370 1725 534 2934 1198 1153 01 1274

1533 36781 1921 5167] 1401 1825) 2023) 119933451 1653 10931 1274 0 Between West Indies, Caribbean and Gulf Ports

Source: United States Hydrographic Once

Cape..

Haitien

City

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Galveston

Havana

Key West

Cape Haitlen

0803 941 774 1576 7271 713 864 1368 1255 373 509 1023 1615 Cartagena.

803 O 324 544 1823 1315/1301 707 1702 1639) 546 934 1054 1739 Colon

9411 324 o 805 1719 1155 1226 969 1616 1576) 629 11851315 1635 Curacao

774 544 805 0/2069 1325 1312 172 1945 1854 668 521 538/2005 Galveston

1576|1823 1719 2069 0 886 872 2233 451 514 1428 2057 2560 717 Havana.

727 1315 1155 1325 886 0 106 1488 694 593 874 12071720 937 Key West

713 1301 1226 1312 872

106

0 1474 658 533 917/1193 1689 1001 La Guayra

864 707 969 1722233/1488 1474 02129/2016 837 552 408/2174 New Orleans.

1368 1702 16161945] 451 6941 658 2129 0 263 1304 1848 2376 919. Pensacola.

1255/1639 1576 18541 514 593 533 2016 263 01238 1736 2250957 Port Royal

3731 646 629] 668 1428 874 917 837/1304 1238 0 8051152 1367 St. Thomas

509 934 1185 521 2057 1207 1193 552 1848 1736 805 0597 2129 Trinidad

1023 1054|13155381256011720 1689 408 2376 2250 1152 597 012494 Vera Cruz.

1615/1739 1635 2005/ 7171 93711001121741 919 957 1367212912494 Distances Between South American (Pacific) Ports

Source: United States Hydrographic Office; statute miles

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Antofagasta, Chile.

of 374 248 936 456 1961 1693 258 953 480 1289 1496 821 2299663 Arica, Chile.

374

0 601 683 808 1709 1441 1127 1306 158 1035 1244 56712650 1016 Caldera, CL

248 601 0 11291 226121181879 484 7231 698/1480 1682 10132067 433 Callao, Peru

9361 683 1129 0 1308 1047 778 759 1762 5391 372) 5521 147 3076 1504 Coquimbo, Chile.

456 808) 226 1308 012319/2051 6931 524 901|1655 1853 1193 18691 234 Esmeraldas, Ecuador

1961 1709214810472319 01 410 1785275016651 694 484 1176 40372509 Guayaquil, Ecuador

1693 1441 1879 7782051 410 0 151724821297 426 2151 907370912241 Iquique, Chile.

258 1127) 484 759 693 1785 1517 01190253 11113201 645 25351 901 Lota, Chile..

953 1306 723 17625242730 2482 1190 01392209712284|16491371 309 Mollendo, Peru

480 158 698 5391 901 1565 1297) 253 1392 0 891 1100 423 2734 1108 Pacagınayo, Peru

1289/1035 1480 372 1655 694 42611112097 891 0 232 5013396 1848 Palta, Peru.

1496 1244 1682 582 1853 484 215 1320 2284 1100 232 0 71013571/2043 Pisco, Peru

821 567 1013 147 1193|1176 907 645 1649 423 501 710 0 2969 1390 Magallanes, Chile. 22992650 2067 3076 1869 4037 37692535 1371 2734 3396 3571 2969

0|1656 Valparaiso, Chile..

663 1016 433 1504| 2342509122411 901 309|11081848 2043/1390 1656 0 Panama Canal Distances (Statute Miles)

Source: United States Hydrographic Office Colon to-Baltimore, 2,189; Boston. 2,484; Montevideo, 6,144; Para, 2,659: Pernambuco. 3,774;

Rio de Janeiro, 5,008; Arica, Chile, 2,212; Callao Charleston, S. C., 1.802; Galveston, 1,719; Havana, 1,155; Halifax, 2,668; Jacksonville, 1,768; Key 1,550: Guayaquil, 913; Magallanes. 4,541: Val West, 1,220; Kingston, Jamaica, 634; Mobile, 1,604; paraiso: 3,013, Auckland, 7,499; Bombay. 14,831; New Orleans, 1,616; New York, 2.273; Norfolk, Hong Kong, 10,588; Honolulu, 5,395; Manlla, 10,764

Calcutta, 13,989; Colombo, 13,919; Guam, 9,199 2,049; Pensacola, 1,576; Philadelphia, 2,241: Bor- Melbourne, 9.130; Shanghai, 9,853; Singapore deaux, 5,295; Gibraltar, 4,989; Glasgow, 5,208: | 12,097; Wellington. 7,491; Yokohama, 8,846; Los Hamburg. 5,838; Havre, 5,313; Liverpool, 5,237; Angeles, 3,354; Seattle, 4,630; San Francisco, Plymouth, Eng., 5,130; Buenos Aires, 6,276; / 3,737; Vancouver, 4,613.

Help in Case of Drowning and Other Accidents

Source: Medical Staff, American Red Cross Drowning, Electric Shock, Gas, Smoke and the arm pit or groin and twisting till the flow of Other Suffocations

blood is stopped. Loosen every 15 minutes. Allow to 1. Lay patient on his belly, one arm extended remain loose if bleeding has stopped, but watch directly overhead, the other arm bent at elbow and closely and retighten if bleeding commences again. with the face turned outward and resting on hand Bleeding from a vein comes in a steady flow. It can or forearm, so nose and mouth are free.

be controlled by applying a clean compressor 2. Kneel, straddling patient's thighs with your dressing over the wound, bandaging snugly and knees placed at such a distance from the hip bones then applying pressure with the hand directly over So as to apply pressure direct from shoulders to the dressing if necessary. Elevating the part aids heel of hands. Place palms of hands on small of Open Wounds-On scratches and slight wounds back, with fingers resting on ribs, the little finger apply half strength iodine. Dirty or greasy wounds just touching lowest rib, with thumb and fingers in should first be cleansed with high-grade benzine. natural position, and tips of fingers out of sight. Open wounds should be covered with gauze and

3. With arms held straight, swing forward slowly, bandage. so that the weight of your body is gradually brought Never wash or touch a wound with fingers. Do to bear upon the patient. The shoulder should be not touch that part of the gauze that comes in directly over the heel of the hand at the end of the contact with the wound. Never use cobwebs, toforward swing. Do not bend your elbows. This bacco, waste or oil. operation should take about two seconds.

Burns-All burns may be treated with tannic 4. Now immediately swing backward, so as to acid burn jelly, or fresh tannic acid 5% solution. remove the pressure completely.

or picric acid gauze moistened with clean water, 5. After two seconds swing forward again. Thus or with a paste or solution of baking soda on clean repeat deliberately twelve to fifteen times a minute, gauze. Slight burns, when the skin is not broken. the double movement of compression and release, a may be treated with a good burn ointment, precomplete respiration in four or five seconds.

ferably one containing tannic acid. Most severe 6. Continue artificial respiration without inter- burns call for shock treatment. ruption until natural breathing is restored, if

Fracture (Broken Bones)-Handle carefully to necessary, four hours or ger, or until a phy- prevent sharp ends cutting through flesh. Apply sician declares the patient is dead.

narrow boards, heavy pasteboard, umbrellas, canes, 7. As soon as this artificial respiration has been fence railings, or any rigid appliances, as splints started and while it is being continued, an assistant

for the fractured limbs to permit the patient to be should loosen any tight clothing about the patient's moved without pain or danger. Splints must be neck, chest, or waist. Keep the patient warm. Do padded when applied next to skin, and be long not give any liquids whatever by mouth until the enough to reach beyond the joints above and be. patient is fully conscious.

low fracture. Firm traction should be applied to 8. To avoid strain on the heart when the patient end of limb while splints are fastened in place. revives, he should be kept lying down and not Transportation-Three persons are necessary allowed to stand or sit up. If the doctor has not to place an injured person properly on a stretcher, arrived by the time the patient has revived. he one to lift head and shoulders, another the hips. should be given some stimulant, such as one tea- and a third the legs. The stretcher should be spoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a small placed alongside injured, and helpers should kneel glass of water or a hot drink of coffee or tea, etc. on one knee on the side of patient away from

9. Resuscitation should be carried on at the stretcher, lifting him in unison, first to their nearest possible point to where the patient received bended knees, then lay on stretcher. his injuries. He should not be moved from this Eye Injuries-Loose particles may be removed point until he is breathing normally of his own from the eyelid with a clean handkerchief, or a bit volition and then moved only in a lying position.

of clean cotton rolled on a toothpick or a match Should it be necessary to move the patient before stick. If not easily removed in this way, make no he is breathing normally, resuscitation should be further attempt. Particles embedded in the lid or carried on during the time that he is being moved. eye ball should be left to the surgeon. Never violate

10. A brief return of natural respiration is not a this rule, blindness may result. In case of serious certain indication for stopping the resuscitation. eye injury, cover with clean cloth compress wrung Sometimes the patient, after temporary recovery

out in ice cold water: send patient to hospital. of respiration, stops breathing. Do not leave Sunstroke--Sweating stops, followed by sudden patient alone.

rise in temperature. Skin is dry, flushed and 11. In carrying out resuscitation it may be neces- very hot, pulse strong and rapid. Frequently unsary to change the operator. This change must be conscious. Cool quickly with cold bath or spray. made without losing the rhythm of respiration. Elevate the head. Ice bags or cold applications

Caution-The removal of a victim of electric to head. No stimulants shock from the electric contact is highly dangerous. Heat Exhaustion-Collapse with pale face. Phone the power company to shut off the current, clammy sweat, weak rapid pulse. Treat the or get an experienced electrician to make the same as Shock. rescue if possible. Do not touch the wire or the Fainting--Place patient on back with head low, body or clothing of the victim. Absolutely dry even raising the feet if convenient. Loosen any boards may be used to push the wire away, but be tight clothing and get plenty of ventilation. Smellcareful as it may come back at you. Keep your ing salts. ammonia on a handkerchief, or a little hands at least two feet away from the wire or the cold water in the face are often helpful. Do not victim. An oxygen inhalator is of value in gas attempt to make the patient drink anything while poisoning cases. Mechanical respiration devices in unconscious. Hot black coffee or aromatic spirits untrained hands may cause grave damage.

of ammonia-12 teaspoonful well diluted with Shock--Present in all serious injuries and greatly water may be given after consciousness returns. increased by severe bleeding and pain. Pale face, Fits-Do not attempt to hold patient down. cold clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, shallow Place any small object between teeth to prevent breathing Lay patient on back, head low, feet biting tongue, Prevent patient from injuring sell. elerated 18 inches, loosen clothing about neck, and let sleep after attack. chest, and abdomen. Keep warm with blankets and Lightning--This is a form of electrocution. The hot water bottles, hot bricks or heated stones, being treatment is the same as for electric shock. careful not to burn the person. If he can swallow, Stings of Venomous Insects, Etc.-Apply weak give him hot strong coffee, hot milk or hot water, ammonia, oil, salt water, or iodine. hall tea spoon aromatic spirits of ammonia in Frost Bite. Treatment-Rubbing with snow is water. Never pour liquid down the throat of an especially bad; frozen tissues are bruised and torn unconscious person.

and gangrene is very apt to result. Gently cover Hemorrhage-Bleeding from arteries comes in the frozen part with the hand or other body surspurts and is brighter red in color than bleeding face until the part has thawed and circulation is from veins. Il from large arteries it is always very re-established. If a hand is frozen hold next to the serious and demands immediate action. Pressure skin in the arm pit or between the thighs, The with fingers or hand will usually control it. The frozen part may be thawed very gradually in cold points for pressure are (1) just in front of ear for water or cool air. If this cannot be done, cover the bleeding from temple. (2) Inner side of arm about part with extra clothing until thawed. half way from shoulder to elbow for bleeding from Snake Bite Tie ligature or cord around the arm hand or arm. (3) In the groin against pelvis bone or leg a short distance above the bite. Make a for bleeding from foot, thigh or leg. (4) On neck. cross-cut clear through the skin over each fang fingers forward just touching windpipe, thumb mark. Apply suction with mouth or any other conaround back of neck for cut throat. (5) Behind venient means continuously for at least half-hour. collarbone at side of neck, pressing downward on Keep patient lying down, quiet and give treatment first rib. for bleeding in shoulder or arm pit. If previously described for shock. Get doctor. necessary & tourniquet can be made by tying a Dog BiteWash wound with running water, handkerchief or bandage a hand's breadth below I apply tincture of iodine, bandage, take to doctor or

Poisons and Their Antidotes

Source: Medical Staff, American Red Cross The two most important points to be remembered Iodine-Owing to its wide use in the treatment of in any poison case in which the individual is con- scratches, cuts and wounds, it is found in every scious are: (1) dilute; (2) cause vomiting.

household, and as a consequence there are cases These can both be accomplished at the same time where children or adults have taken it acciby having the patient immediately drink large dentally or otherwise. quantities of soap suds, soda in water, salt water, Treatment-After vomiting has been induced, or even plain water. These are all more nauseating give starch or flour mixed with water to about 11 given lukewarm.

the thickness of buttermilk. The secret of success is to give enough. Start Lead-Sugar of lead, lead paint, white lead. with three or four glasses. If this does not produce Symptoms--Throat dry, metallic taste with results in a few minutes, give some more. Tickling much thirst; colic in abdomen; cramps in legs; the back of the throat with the finger is also a cold sweat; sometimes paralysis of legs and convaluable aid in encouraging vomiting.

vulsions. Services of a physician should always be secured Treatment-After thoroughly emptying the as soon as possible.

stomach, may give 12 oz. Epsom Salts in water. Alcohol-In any, form-rum, gin,, whisky, proof Stimulants if needed, and soothing liquids. spirits, etc., also wood or methyl alcohol. Mercury-Corrosive sublimate, antiseptic tablets

Symptoms-Giddiness, swaying of body, in- or other mercury salts. ability to stand. Face flushed, eyes red. Later, Symptoms-Corrosive sublimate when taken is skin clammy, weak pulse, maybe convulsions and very irritating and frequently turns the mouth, unconsciousness,

lips and tongue white. Mouth is sometimes Treatment

Hot coffee or aromatic spirits of swollen and there is a metallic taste. Other ammonia-1/2 teaspoonful well diluted with symptoms are pain in abdomen, nausea, vomiting water. Do not exhaust by making walk. Wrap mucus and blood, bloody purging. cold, clammy warmly and put to bed. In extreme cases,

skin, great prostration and convulsions. breathing may stop and it will be necessary to Treatment-After vomiting has been repeatedly give artificial respiration by the prone pressure induced, give white of egg, whole beaten eggs, method.

milk, or eggs beaten in milk. Arsenic--Found in rat poison, vermin killer, Paris Nitrate of Silver-Lunar caustic. green.

Symptoms-Pain in mouth and stomach Symptoms-Severe pains in stomach; purging; Mouth first colored white, then black. Vomit vomiting: severe cramps in legs; dryness of first white then black. throat; cold sweats; profound shock.

Treatment-Salt water is the best emetic in Treatment-Be sure that vomiting is repeated

this case. If not readily available, give other until stomach is thoroughly washed out. Castor emetics. Then soothing drinks, as milk or milk oil, stimulants of coffee or aromatic spirits of and eggs. Stimulants if necessary. ammonia if needed. Keep warm.

Opium Laudanum, morphine, codeine. heroin, Carbolic Acid Phenol-Symptoms-A very paregoric: some soothing syrups and cough powerful corrosive poison. Mouth, lips, throat

mixtures. and often the face burned. Vomiting often pro

Symptoms--Drowsiness, finally unconsciousduced. In severe cases unconsciousness comes on

ness. Pulse full at first, then weak. Breathing early and soon death.

full and slow at first, gradually slower and Treatment--Immediate and repeated washing

shallower. Pinpoint pupils. Face flushed then of the stomach. Soothing liquids, as eggs and

purple. milk or milk alone. Stimulants usually needed Treatment--May have difficulty getting emetic

to work, Plenty of strong coffee. Try to arouse at once. Burns of the lips, mouth and throat

by speaking loudly and threatening, but do not may be

treated by immediate application of alcohol to stop further burning.

exhaust by compelling to walk, etc. Stimulants Carbon Monoxide-Principal danger is from ex

and artificial respiration if breathing stops. haust gasses from automobiles and leaky gas

Phosphorus-In many rat poisons and vermin

killers; often with arsenic. pipes. Also found in leaky furnaces and stoves, gas stoves without flue connections, in burning

Symptoms-Severe pain in stomach; vomiting.

Bleeding from nose, blooding, purging. conbuildings, etc.

vulsions. Symptoms--Vary considerably depending upon the concentration of the

Treatment-After vomiting, a half ounce of Carbon Monoxide

Epsom Salts in water or magnesia. Stimulants. breathed, but the end result is usually a red coloration, especially of ears, lips and nails, and Poison Mushrooms or Toadstools.

Soothing liquids as milk, but avoid fats and oils. a stopping of breathing.

Symptoms-Vomiting, purging, watery diarrhea. Treatment-1. Remove patient from atmosphere

Discharges sometimes accompanied by blood. containing carbon monoxide. 2. Start artificial

Pulse slow and strong at first, but later grows respiration immediately by the (Schaeffer) prone

very weak. Saliva and sweat pour out. pressure method if breathing has stopped. 3.

Treatment-Same as food poisoning. Administer oxygen as quickly as possible and in

Strychnine or Nux Vomica_Often taken accie as pure form as is obtainable, preferably from

dentally by small children who find "candy" pills an inhalator. A mixture of oxygen 95% and or tablets left for some adult member of the carbon dioxide 5% is usually used in these. 4.

family Also strychnine is frequently used on Keep the victim fiat, quiet and warm. 5. After

meat to poison animals and in some vermin ward give plenty of rest.

killers. Food Poisoning (formerly called Ptomaine)

Symptoms--First twitching of the hands and Poisoning by contaminated foods that have be- feet followed by convulsions. Affects all muscles come infected with poisonous organisms. Chicken, of body. Back is often bowed up by spasms of fish, potatoes, and hash, may be especially muscles. Jaws are locked. Spasms of muscles dangerous.

so great that breathing is prevented and face Symptoms--Nausea, vomiting, purging. Severe

becomes dusky. pain in abdomen, cramps, great prostration and Treatment---After vomiting is induced powdered weakness. Skin cold and clammy. Often an charcoal may be given. Repeat emetic. eruption on the skin.

Veronal-Luminal, etc. Treatment-After emetic give purgative of Symptoms-Patient becomes very drowsy then castor oil or Epsom Salts. If very weak a stimu- falls asleep. In very severe cases the sleep is so lant or hot coffee or 2 teaspoonful of aromatic deep that the patient cannot be aroused. spirits of ammonia well diluted with water.

Treatment-Same as for Opium.

CORROSIVE POISONS Corrosive Acids (1) Acetic, (2) nitric, (3) hydro- milk, eggs and milk or olive oil. Stimulants are

chloric, (4) sulphuric, (5) also weaker acids as usually required and aromatic spirits of amoxalic.

monia is quite suitable here. Symptoms--Very severe burning pain in mouth, Caustic Alkalies--(1) Ammonia, strong ammonin throat and stomach. Wherever the stronger liniment: (2) lime, quicklime; potash acids touch the skin or mucous membranes, caustic potash; (4) soda, caustic soda. they are destroyed. Frequently vomiting or Symptoms--Much like corrosive acids. Impurging. More or less suffocation from swelling mediate severe burning pain in mouth, throat of the throat, great prostration and shock.

and stomach. Vomiting and purging. Treatment--Large quantities of soap suds make Treatment-Induce vomiting by giving large the best emetic in these cases. However, any of quantities of one of the previously mentioned the previously mentioned emetics will do. After emetics, then give soothing liquids and stimuvomiting is induced may give soothing liquids as lants 11 needed.

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