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International Atomic Weights, 1941

(The Chemical Elements)

Source: The Journal of the American Chemical Society Atomic weight is the estimated weight of an atom of an element compared with an atom of oxygen as 16.

The table of the chemical elements was founded in 1871 by the Russian chemist, Mendelyeev. He arranged them according to their properties. Later they were numbered according to their weight. Atomic Atomic

Atomic Atomic Symbol Number Weight

Symbol Number Weight Aluminum

ΑΙ
13 26.97 Molybdenum.

Μο

42 95.95 Antimony

Sb
51 121.76 Neodymium

Nd

60 144.27 Argon,

А

18
39.944 Neon

Ne

10

20.183 Arsenic

As
33 74.91 Nickel

Ni

28 58.69 Barium,

Ba
56 137.36 Nitrogen

N

7 14.008 Beryllium

Be

4
9.02 Osmium

Os

76 190.2 Bismuth

BI
83 299.00 Oxygen

0

8 16.0000 Boron..

B

5
10.82 Palladium

Pa

46 106.7 Bromine

Br
35 79.916 Phosphorus

P

15 30.98 Cadmium

cd
48 112.41 Platinum

Pt

78 195.23 Calcium

Са
40.08 Potassium

к

19 39.096 Carbon

12.010 Praseodymium

Pr

59 140.92 Cerium

140.13 Protactinium.

Pa

91 231 Cesium.

C8
132.91 Radium

Ra

88

226.05 Chlorine

CI
35.457 Radon

RN

86

222 Chromium.

Cr
52.01 Rhenium

Re

75 186.31 Cobalt

Co
58.94 Rhodium

Rh

45 102.91 Columbium.

Cb
92.91 Rubidium

Rb

37 85.48 Copper

Cu
63.57 Ruthenium

Ru

44 101.7 Dysproslum

162.46 Samarium

Sm

62 150.43 Erbium

Er
167.2 Scandium

Se

21

45.10 Europium

Eu
152.0 Selenium

Se

34 78.96 Fluorine.

F
19.00 Silicon

SI

14 28.06 Gadolinium

Ga
156.9 Silver

Ag

47 107.880 Gallium

G&
69.72 Sodium

Na

11 22.997 Germanium

Ge
72.60 Strontium

Sr

38 87.63 Gold.

AU
197.2 Sulfur

S

16 32.06 Hafnium

HI
178.6 Tantalum

Ta

73 180.88 Helium.

He

2
4.003 Tellurium

Te

52 127.61 Holmium

Ho
164.94 Terbium

Tb

65 159.2 Hydrogen

H
1.0050 Thallium

TI

81 204.39 Indium

In
114.76 Thorium

Th

90 232.12 Iodine

1
126.92 Thullum

69 169.4 Iridium

Ir

193.1
Tin

Sn

50 118.70 Iron

Fe
55.5 Titanium

TI

22 47.90 Krypton 83.7 Tungsten

74 183.92 Lanthapur

La
138.92 Uranium

U

92 238.07 Lead

207.21 Vanadium

V

23 50.95 Lithium

LI
6.940 Xenon

Хе

54 131.3 Lutecium

Lu
71 174.99 Ytterbium

Yb

70 173.04 Magnesium

24.32 Yttrium

Y

39 88.92 Manganese

54.93 Zinc

Zn

30 65.38 Mercury

Hg
200.81 Zirconlumn

Zr

40

91.22

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Density (Actual Weight) of Chemical Elements

Source: Smithsonian Institution Physical Tables
(Grams per cubic centimeter. To reduce to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.4)
Grams. Melting Pt.

Grams. Melting Pt.
Cent."

Cen. Aluminum, liquid

2.43
659.7 Mercury, liquid.

13.596 -38.87 Antimony, liquid.

6.55
630.5 Molybdenum

10.2

2620 Argon, liquid 1.40 -189.2 Neodymium.

7.00

840 Arsenic, crystal

5.73
(820)
Neon

1.204 -248.67 Barium, solid

3.78
850
Nickel

8.8

1455 Bismuth, solid.

9.67
271.3 Nitrogen, liquid

0.810 - 209.86 Boron, amorph

2.45 2300
Osmium

22.5

2700 Bromine, solid

4.2
-7.2 Oxygen, liquid

1.132 -218.4 Cadmium, solid.

8.37
320.9
Palladium

11.5

1553 Cesium, solld.

1.873
26
Phosphorus, red

2. 20

44.1 Calclum

1.54
810
Platinum

21.37 1773.5 Carbon, diamond.

3.52
73500
Potassium

0.870

62.3 Carbon, graphite

2.25
Praseodymium

6.6

940 Cerium, pure

7.02
640
Rhodium

12.54

1966 Chlorine, solid

2.2
-101.6 Rubidium

1.532

38.5 Chromium, pure.

6.93 1800125
Ruthenium

12.30 2450 Cobalt

8.71
1480
Samarium.

7.7 > 1300 Columblum

8.4
1950
Selenium.

4.82 220 Copper, annealed

8.89 1083
Silicon, crystal

2.42 1420 Erbium.

4.77
Silver, cast.

10.42 960.5 Fluorine, solid.

1.5
-223
Sodium

0.971

97.5 Gallum

5.93
29.7 Strontium, solid.

2.60

800 Germanium 5.46 958.5 Şulphur, solid

2.0

113 Glucinum.

1.85
Tantalum.

16.6

2850 Gold, cast

19.3
1063
Tellurium, crystal

6.25

452 Hafnium, solid

13.3 (1700
Thallium

11.86

303.5 Helium, solid

0.19
7-272
Thorium

11.00 1845
Hydrogen, solid
0.763 - 259.14 Tin, solid

7.184 231.89 Indlum.

7.28
155
Titanium

4.5

1800 Iodine

4.94
113.5
Tungsten

18.6

3370 Iron, pure.

7.86 1535
Uranium

18.7 (1850 Krypton, solid

3.4
-169
Vanadium

5.6

1710 Lanthanum

6.15
826
Xenon, llquid

3.52 -140 Lead, solid

11.005 327.4
Yttrium

4.57

1490 Lithium

0.534
186
Zinc, solla

4.32

419,47 Magnesium

1.741 651
Zirconlum.

6.53 1900 Manganese

7.3

1260 Badium melts at 960o centigrade;

carbon, at 3500°.

DISCOVERERS OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
Year

Year
Discov.
Discoverer

Element

Discov.

Element

Discoverer

Actinium.
1899 Debierne

Mercury.

B. C. Alabamine. 1931 Allison

Molybdenum.

1782

Hjelm Aluminum 1827 Wohler

Neodymiuin

1885 Welsbach Antimony 1450 Valentine

Neon..

1898 Ramsay, Travers Argon 1894 Rayleigh, Ramsay Nickel.

1751 Cronstedt Arsenio.. 13th C. Magnus

Nitrogen.

1772

Rutherford Barlum 1808 Davy

Osmium

1804 Tennant Beryllium 1798 Vauquelin

Oxygen.

1774 Priestley, Scheele Bismuth 15th C. Valentine

Palladium,

1803 Wollaston Boron ..

1808
Davy
Phosphorus

1669 Brandt
Bromine
1826 Balard

Platinum.

16th C. Wood Cadmium 1817 Stromeyer

Polonium

1898 M. and Mme. Curie Calcium 1808 Davy

Potassium.

1807 Davy Carbon B. C.

Praseodymiumn.

1885 Welsbach Cerlumn 1803 Klaproth

Radium.

1898 The Curies, Bemont Cesium

1861
Bunsen, Kirchoff Radon.

1900 Dorn
Chlorin
1774 Scheele

Rhenium.

1925 Noddack and Tacke Chromium 1797 Vauquelin

Rhodlum.

1803

Wollaston Cobalt. 1735 Brandt

Rubidium

1861 Bunsen, Kirchoff Columbium 1801 Hatchett

Ruthenium

1845 Claus Copper B. C.

Sarnarium

1879

Botsbaudran Dysproslun 1886 Bolsbaudran

Scandium

1879

Nilson Erbium. 1843 Mosander

Selenium.

1817 Berzelius Europium. 1901 Dern arcay

Silicon

1823 Berzelius Fluorin

1771
Scheele
Silver

B. C.
Gadolinium
1886 Marignac

Sodium

1807

Davy Gallium 1875 Bolsbaudran

Strontium.

1790 Crawford Gernu anlum 1886 Winkler

Sulphur.

B. C.
Gold.
B. C.

Tantalum.

1802 Eckeberg Hafnium. 1923 Coster, Hevesy

Tellurium

1782 Von Reichenstein Hellum 1895 Ramsay

Terbium.

1843 Mosander Holmlum 1879 Cleve

Thallium.

1861 Crookes Hydrogen. 1766 Cavendish

Thorium.

1828 Berzellus nliplum. 1926 Hopkins, Harris, Thulium.

1879

Cleve
Yntema
Tin.

B. C.
Indium
1863 Reich, Richter

Ttanium

1789 Gregor Iodine.. 1811 Courtois

Tungsten

1783 d'Elhujar Iridium. 1804 Tennant

Uranium

1789 Klaproth Iron. B. C.

Vanadium.

1830

Selström Krypton.. 1898 Ramsay, Travers Virginium.

1929 Allison, Minder Lanthanun 1839 Mosander

Xenon,

1898 Ramsay, Travers Lead.. B. C.

Ytterblum

1878 Marignac Lithium. 1817 Artvedson

Yttrium

1794 Gadolin Lutecium. 1907 Welsbach, Urbain Zing

B. C. Magnesium 1830 Liebig, Bussy

Zirconlum.

1789 Klaproth Manganese.

1774 Gahn BOILING POINTS OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS (DEGREES, CENTIGRADE) Element

Element

C.
Element

Element
Antimony
1,380 Chlorine.

34.7 (Manganese
1,900 Rhubidium

700 Argon.. 185.7 Copper. 2,300 Molybdenum 3,700 9 Selenium

688 Arsenic (subl.) 615 Helium

-268,9 Neon.
- 245.8 Sodium

880 Barium. 1,140 Hydrogen -252.8 Nitrogen.. -195. Sulphur

444,6 Bismuth. 1,450 Iodine.

184.3 Ozone..
112 Thallium.

1.650 Bromine. 58.8 Iron.. 3,000 Phosphorus.

280
Tin

2,270 Cadmium 766 Lead. 1,620 Platinum 4,300 Tungsten.

5,900 Carbon (4,200) Magnesium 1.100 Potassium.

760
Zinc

930
DENSITY OF GASES (WEIGHT IS GRAMS PER LITRE)
Specific Grav. Lbs.

Specific Grav. Lbs.
Gas
Wght.

at
Gas

Wght.
Grams Air-10-1 Cu.Ft.

Grams Air--1 01 Cu.Ft.

C.

C.

C.

Air.

1.2930 1.0000 0.9048 0.08072 Hydrochloric acid. 1.6398 1.2682 1.1475 0.10237 Acetylene.

1.1791 0.9119 0.8251 10.07361Hydrofluoric acid .. 0.922 0.713 0.645 0.0576 Ammonia. 0.7708 0.5961 0.5394 0.04812 Hydrogen.

0.08987 0.06950 0.062890.00561 Argon

1.7809 1.3773 1.2462 0.11118|| Hydrogen sulphide 1.538 1.189 1.076 0.09602 Bromine.

7.14 5.52
5.00 0.446 Krypton.

3.708 2.868 2.595 0.2315 Butane

2.594
2.006 1.815 0.1619 Methane.

0.7168 0.5544 0.5016 10.04475 Carbon dioxide. 1.9768 1.5289 1.3833 0.12341||Methyl chloride. 2.304 1.782 1.612 0.1438 Carbon Donoxide 1.2504 0.9671 0.8750 0.07806 Methyl ether. 2.110 1.632 1.477 0.1317 Chlorine.. 3.221 2.491 2.254 0.2011

Neon.

0.9002 0.6962 0.6299 0.05620 Coal gas 0.41 to 0.32 to 0.29 to 0.026 to Nitrogen.

1.2507 0.9673 0.8752 0.07808 10.96 0.74 0.67 0.060 Nitric oxide

1.3402 1.0365 0.9378 0.08367 Cyanogen

2.323 1.797 1.620 0.1450 Nitrous oxide. 1.9777 1.5296 11.3839 0.12347 Ethane.. 1.3562 1.0489 10.9490 0.08467 || Oxygen..

1.42905 1.1052 1.0000 0.08921 Ethylene.. 1.2009 0.9752 0.8823 0.07872 Propane...

2.0196 1.5620 1.4132 0.12608 Fluorine.

1.70 1.31 1.19 0.100 Steam at 100° C. 0.598 0.462 0.418 0.0373 Hellum

0.1785 0.1381 0.1249 0.01115Sulphur dioxide. 2.9266 2.2634 2.0479 0.18270 Hydrobromic acid. .13.616 12.797 2.530 10.2257 Xenon

6.851 4.525 4.094 10.3053

Ancient Greek and Roman Weights and Measures

gall.

Source: Historical Records
WEIGHTS

Cotyle = 6 cyathus = 17.5 cu. in. = a little over Roman libra (pound) = 10 oz. 18 pwt. 13 5-7 gr., 12 pint. Chous = 12 cotyles = 210 cu. in. = .909

Troy.
Attic mina (pound) = 11 oz. 7 pwt. 16 2-7 gr., Troy.

LONG MEASURE
Attic talent (60 minae) = 56 lbs. 11 oz. O pwt. 17 1-7 Roman foot = 11 3-5 inches.
gr., Troy.

Cubit = 17.4 inches.
DRY MEASURE

Pace = 4 ft. 10 inches.
Roman modus = 1 peck 2-9 pint.

Furlong = 604 ft. 10 inches. Attic choenix = 70 cu. in. = nearly 12 pints.

Mile = 4,835 feet. medimnus e 3360 cu. in. = about 144 bushels.

Greclan cubit = 18.25 inches.
LIQUID MEASURE

Furlong = 504 ft. 41-5 inches.
Attic cyathus = 2.9 cu. in. = nearly 1 gin.

Mile = 4,030 feet.

Weight of Water

Source: Smithsonian Institution Physical Tables.

1 cubic inch.

.03617 pound.

1
cylindrical foot..

6.0 U.S. gals. 12 cubic inches .434 pound. 2.282 cylindrical feet. 112.0

pounds. 1 cubic foot.. 62.5 pounds. 45.64 cylindrical feet.. 2240.0

pounds. 1 cubic foot..

7.48052 U. S. gals. 1 imperial gallon.. 10.0 pounds. 1.8 cubic feet. 112.0 pounds. 11.2 imperial gallons. 112.0

poun is. 35.84 cubic feet.. 2240.0 pounds. 224 Imperial gallons. 2240.0

pounds. 1 cylindrical Inch 02842 pound. 1 U. S. gallon,

8.355 pounds. 12 cylindrical inches. .341 pound. 13.44 U. S. gallons..

112.0 pounds. 1 cylindrical foot 49.10 pounds 2688 U. S. gallong.

2240.0 pounds Water has not changed in its chemical composition (H20) in the last 2,000,000 years. This has been learned by analyzing oxygen liberated from ancient rocks.

WEIGHT OF SOLIDS OTHER THAN WOOD (Lbs. Per Cubic Foot)

[blocks in formation]

Source: United States Department of Agriculture. The weights given below may be used to estimate

0.78 X D2 the approximate weights of trees less limbs by mnul.

V=

X HHX.4 tiplying weight per cubic foot by number of cubic

144

where V = volume of tree in cubic feet feet per tree.

49 = the square of the tree's diameter at 41feet The following rule may be used to estimate the

from the ground in inches volume of a tree in cubic feet:

H = total height of tree in feet

Lb.

Per cubic
Per cubic

Per cubic
foot Per

foot
Per

foot Per Species 1,000 Species 1,000 Species

1,000
Air- b'd
Air- b'd

Alr-b'd
Gre'n dry ft.
Gre'n dry ft.

Gre'n dry ft.
Lb. Lb. LO

Lb.
Lb.

Lb.

Lb. Lb. Alder, red. 46 28 2,330 Douglas Air

Maple, silver 45

33 2,750 Ash, black 52 34 2,830 (Rocky Mou't.) 35 30 2,500 Maple, sugar

56 44 3.670 Ash, com. white 48 41 3,420 Elm, American 54 35 2,920 Oak, red

64 44

3,670 Aspen 43 26 2.170 Elm, slippery... 56 37 3.080, Oak, white

63 47 3,920 Basswood. 42 26 2,170 Fir, balsam.

25 2,080 Pine, lodgepole 39

29 2,420 Beech. 54 45 3,750 Gum, red 50 34 2,830 Pines, loblolly. 53

36 3,000 Birch 57 44 3.670 Hackberry.

50 37 3,080 Poplar, yellow.. 38 28 2.330 Butternut 46 27 2,250 Hemlock, east. 50 28 2,330 Redwood.

50 28 2,330 Cedar, east. red. 37 33 2.750 Hickory, true.. 63 51 4,250 Spruce, eastern 34 28 2,330 Cherry, black.. 45 35 2,930 Larch, western 48 36 3.000 Sugerberry.

48 36 3,000 Chestnut 55 30 2,500 Locust, black. 58 48 4,000 Sycamore.

52

34 2.830 Cottonw'd, east 49 2,330 Magnolia, ever

Tamarack

47 37 3.080 Cypress, south. 51 32 2,670 green......

59 35 2,920|| Walnut, black 58 38 3,170

45

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28

The weights of wood when green, as here re- sapwood of all species is light in color and in some corded, include the moisture present at the time species it is practically white. The white sapthe trees were felled, and are based on the average wood of certain species, such as maple, makes it of heartwood and sapwood pieces as represented preferable to the heartwood for specific uses. In by test specimens taken from pith to the bark. some species, such as hemlock, the true firs, bass. The air-dry weights are for wood at & moisture wood, cottonwood, and beech, there is little or no content of 12 percent, which is approximately the difference in color between sapwood and heartcondition reached without artificial heating by wood, but in most species the heartwood is darker material sheltered from precipitation in the North and fairly uniform in color, Central States. The weights per 1,000 board feet Wood kept either constantly dry or continuously are based on nominal or full size. Since nominal submerged in water does not decay, regardless of and actual size of softwood lumber often vary con- species or of the presence of sapwood. A large prosiderably, this difference must be taken into con- portion of the wood is kept so dry at all times that sideration in estimating the actual weight of soft- it lasts indefinitely. Moisture and temperature, wood lumber per 1,000 board feet. For example, a which vary greatly with local conditions, are the Tominal 1-by-8-inch softwood board actually principal factors affecting the rate of decay. When measures about 25/32 by 742 inches, and the ratio exposed to conditions that favor decay, wood in between actual and nominal cross section is:

warm, humid areas of the United States dete25/32 * 712

riorates more rapidly than that in cool or dry = 0.732

areas, High altitudes, as a rule, are less favorable 1 X 8

to decay than are low altitudes because the averThen the actual weight of 1,000 board feet of, for age temperatures are lower and the growing seaexample, Sitka spruce 1- by 8-inch boards at 12- sons for fungi, which cause decay, are shorter. percent moisture is approximbately 2,330 X 0.732= The natural decay resistance of all common na1,710 pounds.

tive species of wood lies in the heartwood. When The decorative value of wood depends upon its untreated, the sapwood of substantially all species color, figure, luster, and the way in which it takes has low resistance to decay and usually has a short Allers, stains, fumes, and transparent finishes, The life under decay-producing conditions.

Distances by Water from New York City

Source: United States Hydrographic Office, Navy Dept. TABLE OF DISTANCES FROM NEW YORK CITY (THE BATTERY) TO:

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Aarhus, Den.--Winter: E. bound.

Summer: E. bound. Acajutia, Sal.. Acapulco, Mex.-- Vla Panama Canal

Via Magell. Str... .::. Adelaide, Aust. - Via Panama,

Tahit.. Syd., & Melb..

Via St. Vincent & Cape Town Aden, Arabia-Winter: E. bound.

Summer: E. bound Ajaccio, Corsica--Winter: E. bound

Surmer; E. bound.. Akkra, Africa --Via St. Vincent, c.

Verde Is.. Algiers, Algeria--Winter: E. bound

Summer; E. bound Amapala, Honduras-Via Panama

Canal..
Ambrose Light. - Vla Ambrose

Channel
Via Main Channel.

Via Swagh Channel
Amsterdam, Neth. Winter:

bound Summer: E. bound Angra, Azores--Winter: E. bound.

Summer; E. bound Antilla, Cuba- Via Crooked I. Pass. Antofagasta, Chile - Via Panama

Canal Antwerp, Belg.-Winter; E. bound

Summer; E. bound Aquin Bay, Haiti-Via Crooked 1.

& Windward Passages Arica, Chile Via Panama Canal Auckland, N.Z.- Via Panama Canal Aux Cayes, Halti - Via Crooked I.

& Windward Passages.. Bahia, Brazil. Bahia Blanca, Argentina. Bahia Honda, Cuba--S. bd; outside Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.. Barbados (Bridgetown). w.j.:::: Barcelona, Spain--Winter: E. bound

Summer: E. bound Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, W.I. Via

Anegada Passage. Basse Terre, St. Christ. I., W. I.

Via Anegada Passage Belize, B. H.-Via Str. of Fla: 8. bd. Bermuda (Five Fath. Hole Anch.). Bishop's Rock (lat. 49° 50' No.,

long. 6° 27' W.)-Winter; E. bd.

Summer; E. bound. Bluenelds, Nicaragua

Via Crooked I. and Wind. Pass. Bocas del Toro, Panama - Vla

Crooked I. and Wind. Pass. Bombay, India--Winter; E. bound:

Via Suez Canal. Summer: E. bound: Via Suez Canal Bordeaux, Fr.--Winter; E. bound..

Summer: E. bound
Boston, Mass., U. S. A.-Via Cape

Cod Canal & L. I. Sound
Via Ambrose Ch. Vineyard Sd..

& Pollock Rip Slue
Outside Nantucket Light Vessel.
Via. L. 1. & Vineyard Sounds &

Pollock Rip Slue.
Boulogne, Fr.Winter; E. bound.

Summer; E. bound.
Bremen, Germ.-Winter; E. bound

Summer; E. bound. Brunswick, Ga., U. S. A.. Buenaventura, Col.Via Panama

Canal Buenos Aires, Arg.--Direct Via Pernambuco, Babla, Rio de

Janeiro, & Montevideo. Cadiz, Sp.--Winter; E. bound.

Summer; E. bound. Calcutta, Ind. --Winter: E. bound:

Vla. Suez Can.; S. of Sokotra I. Suminer: E. bound: Via Suez

Can,; S. of Sokotra I... Caldera, Chile Via Panama Can.. Callao, Peru-Via Panama Can..

Via Magellan Str... Cape Hattien, Halti. Cape Town, Al.-Direct.

Via St. Vincent, Cape Verde Is. Caragues River, Ecuad.-Vla Pan

ama Canal.

Cartagena, Col.-Via Crooked Is. & Windward Pass.

1,853 2,134 Carupano, Ven.-Vla

Virgin Pass. 1.893 2.180 Cattaro, Aust.-Winter; E. bound 4,626 5.327 Summer: E. bound.

4,644 5,348 Cayenne, Guiana

2,447 2.818 Charleston, S. U.S.A.

827 722 Charlottetown, P. E. 1.- Via Gui of Canso...

832 958 Cherbourg. Fr.-Winter; E. bound 3.125 3,599 Summer: E. bound

3,226 3,715 Christiansted, St. Croix, S.I.- Via Virgin Passage.

1,465 1.687 Cienfuegos, Cuba-Via Crooked I. & Windward Pass. ...

1,682 1,937 Colombo, Cey.-Winter: E. bound,

Via Suez Canal; S. of Sokotra I. 8,607 9.911 Summer: E. bound. Via Sues Canal, S. of Sokotra I....

8.625 9,932 Colon, C. 2.- Via Crooked I. & Windward Pass..

1.974 2.273 Copenhagen, Den.-Winter;

E. bound...

3,928 4.523 Summer; E. bound

4,029 4,639 Via Pentland Firth (Winter).

3,675 4,232 Vla Pentland Firth (Summer) 3,845 4,428 Coquimbo, Ch.--Vla Panama Canal 4,468 5.145 Cortu, I.of Corfu-Winter: E.bound 4,516 5,200 Summer: E. bound.....

4.534 5,221 Corinto, Nic. --Via Panama Canal 2,700 3,109 Coronel, Chile-Via Panama Can.

4.839 5,572 Vla Magellan Str. .....

8,135 9.368 Culebra I. (The Sound), W.I..

1,422 1,638 Cumana, Ven.-Via Mona Pass. 1,901 2,189 Curaçao (Santa Ana Hbr.) W. I.Via Mona Pass...

1,709 2,037 Danzig. Ger.--Winter; E. bound.

4,053 4.667 Summer; E. bound.

4,223 4.863 Demarara River, Brit. Guiana 2.217 2.653 Dominica I. (Roseau, W. 1.)- Via Anegada Pass. . .

1,870 1.923 Dover, Eng. --Winter; E. bound. : . 3,249 3,741 Summer: E. bound

3,350 3.858 Esmeraldas, Ecuad.--Via Panama Canal.

2,491 2,868 Eten, Peru-Via Panama Canal. 3,029 3,488 Fall River, Mass., U. S. A.-Vla Long Island Sound.

159 183 Famagusta, Cyprus I.--Winter; E. bound

5,178 5.963 Summer: E. bound

5.196 6.983 Fastnet (lat. 51° 20° N., long.

9° 36'W.)-Winter: E. bound 2,812 3,238 Summer; E bound..

2.924 3,367 Fayal (Horta). Azores -Crossing Long. 47° W., in Lat. 40° 30'N.

2,115 2,436 Fernandina, Fla., U. S. A..,

757 872 Fishguard, Wales-Winter:E.bound 2,992 3,445 Summer: E. bound.

3,104

3,574 Flume, A, H.-Winter; E. bound. 4,848

5.683 Summer; E. bound.

4,866 6.604 Fort de France, Martinique, w. 1. Via Anegada Pass.

1.717 1,977 Fort Pond Bay, N. Y., U. S. A. Via Long Island Sound.

110 127 Fortune Island, Bahamas.

1,093 1,259 Funchal, Madeira-Great Circle. 2.765 3,184 Galveston, Tex., U.S.A.-S. bound;

Outside; S. of Dry Tortugas. 1.887 2.173 Galway, Ire. --Winter: E. bound. 2,839 3,269 Summer: E. bound..

2,964 3,414 Gdynia.

4,173 4,799 Genoa, It-Winter; E. bound

4.060 4,675 Summer: E. bound

4,078 4.696 Georgetown, Brit. Gulana.

2,217 di2.553 Gibraltar--Winter; E. bound. 3,207 3,693 Summer; E. bound..

3.225 3.714 Gibraltar, str. of (lat. 35° 57' N.,

long 5° 45' W.)--Winter: E.
bound.

3,183 3.665 Summer: E. bound

3,201 3.686 Glasgow, Scot.--Winter; E. bound. 3.036 3,496 Summer: E. bound

3.175 3.656 Gothenburg, Swed.---Winter:E. bind 3.570 4,111 Summer: E, bound.

3,740 4,307 Greenport, N. Y.. U.S. A...

102 117 Guantanamo Bay (Caimanera) Cuba Via Crooked I. & Wind. Pass..

1,319 1,519 Guayaquil (Puna), Ecu. - Via Punama Canal.

2.810 3.236 Via Magellan Su...

10.215 11.763

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Manila ...

Mlles
Place-Route and Season

Naut. Stat. Havana, Cube (Custom House

Whart)--Inside: S. bound. 1.227 1.413 Outside: S. bound..

1.186 1.366 Halifax, Nova Scotla.

596 686 Hamburg, Ger. Wiater: E. bound 3,648 4.201 Summer; E. bound

3,749 4.317 Hampton Roads. Va., U.S. A.

281 324 Hayre, Fr.-Winter; E. bound 3,192 3.676 Summer: E. bound

3,293 3,792 Hong Kong Winter; E. bound, Via : S. of

11,605 13.364 Summer: E. bound: Via Suez Canal: 8. of Sokotre I..

11,623 13.384 Via Panama, San Francisco,

Yokohama & Shanghai.. 11,691 13.463 Via Panama, Honolulu, Yokobama and Shanghai.

11.989 13,806 Via Panama, Honolulu, Guam &

12.171 14.015 Via Suez Canal. Colombo, &

Singapore; Winter: E. bound 11.646 13,411 Via Suez Canal, Colombo, Singapore; Summer : E. bound

11.664 13.432 Honolulu, Haw.-- Via Panama Canai 6,702 7.718 Via Magellan Str.

13.312

15.329 Via Isthmus of Tehuantepec 5.691 6.554 Iquique. Ch.--Via Panama Canal 4.004 4.611 Via Magellan Str.

9.143 10.520 Istanbul, Tur.-- Winter: E. bound 5,026 5,788 Summer: E. bound.

5.044 6.809 Jacksonville. Fla., U. S. A.

792 912 Jacmel, Halti --Via Crooked I. & Windward Pass..

1,489 1.715 Kalamata, Gr.-Winter: E. bound 4,559 5.250 Summer: E. bound.

4.577

5.271 Key West, Fla., U. S. A.-Outside; S. bound

1.12 1.299 Inside; S. bound

1.171 1.348 Kingston, Jamalca--Via Crooked I. & Windward Pass.

1.474 !1.697 Kristiansand, Nor.--Winter; E. bound.

3.448 3,971 Summer; E. bound.

3.618 4.166 La Guaira, Ven. Via Mona Pass. 1.847 2,127 La Pallice. Fr.-Winter; E. bound. 3.176 3 658 Summer; E. bound.

3,255 3.748 La Palinas, Canary Is..

2.965 3.414 La Union, SalvadorVia Panama Canal

2.765 3.184 Liverpool, Eng. - Winter; E. bound 3.107 3.578 Summer; E. bound.

3,219 3.707 Livingston. Guat.-Vla Straits of Florida; 8. bound

1.796 2.068 London, Eng.-Winter: E. bound 3.341 3,847 Summer: E. bound.

3.442 3.964 Los Angeles, Cal., U. S. A.-Vla Panama Canal,

4.930 5.677 Via Magellan Str.

12.818 14,761 Magallanes, Chile--E, of S. A. 6,947 8.000 Via Panama Canal.

5.960 6.863 Malta (Valetta Harb.) - Winter; E. bound

4.190 4,825 Summer: E. bound

4.208 4,846 Manila, P. 1.- Via Panama Canal & Balintang Channel

11.364 13.086 Via Panama, San Francisco. G. C., & Yokohama

11.555 14,533 Via Panama, Honolulu, Yoko

hama, Shanghal & Hong Kong 12.620 14,533 Via Punama, Honolulu & Yokohams.

11.853 13.649 Via Panama, Honolulu & Guam. 11.540 13,289 Winter; E. bound. Via

Suez
Canal; S. of Sokotra I...

11.521 13,267 Summer; E. bound; Vla Suez

Canal: 8. of Sokotra I.... 11,539 13.288 Via Suez Canal, Aden, Colombo,

& Singapore: Winter; E. bound 11.572 13,326 Via Suez Canal, Aden. Colombo.&

Singapore; Summer: E. bound. 11.590 13.346 Via Suez Canal, Colombo, &

Singapore: Winter: E. bound 11,562 13,314
Via Suez, Colombo & Singapore:
Summer; E. bound.

11,580 13,335
Manta, Ecu. --Via Panama Canal.. 2,611 3.007
Maracaibo, Ven.-Vla La Guaira &
Curacao..

2.228 2,566 Via Mayaguez, P. R., La Guaira & Curacao

2,256

2,598 Mare Island (Navy Yard), Cal.,

U.S.A.- Via Panama Canal 5,280 6.080 Margarita I. (La Mar Bay), Ven. Vla Virgin Pass. ...

1.879 2.164 Marseilles, Fr.-Winter; E. bound. 3.895 4,485 Summer: E. bound

3,913

4,506 Mathew Town. Great Inagua I. W.İ., Via Crooked 1. Passage.

1.205 1,388

Mayaguez, P. R..

1,402 1.614 Mazatlan, Mex.--Via Panama Canal 4,023 4.632 Melbourne, Aust. - Via Cape of Good Hope.

r2,838 14,784 Via Magellan Str.

12.891 14,845 Via Panama Canal.

9,945 11.452 Via Panama & Tahiti

10,194 11,739 Via Panama, Tahiti & Sydney. 10,392 11.967 Via St. Vincent & Cape Town. 12,933 14.893 Via St. Vincent, Cape Town & Adelaide

13.162 15. 157 Winter: E. bound: Via Suez Canal 12.975 14.941

Summer: E. bound; Via Suez Canal 12.993 14.962 Mobile, Ala., U. 8. A. -Outside: S. bound

1.658 1.909 Mollendo. Peru Vla Panama Canal

3.813 4,391 Monu Pilss. (lat. 18° 3' N; long. 67° 47' W.). W. I..

1.401 1.613 Monte Cristi. D. R.

1.265 1.457 Montevideo, Uruguay-Direct 5.757 6.630 Via Barbados Pernambuco, Bahia & Rio de Janeiro

6. 111 7.037 Naples, It.--- W'Inter; E. bound 4.182 4.815 Summer: E. bound

4,200 4.837 Nassau, N. P. I. --Via NE. Providence Channel

962 1,108 New Orleans, La., U. S. A.S.

bound: Outside, S. of Dry

Torilgas, & viu S. W. Pass. 1.727 1,989 S. bound: Outside: S. of Dry Tortugas & via S. Pass.

1.711 1.970 Newport, R. I.. U.S.A-Via Long Island Sound

138 159 Outside Long Island

158 182 Newport News, Va.. U. S. A..

289 333 Norfolk, Va., U.S. A..

292 336 Neuvitas. Cuba--Via Crooked 1. Palss..

1.274 1,467 Odessa. Rus.-- Winter: E. bound. 5.353 6 164 Summer: E bound

5,371 6.185 Oslo, Nor. Winter: E. bound 3.601 4.147 Summer; E. bound.

3,771 4,342 Paldi, Peru - Via Panama Canal 2.874 8.310 Panama. C. 2.-l'la Crooked I. & Windward Pass..

2.017 2,323 Para. Brazil-Great Circle.

2.946 3,392 Paramaribo. Guiana

2,334 2.688 Pensacola, Fla., USA.-S. bound:

Outside. S of Dry Tortugas 1.618 1.863 Pentindo Firth (lat. 58° 42' N.:long.

3° 20' W.)-Winter: E. bound. 3.077 3,343 Summer: E. bound

3.247 3,739 Pernambuco, Brazil.

3.698 4,269 Via Barbados, Crossing Equator in long. 37' W..

3.927 4.522 Philarielphia. Pa., U. S. A

235 271 Plymouth. Eng. --Winter: E. bound 3.033 3,493 Summer: E. bound

3.134 3,609 Pointe a Pltre. Guardeloupe. W. I. 1.652 1.903 Ponce. P, R.- Via Mona Pass.

1,462 1,684 Port Antonio, Jamaica Via

Crooked I. & Windward Pass. 1.423 I 634 Port Arthur, Texas

1.855 2,136 Porr au Prince. Hati-Via Crooked 1. Pissige

1.372 1,500 Port Banes, Cuba-Via Crooked i. Pass...

1,216 1.400 Port Buenaventura. Col. - Vla

Crooked I. & Windward Passa

ges, Panama Canal & Balboa 2.371 2,730 Port Custries, St. Lucia, W. I.- Via Anegada Pass.

1.747 2.012 Port Druco (Piraeus) Gr.---Winter: E. bound

4.699 5,411 Sutiner; E. bound

4,717 5.432 Port Gibrara, Cuba-Via Crooked 1. P:299,

1,216 1,400 Port Limon, C. R. --Via Crooked I. & Windward Pass.

2,047 2,357 Port Lobos, Mex...

1,992 2.394 Port Natal (Durban), Al..

7,577 8,725 Port of Spain. Trinidad, W. I.Via Virgin Pass.

1.939 2.233 Via Barbadog.

2,032

2,340 Port Said, Egypt - Winter: E. bound 5,125

5,922 Summer; E. bound.

5,143 5,943 Port Townsend, Wash., U. S. A.

Via Panama & San Francisco 0.032 6.946 Via Magellan Str. & San Francisco 13,905 16.012 Portland. Me., U. 8. A. - Via Am

brose Channel, Vineyard Sound
& Pollock Rip Slue

349
Outside: Nantucket Light vessel. 419
Portland, Ore.. U. S A.-Vla
Panama Canal

5.886 6,778 Via Magellan Strait

13,760 | 18,845 Porto Plata, Dom. Rep.- Via Turks I. Pass...

1.270 1.453

402

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