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Philosophy
Poetry.

Chemist.
Statesman.
History.
Philosophy.
Soldier.

Fiction.

History.

Drams.

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1786 1889 Chevreud, Michael
1619 1683 Colbert, Jean B..
1445 1509 Comines, Philip.
1798 1857 Compte, Auguste.
1621 1686 Conde, Prince de.

1743 1794 Condorcet, Marquis de.
1767 1830 Constant, Benjamin.
1842 1908 Coppée, Francois.
1606 1684 Cornellle, Pierre...
1792 1867 Cousin, Victor.
1674 1762 Crebillon.
1854 1928 Curel, Francols de.
1769 1832 Cuvier, George L..
1840 1897 Daudet, Alphonse.
1596 1650 Descartes, Rene..
1713 1784 Diderot, Denis.
1860 1935 Dreyfus, Col. Alfred..
1803 1870 Dumas, Alexander
1824 1895 Dumas, Alexander, Jr.
1651 1715 Fenelon, Francols de S.
1821 1890 Feuillet, Octave..

1821 1880 Flaubert, Gustave.
1851 1929 Foch, Ferdinand.
1844 1924 France, Anatole..
1337 1410 Froissart. Jean..

1838 1882 Gambetta, Leon

1892 1896 Goncourt, Edmond de.

Metaphysics.
Poetry.
Drama.
Nat. History.
Fiction.
Philosophy.
Encyclopedia.
Soldler.
Fiction.

Drama.
Rellg.. Liter.
Fiction.
Novelist.

1854 1912 Poincare, Henri.
1860 1934 Poincare, Raymond
1814 1867 Ponsara.
1849 1930 Porto-Riche, de.
1697 1765 Prévost (l'abbe)
1803 1875 Quinet, Edgard.
1495 1553 Rabelais, Francois.
1639 1699 Racine, Jean
1875 1937 Ravel, Maurice
1573 1613 Regnier, Mathurin.
1823 1893 Renan, Ernest

Drama.
Science.
Statesman
Drama.
Drama.

Stories.

Music.
Poetry.

1613 1680 Rochefoucauld, Duc de la Morals
1661 1741 Rollin, Charles.

1524 1585 Ronsard, Pierre de.

1868 1918 Rostand, Edmond.

1760 1836 Rouget de Lisle
1712 1778 Rousscau, Jean J
1616 1703 Saint-Evremond.
1737 1814 Saint Pierre Bernardin.
1675 1755 Saint-Simon...
1804 1869 Sainte-Beuve..
1567 1622 Sales (St. Francois de)
1804 1876 Sand, George.

History.

Poet.

Poetry.

Literature.

Philos.

Literature.
Fiction.
History.
Criticism.
Rellg., Liter.
Fiction.

Drama.

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1831 1908 Sardou, Victorien.
1696 1750 Saxe, Maurice de..
1791 1861 Scribe, Eugene.
1626 1696 Sevigne (Mme. de).
1766 1817 Stael, Mme de..
1804 1857 Sue, Eugene
1839 1907 Sully-Prudhomme.
1828 1893 Taine, Hippolyte A.
1795 1856 Thierry, Augustin
1797 1877 Thiers, Adolphe.
1805 1859 Tocqueville. A. C. de.
1611 1675 Turenne, Vicomte de.
1828 1905 Verne, Jules

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1848 1907 Huysmans, Joris K

Fiction.

1799 1863 Vigny, Alfred de.

Poetry.

1852 1931 Joffre, Joseph J. C..

Soldier

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1431 1484 Villon, (Corbier) Francois
1598 1648 Voiture...

Poetry.

Poetry.

1530 1563 La Boétie, Etienne de 1645 1696 La Bruyere, Jean D. 1790 1869 Lamartine. Alphonse de

Morals.

Morals.
Poetry.

1694 1778 Voltaire, (F. M. Arouet)
1840 1902 Zola, Emile..

Fict., Religion

Fiction.

George Sand, novelist and dramatist, was the daughter of Lieut. Maurice de Saxe and his wife, Sophie, daughter of a Paris pool room keeper. When 17 she was married to Baron Dudevant, by whom she had 2 children. Her real name, she said, was Armandine Lucile Aurore Dupin.

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Bartholdi was the sculptor who made the Liberty Statue now in N. Y. Harbor.

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Noted German Personages

1769 1860 Arndt, Ernst Moritz. 1686 1739 Asam, Cosmos D..

1692

1750 Asam, Egid Quirin

1685 1750 Bach, Joh. Sebastian

1545 Baldung, Hans,

Source: Biographical Records

Subject

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1476

Painter

1770 1827 Beethoven, Ludwig Von. 1844 1929 Benz, Carl.

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1836 1907 Bergmann, Ernst von. 1815 1898 Bismarck, Otto von.. 1742 1819 Bluecher, Gebhart L. 1827 1901 Boecklin, Arnold.

1831 1910 Bodelschwingh, Fried. von
1575 1624 Boehme, Jakob..
1771 1848 Boyen, Hermann von.
1833 1897 Brahms, Johannes.
1829
1884 Brehm, Alfred..

1778 1842 Brentano, Clemens.
1824 1896 Bruckner, Anton..
1811 1899 Bunsen, Robert..
1473 1531 Burkmair, Hans.
1832
1908 Busch, Wilhelm.
1754 1798 Carstens, Jakob A.
1726 1801 Chodowiecki, Daniel.
1815 Claudius, Matthias.
1831 Clausewitz, Carl von
1867 Cornelius, Peter..

1740

1780

1783

1472 1553 Cranach, Lucas.

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1834 1900 Daimler, Gottlieb..

Engineer

1606

1695 Derflinger, Georg.

Soldier

1858

1913 Diesel, Rudolf..

Engineer

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1812 1887 Krupp, Alfred.. 1827 1891 Lagarde, Paul de.. 1741 1801 Lavater. Johann K.. 1881 1919 Lehmbruck, Wilhelm.. 1844 1900 Leibl, Wilhelm. 1646 1716 Leibnitz, Gottfried. 1729 1781 Lessing, Gotthold E.. 1847 1935 Liebermann, Max.. 1803 1873 Liebig. Justus von. 1844 1909 Liliencron, Detlev von. 1848 1896 Lilienthal, Otto... 1811 1886 Liszt. Franz. 1865 1937 Ludendorff, Erich. 1483 1546 Luther, Martin. 1837 1887 Marees, Hans von. 1818 1883 Marx, Karl. 1260 1327 Meister, Eckehart. 1497 1560 Melanchton, Phil 1440 1494 Memling, Hans 1822 1884 Mendel, Gregor.. 1815 1905 Menzel, Adolf von 1733 1815 Mesmer, Friedrich A. 1800 1891 Moltke, Helmuth v.. 1804 1875 Moerike, Eduard.. 1817 1908 Mommsen, Theodor. 1756 1791 Mozart, Wolgang A.. 1844 1900 Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1853 1932 Ostwald, Wilhelm.... 1789 1869 Overbeck, Friedrich. 1796 1835 Platen, August Graf von. 1831 1910 Raabe, Wilhelm.. 1795 1886 Ranke, Leopold von. 1867 1922 Rathenau, Walther. 1777 1857 Rauch, Christian. 1873 1916 Reger, Max.

1816 1859 Rethel, Alfred. 1810 1874 Reuter, Fritz. 1803 1884 Richter, Ludwig.. 1468 1531 Riemenschnelder, Tilman 1875 1926 Rilke, Rainer Maria.. 1845 1923 Roentgen, Wilhelm K 1788 1866 Rueckert, Friedrich 1777 1810 Runge, Philipp O. 1494 1576 Sachs, Hans 1779 1861 Savigny, Fried. Carl von. 1663 1736 Savoyen, Eugen von. 1764 1850 Schadow, Johann G. 1755 1813 Scharnhorst, G. I. D. 1775 1854 Schelling, Friedrich W.. 1759 1805 Schiller, Friedrich. 1781 1841 Schinkel, Karl Friedrich. 1767 1845 Schlegel, August W. 1768 1834 Schleiermacher, Fried. D. 1833 1913 Schlieffen, Alfred von.. 1822 1892 Schliemann, Heinrich. 1862 1931 Schnitzler, Artur. 1445 1488 Schongauer, Martin.. 1788 1866 Schopenhauer, Arthur. 1797 1828) Schubert, Franz. 1810 1856 Schumann, Robert 1804 1871 Schwind, Moritz von. 1816 1892 Siemens, Werner von. 1868 1932 Slevogt, Max..

Aeronautics
Music
Soldier
Religion
Painter
Soc. Economy
Mystic, Phil.
Reformer

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Soldier Poet History Music Philosophy Chemist Painter Poet Novelist History Statesman Sculpture Music Painter Poet Painter Sculpture Poet Physics Poet Painter Poet Jurist Soldier Sculpture Soldier Philosophy Drama, Poet Architect Poet, Transl't Philosophy Soldier Archaeology Drama, Nov Painter Philosophy Music Music

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Drama Poet

Philosophy

Poet Physics Writer

1638 1701 Starhemberg. E. Graf von Soldier 1757 1831 Stein, Karl von. 1831 1897 Stephan, Heinrich von... 1805 1868 Stifter, Adalbert. 1817

Statesman

Postmaster

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1685 1759 Haendel, Georg Friedrich 1844 1913 Hagenbeck, Carl. 1730 1788 Hamann, Johann G 1851 1930 Harnack, Adolf von 1732 1809 Haydn, Joseph 1813 1863 Hebbel, Friedrich 1760 1826 Hebel, Joh. Peter 1770 1831 Hegel, Georg W. F 1797 1856 Heine, Heinrich... 1821 1894 Helmholtz, Hermann von 1744 1803 Herder, Joh. G. von.... 1847 1921 Hildebrand, Adolf von... 1847 1934 Hindenburg, Paul von. 1925 Hoetzendorf, Franz C. von Soldier

1888 Storm, Theodor. 1455 1533 Stoss, Veit.

1825 1899] Strauss, Johann. 1857 1928 Sudermann, Hermann 1839 1924 Thoma, Hans.

1852

1776 1822 Hoffmann, Ernst T. A..

Poet

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1842 1926 Thyssen, August. 1849 1930 Tirpitz, Alfred von. 1834 1896 Treitschke, Heinrich von. 1848 1911 Uhde, Fritz von.

1770 1843 Hoelderlin, Friedrich..

Poet

1769 1859 Humboldt, Alexander von Scientist 1767 1835 Humboldt, W. von..

1787 1862 Uhland, Ludwig 1821 1902 Virchow, Rudolf.

Scientist

1488

1523 Hutten, Ulrich von.

Religion

1778 1852 Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig 1763 1825 Jean, Paul.

1859

1935 Junkers, Hugo.

1832 1912 Justi, Carl..

1724 1804 Kant, Immanuel.

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Patriot

Novelist
Engineer
Art, Critic
Philosophy
Architect
Astronomy
Drama, Nov.
Poetry
Physician

Poet, Patriot Sculpture

Novelist
Poet
Sculpture
Music

Drama, Nov.
Painter

Industry
Admiral
History
Painter
Poet

Physician
Sculpture
Poet,Transl't

Music

1455 1529 Vischer, Peter 1751 1826 Voss, Johann H. 1165 1230 Walther v. d. Vogelweide Poet 1813 1883 Wagner, Richard. 1583 1634 Wallenstein, Albrecht von Soldier 1873 1934 Wassermann, Jakob..... Novelist 1786 1826 Weber, Karl Maria von..Music 1733 1772 Wieland, Christoph M... Poet 1853 1905 Wissmann, Hermann von Explorer 1860 1903 Wolf, Hugo

1832 1920 Wundt, Wilhelm. 1759 1830 York, Hans D. L.

Music Philosophy Soldier

1838 1917 Zeppelin, Ferd. Graf von. Aeronaut 1859 1940 Zimmermann, A. F. M... 'Diplomat

Kopernicus, Nikolaus (Nicholas) Copernicus (Prussian or Polish), astronomer, born 1473; died 1543.

Operatic and Other Musical Composers

Source: Biographical Records

The following list of composers of opera, oratorio and other music, with the year of birth and death is compiled in large part from "Opera Plots," published in 1927 by the New York Public Library.

Adam, Adolphe C (1803-1856)
Alary, Giulio (1814-1891)
Albeniz, Isaac (1860-1909)
Arditi, Luigi (1822-1903)
Arne, Dr. Thos. A. (1710-1778)
Arnold, Dr. Sam'l (1740-1802)
Attwood, Thomas (1765-1838)
Auber, Dan'l F. E. (1782-1871)
Audran, Edmond (1842-1901)
Bach, Johann S. (1685-1750)
Balfe, Michael W. (1808-1870)
Barbieri, Carlo E. (1822-1867)
Barker, James N. (1784-1858)
Bayer, Josef (1852-1913)
Bazin, Francois E. J. (1816-1878)
Beer, Max J. (1851-1908)
Beethoven, Ludwig (1770-1827)
Bellini, Vincenzo (1801-1835)
Benedict, Sir Julius (1804-1885)
Benoist, Francois (1794-1878)
Benoit, Pierre L. L. (1834-1901)
Berlioz, Hector (1803-1869)
Bignami, Enrico (1836-1894)
Binder, Karl (1816-1860)
Bishop, Sir Henry R. (1786-1855)
Bizet, Georges (1838-1875)
Boccherini, Luigi (1743-1805)
Boieldieu, Francois A. (1775-1834)
Boito, Arrigo (1842-1918)
Bordese, Luigi (1815-1866)
Borodin, Alexander P. (1834-1887)
Bottesini, Giovanni (1821-1889)
Boulanger, Ernest H. (1815-1850)
Braga, Gaetano (1829-1907)
Brahms, Johann (1833-1897)
Breval, Jean B. (1756-1825)
Bristow, George F. (1825-1898)
Buck, Dudley (1839-1909)
Burgmuller, Friedrich (1806-1874)
Busoni, Ferruccio B. (1866-1924)
Catalini, Alfredo (1854-1893)
Cellier, Alfred (1844-1891)
Cherubini, Maria L. (1760-1842)
Chopin, Frederic F. (1810-1849)
Clementi, Muzio (1752-1832)
Cohen, Jules (1830-1901)
Coleridge-Taylor, S. (1875-1912)
Conradi, August (1821-1873)
Cornelius, Peter (1824-1874)
Cortesi, Francesco (1826-1904)
Costa, Sir Michael A. (1808-1884)
Cui, Cesar A. (1835-1918)
Dargomyschski, Alex. (1813-1869)
David, Felicien C. (1810-1876)
Debussy, Claude A. (1862-1918)
DeKoven, Reginald (1861-1920)
Delahye, Leon J., Jr. (1844-1896)
Delibes, Leo (1836-1891)
Dellinger, Rudolf (1857-1910)
Diaz, Eugenio (1837-1901)
Dibdin, Charles (1745-1814)
Dietrich, Albert H. (1829-1908)
Donizetti, Gaetano (1797-1848)
Doppler, Adolf (1850-1906)

Dorn, Heinrich, L. E. (1804-1892)
Dubois, Francois C. T. (1837-1924)
Dufresne, Alfred (1822-1863)
Dukas, Paul (1865-1935)
Duprez, Gilbert L. (1806-1896)
Dvorak, Antonin (1841-1904)
Edwards, Julian (1855-1910)
Erlanger, Camille (1863-1919)
Faure, Gabriel V. (1845-1924)
Favart, Charles S. (1710-1792)
Flotow, Friedrich von (1812-1883)
Foerster, Alban (1849-1916)
Forster, Joseph (1845-1917)
Franck, Cesar A. (1822-1890)
Gabrielli, Nicolo (1814-1891)
Gade, Axel W. (1860-1921)
Galli, Amintore (1845-1919)
Gandini, Alessandro (1807-1871)
Gautier, Jean F. E. (1822-1878)
Gay, John (1685-1732)
Geisler, Paul (1856-1919)
Genee, Franz F. R. (1823-1895)
Gershwin, George (1898-1937)
Gervais, Charles H. (1671-1744)
Giacomelli, Geminiano (1686-1743)
Girard, Narcisse (1797-1860)
Gleason, Frederick G. (1848-1903)
Glinka, Michael I. (1803-1857)
Glover, John W. (1815-1900)
Gluck, Christoph W. (1714-1787)
Godard. Benjamin L. (1849-1895)
Godowsky, Leopold (1870-1939)

Nessler, Victor E. (1841-1890)
Nesvers, Josef (1842-1914)
Nicolai, Otto (1810-1849)
Niedermeyer, Louis (1802-1861)
Nikisch, Arthur (1855-1922)
Offenbach, Jacques (1819-1880)
Onslow, George (1784-1853)
Orefice, Giacomo (1865-1922)
Ortolan, Eugene (1824-1891).
Ouseley, Sir F. A. (1825-1889)
Pabst, August (1811-1885)
Pacini, Giovanni (1796-1867)
Paine, John K. (1839-1906)
Palestrina, Giacomo (1526-1594)
Paris, Claude J. (1801-1866)
Parker, Horatio W. (1863-1920)
Pergolesi, Giovanni B. (1710-1736)
Peri, Jacopo (1561-1630)
Persiani, Guiseppe (1804-1869)
Philidor, Francois A. (1726-1795)
Piccini, Niccolo (1728-1800)
Pinsuti, Ciro (1829-1888)
Planquette, Robert (1850-1902)
Pleyel, I. J. (1757-1831)

Ponchielli, Amilcare (1834-1886)
Poniatowski, Joseph M. (1816-73)
Pougin, Arthur (1834-1921)
Pratt, Silas G. (1846-1916)
Prevost, Eugene P. (1809-1872)
Puccini, Giacomo (1858-1924)
Purcell, Henry (1658-1695)
Reber, Napoleon H. (1807-1880)
Rebikoff, Vladimir I. (1866-1920)
Rehbaum, Theobald (1835-1918)
Reinecke, Karl (1824-1910)
Reinhardt, Heinrich (1865-1922)
Remy, W. A. W. M. (1831-1898)
Reyer, Louis E. E. R. (1823-1909)
Ricci, Federigo (1809-1877)
Rimsky-Korsakoff, N. (1844-1908)
Ritter, Alexander (1833-1896)
Rossini, Gioacchino A. (1792-1868)
Rousseau, Jean J. (1712-1778)
Rubenstein, Anton G. (1830-1894)
Saint-Remy (Duc de M.) (1811-65)
Saint Saens, Chas. C. (1835-1921)
Saloman, Siegfried (1816-1899)
Salomon, Hector (1833-1906)
Samara, Spiro (1861-1917)
Satie, Erik (1866-1925)
Scharwenka, Franz X. (1850-1924)
Schubert, Franz P. (1797-1828)
Schulz, August (1837-1909)
Schulz-Beuthen, Hein (1838-1915)
Schumann, Robert (1810-1856)
Serpette, Gaston (1846-1904)
Severac, Deodat de (1873-1921)
Seyfried, Ignaz X. (1776-1841)
Sgambati, Giac. (1843-1914)
Siboni, Erik A. W. (1828-1892)
Smetana, Friedrich (1824-1884)
Solomon, Edward (1853-1895)
Sommer, Hans (1837-1922)
Spinelli, Niccola (1865-1909)
Spohr, Ludwig (1784-1859)
Spontini, Gasparo L. (1774-1851)
Stephan, Rudi (1887-1915)
Stradella, Alessandro (1645-1681)
Strauss, Johann, Sr. (1804-1849)
Strauss, Johann, Jr. (1825-1899)
Sullivan, Sir Arthur S. (1842-1900)
Suppe, Franz von (1820-1895)
Tausig, Karl (1841-1871)
Thomas, Arthur G. (1851-1892)
Thome, Francis (1850-1909)
Thalberg, S. (1812-1871)

Thomas, Chas. L. A. (1811-1896)
Thuille, Ludwig (1861-1907)
Torchi, Luigi (1853-1920)
Tschaikowsky, Peter I. (1840-1893)
Ischirch, Friedrich W. (1818-92)
Van Der Eeden, Jean (1842-1917)
Verdi, Giuseppe (1813-1901)
Vogel, Charles L. A. (1808-1893)
Volkmann, Robert (1815-1883)
Wagner, Richard (1813-1883)
Wallace, William V. (1813-1865)
Weber, Karl M.F.E. (1786-1826)
Weitzmann, Karl F. (1808-1880)
Winter, Peter von (1754-1825)
Wolf, Hugo (1860-1903)
Woodworth, Samuel (1785-1842)
Zeller, Karl (1842-1898)
Zichy, Count Geza (1849-1919)
Zingarelli, Nicola A. (1752-1837)

[graphic]

Chief Operas of Noted Composers

Source: Biographical Records Abduction from the Harem (Mozart); Africaine, watha (Coleridge-Taylor); H. M. S. Pinafore L' (Meyerbeer); Aida (Verdi); Ali-Baba (Cheru- (Sullivan); Huguenots, The (Meyerbeer); Iolanthe bini); Amico Fritz, L (Mascagni); Ascanio (Saint (Sullivan; Tschaikowsky); Irene (Gounod); Iris Saens); Andrea Chenier (Giordano); Anna Bolena (Mascagni); Isabeau (Mascagni); Ivan the Ter(Donizetti). rible (Rimsky-Korsakoff); Ivanhoe (Sullivan); Jean de Nievelle (Delibes); Jerusalem (Verdi).

Arlane et Barbe-Bleue (Massenet); Arlesienne, L' (Bizet); Armida (Rossini); Armide (Gluck); Aschenbrodel (Wolf-Ferrari); Attila (Verdi). Aveugles (Offenbach); Bacchus (Massenet); Bagatelle (Offenbach); Ballo in Maschera, Un (Verdi). Barbares, Les (Saint Saens); Barbe-Bleue (Offenbach); Barber of Seville (Rossini); Baron des Tziganes, Le (J. Strauss); Bartered Bride (Smetana); Bat, The (Fledermaus) (J. Strauss); Battaglia di Legnano, La (Verdi).

Beatrice di Tenda (Bellini); Beggar Student (Millocker); Beggars Opera (Gay and Pepusch); Belisario (Donizetti); Billee Taylor (Solomon); Black Hussar (Millocker); Boccaccio (Suppe); Boheme, La (Leoncavallo; Puccini); Bohemian Girl (Balfe).

Boris Godounov (Moussorgsky) Bride of Lammermoor (Donizetti); Bride of the Czar (RimskyKorsakoff); Cagliostro (J. Strauss); Caliph of Bagdad (Boieldieu); Campanello, Il (Donizetti); Canterbury Pilgrims (De Koven, Stanford); Carmen (Bizet).

Cavalleria Rusticana (Mascagni); Cesare Borgia (Leoncavallo); Charmeuse, La (Tschaikowsky); Cherubin (Massenet); Chimes of Normandy (Planquette); Cid, Le (Massenet); Cigale, La (Audran); Cinderella (Massenet).

Cinq-Mars (Gounod); Clara di Pert (Verdi); Cleopatra's Night (Hadley); Cleopatra (Massenet): Columbe, La (Gounod).

Count of Luxembourg (Lehar); Compte Ory, Le (Rossini); Contes di'Hoffmann (Tales of Hoffmann) (Offenbach); Coppelia (Delibes); Coq D'or, Le (Golden Cockerel) (Rimsky-Korsakoff); Corsair, The (Verdi); Cosi Fan Tutte (Mozart); Cox and Box (Sullivan); Creole, La (Offenbach); Crepusculum (Leoncavallo).

Cristoforo Colombo (Franchetti) Cyrano de Bergerac (Damrosch; Herbert); Czar and Carpenter (Lortzing); Dame Blanche (Boieldieu): Damnation of Faust (Berlioz); Danse Macabre (Saint Saens); Daoma (Cadman); Daughter of the Forest (Nevin). Daughter of the Regiment (Donizetti); Diluvio universale (Donizetti); Dinorah (Meyerbeer); Doctor Ox (Offenbach); Doctor Faustus (Busoni); Dollarprinzessin, Die (Fall).

Domino Noir, Le (Auber); Don Carlos (Verdi); Don Cesar de Bazan (Massanet); Don Giovanni (Mozart); Don Juan (Gluck); Don Pasquale (Donizetti); Don Proconio (Bizet): Don Quixote (De Koven, Massenet, Offenbach); Don Sebastiano (Donizetti).

Donna Juanita (Suppe); Donna del Lago (Rossini); Duke of Alba (Donizetti); Duchess of Guise (Flotow); Due Foscari, I (Verdi); Edgar (Puccini); Edipo Re (Leoncavallo); Edouardo e Cristina (Rossini); Egmont (Beethoven).

El Capitan (Sousa); Elektra (R. Strauss); Elijah (Mendelssohn); Elisa (Cherubini); Elizabeth, Queen (Rossini); Elisir d'Amore, L' (Donizetti); Elixir of Love (Sullivan); Enfant Prodigue, L' (Auber; Debussy); Erinnyes, Les (Massenet); Ermine (Jakobowski).

Ermani (Verdi); Esclarmonde (Massenet); Etoile du Nord, L' (Meyerbeer); Eugen Onegin (Tschalkowsky); Euryanthe (Weber); Eva (Lehar); Eve (Massenet); Fairies, The (Wagner); Falstaff (Adam; Balfe; Verdi).

Jewels of the Madonna (Wolf-Ferrari); Jewess, The (La Juive) (Halevy); Joseph in Egypt (Mehul); Judith (Lefebvre); Juggler of Notre Dame (Massenet): King Arthur (Albeniz; Boughton: Purcell); King of Lahore (Massenet); King's Henchman (Taylor); Kiss, The (Smetana); Koenig Manfred (Reinecke); Koenigskinder. Die (Humperdinck); Kostchei the Deathless (RimskyKorsakoff); Kreuzritter in Aegypten, Der (Meyerbeer); Lakme (Delibes); Lalla Rookh (David; Spontini; Rubenstein).

Leila (Bizet); Liebesmahl der Apostel (Wagner); Liebesverbot, Das (Wagner); Linda di Chamounix (Donizetti); Lionello (Verdi); Lodoiska (Cherubini; Kreutzer).

Lodoletta (Mascagni); Lohengrin (Wagner); Lombardi, I (Verdi); Louise (Charpentier): Love of Three Kings (Montemezzi); Lucia de Lammermoor (Donizetti); Lucrezia Borgia (Donizetti). Luisa Miller (Verdi); Lustige Witwe (Merry Widow) (Lehar); Macbeth (Taulbert; Verdi); Mme. l'Archiduc (Offenbach); Madame Butterfly (Puccini); Mme. Chrysantheme (Messager); Mme. Favart (Offenbach); Mme. Sans-Gene (Giordano); Mme. Sherry (Felix).

Mlle. Fifi (Cui); Mage, Le (Massenet); Magic Flute (Mozart); Magicienne, La (Halevy); Maia (Leoncavallo); Maid Marian (De Koven); Maid of Milan (Payne); Maid of Orleans (Tschaikowsky); Maid of Pskof (Rimsky-Korsakoff); Mala Vita (Giordano).

Malbruck (Leoncavallo); Maledizione (Verdi); Malinche (Fanciulli); Mameli (Leoncavallo); M'lle Nitouche (Herve); Manon (Massenet); Manon Lescaut (Auber; Puccini); Manru (Paderewski): Maometto Secondo (Rossini); Mari a la Port, Un (Offenbach).

Maria Padilla (Donizetti); Maria Sturda (Donizetti); Marriage of Figaro (Mozart); Marie-Magdalene (Massenet); Martha (Flotow); Martiri, I (Donizetti).

Masaniello (Auber: Carafa); Mascotte, La (Audran); Masked Ball (Verdi); Masnadieri, I (Verdi); Mastersingers of Nuremberg (Wagner); Maltrosen, Die (Flotow): Medea (Cherubini) Medici, I (Leoncavallo); Medusa (Tschaikowsky); Mefistofele (Boito).

Merchant of Venice (Beecham; Pinsuti); Merry War (J. Strauss); Merry Wives of Windsor (Nicolai); Mignon (Thomas); Mikado, The (Sullivan); Mirelle (Mirella) (Gounod); Miser Knight, The (Rachmaninoff).

Miss Helyett (Audran); Modell, Das (Suppe); Modest Suzanne (Gilbert; Winterfeld); Mohicans, Les (Adam); Monna Vanna (Feyrier); Monsieur Beaucaire (Messager); Moses in Egypt (Rossini); Moses (Rubenstein).

Muletier, Le (Herold); Nabab, Le (Halevy); Nabucco (Verdi); Night in Venice (J. Strauss); Namico San (Franchetti); Nanon (Genee); Narcissa (Moore); Natoma (Herbert); Navarraise, La (Massenet); Nero (Handel-Rubenstein).

Noces d'Olivette, Les (Audran); Noe (Halevy and Bizet); Norma (Bellini); Night in May, A (RimskyKorsakoff); Oberon (Weber); Olympic (Spontini); Orfeo et Euridice (Gluck).

Othello (Rossini; Verdi); Pagliacci, Il (Leoncavallo); Penurge (Massenet); Paradise of Ma

Parsifal (Wagner); Patience (Sullivan); Paul Jones (Planquette); Paul and Virginia (Lesueur: Masse).

Fatinitza (Suppe); Faust (Bertin; Gounod; Peel-homet (Planquette); Parisini (Donizetti; Mascagni); laert; Spohr; Zoellner); Favorita, La (Donizetti); Fedora (Giordano); Feldprediger. Der (Millocker) Fencing Master (De Koven); Fiancee du Tzar, La (Rimsky-Korsakoff); Fidelio (Beethoven).

Figaros Hochzeit (Mozart); Fille de M'me Angot, La (Lecocq); Fille du Regiment, La (Donizetti); Fledermaus, Die (J. Strauss); Filegende Hollander, Der (Flying Dutchman) (Wagner); Forza del Destino (Verdi); Forced Marriage (Humperdinck); Francesca da Rimini (Rachmaninoff).

Freischutz (Weber); Furioso, Il (Donizetti); Gaudeamus (Humperdinck); Gazza Ladra, La (Rossini).

Gianno Schicchi (Puccini); Gioconda, La (Ponchielli); Giovanna d'Arco (Verdi); Giovanna di Guzman (Verdi); Girl of the Golden West (Puccini); Gypsy Baron (J. Strauss).

Girofle-Girofla (Lecoq); Girolamo Savonarola (Leoncavallo); Griselda (Verdi); Gismonda (Feyrier); Gotterdaemmerung (Wagner); Gondoliers (Sullivan); Griselidis (Massenet); Haddon Hall Sullivan); Haensel und Gretel (Humperdinck). Hamlet (Thomas); Helene (Saint Saens); Henry VIII (Saint Saens); Herodiade (Massenet): Hia

Pearl Fishers (Bizet); Pelleas et Melisande (Debussy); Peri, The (Burgmuller; Dukas); Perichole. La (Offenbach); Petit Duc. Le (Lecocq).

Piccolo Marat, Il (Mascagni); Pinafore (Sullivan); Pique Dame (Halevy; Tschaikowsky); Pirate, The (Bellini); Pirates of Penzance (Sullivan); Poet and Peasant (von Suppe); Poliuto, Il (Donizetti).

Potemkin's Feast (Ivanoff); Preciosa (Weber); Prince Igor (Borodin); Prince of Pilsen (Luders); Princess Ida (Sullivan); Princess of Trebizond (Offenbach); Prophet, The (Meyerbeer); Puppe, Die (Audran).

Puritani, I (Bellini); Queen of Sheba (Goldmark; Gounod); Rantzau, Die (Mascagni); Raymond (Thomas); Regina di Golconda, La (Donizetti); Reginetta della Rose (Leoncavallo); Rheingold, Das (Wagner).

Rienzi (Wagner); Rigoletto (Verdi); Rinaldo (Gluck; Handel); Rip Van Winkle (Bristow; De Koven; Leoni); Rita (Donizetti); Rob Roy (De

Koven; Flotow); Robert Bruce (Rossini); Robert le Diable (Meyerbeer); Roberto Devereux (Donizetti); Robin Hood (De Koven; Dietrich).

Robinson Crusoe (Floravante; Offenbach); Roi d'Ys. Le (Lalo); Roi s'amuse (Delibes); Roland and (Leoncavallo); Roma (Massenet); Romeo Juliet (Bellini; Benda; Delius); Rondine, La (Puccini); Rose of Castile (Balfe); Rosen Kavalier, Der (R. Strauss); Ruddigore (Sullivan).

Ruins of Athens (Beethoven); Ruth (IppolitovIvanov); Ruy Blas (Marchetti); Sadko (RimskyKorsakoff); Sapho (Gounod; Massenet; Puccini); St. Elizabeth (Liszt); Salome (R. Strauss); Samson and Delilah (Saint Saens).

Scarlet Letter (Damrosch); Scheherazade (Rimsky-Korsakoff; Sekles); Schmuck der Madonna (Wolf-Ferrari); Secret, The (Auber; Smetana); Secret de Suzanne (Wolf-Ferrari); Semiramide (Rossini).

Seraglio, Il (Mozart); Seraphina, La (Flotow); Servilia (Rimsky-Korsakoff); Shepherd King (MoSiegfried zart); Siege of Corinth (Rossini); (Wagner); Silver Bell (Saint Saens); Simon Boccanegra (Verdi).

Singing Lesson (Rossini); Snow Maiden (Snegourochka (Rimsky-Korsakoff); Soixante-six, La (Offenbach); Soldat de Chocolat (O. Straus); Somnambula, La (Bellini); Sorcerer, The (Sullivan); Sorcier au Regiment, Le (Offenbach).

Spanish Student (Lange-Muller); Stradella (Niedermeyer); Sultan of Sulu (Wathall); Sunken Bell (Zollner); Sunset Trail (Cadman); Suor Angelica (Puccini).

Sylvia (Delibes); Tabarro, Il (Puccini); Taglioni (Meyer-Helmund); Tales of Hoffmann (Offenbach). Tancredi (Rossini); Tannhauser (Wagner); Tempest, The (Scott-Gatty: Thomas); Tenation. La (Halevy); Thais (Massenet); Therese (Massenet); Thespis (Sullivan); Tosca (Puccini).

Tote Stadt, Der (Korngold); Traviata, La (Verdi); Trial by Jury (Sullivan); Trilby (Yourassovsky); Tristan and Isolde (Wagner); Trovatore. (Puccini); Il (Cortese; Verdi); Troyens, Les (Berlioz). Trumpeter of Sakkingen (Nessler); Tsar's Bride. The (Rimsky-Korsakoff); Turandot Twilight (Nevin); Two Gentlemen of Verona (Bishop); Tzigane, La (J. Strauss); Uncle Tom's Cabin (Florio); Utopia, Limited (Sullivan); Vagabond and Princess (Poldini)

Vakoula the Smith (Tschaikowsky); Vespri Siciliani, I (Verdi); Vestale, La (Mercadante; Spontini: Vigano); Vie Parisienne, La (Offenbach); Villi, Le Violanta (Korngold).

Walkuere, Die (Wagner); Water Carrier, The (Cherubini); Werther (Massenet); Wilhelm Tell (Reiser; Rossini); William Ratcliff (Cui; Mascagni; Leroux); Witch Dancers (Puccini); Witch of Salem (Cadman).

Yellow Princess (Saint Saens); Yeoman of the Guard (Sullivan); Yolka (Rebikoff); Ysobel (Maseagni); Zaira (Bellini); Zampa (Herold); Zanetta (Auber).

Zanetto (Mascagni); Zar and Zimmerman (Lortzing); Zauberflote, Die (Mozart); Zaza (Leoncavallo); Zenobia (Coerne; Pratt); Zilda (Flotow): Zingari (Leoncavallo).

Verdi's opera, The Masked Ball, was based on the of Sweden, in Stockholm, at a midnight masquerade and dance in the Opera House.

assassination, Mch. 16, 1792, of King Gustavus III

Because of censorships in Sweden, France and Italy, the scene was changed to Boston, and at the first performance in Rome, Feb. 17, 1859, Gustavus became Ricardo, Earl of Warwick, Colonial Governor of Boston.

The Secret of Cremona Violin Tones

According to the late Charles Reade, the English novelist, the Cremona varnish used by Stradivarius was "not a varnish, but two varnishes; and those varnishes always heterogeneous; that is to say, first the pores of the wood are filled and the grain shown up by one, by two, by three and sometimes, though rarely, by four coats of fine ofl

varnish with some common but clear gum in solution.

"Then upon this oil varnish, when dry, is laid a heterogeneous varnish, viz., a solution in spirit of some sovereign, high colored, pellucid, and, above all, tender gum."

The "secret' was divulged by Reade in letters published in the London Times.

The Actors' Fund of America

Source: An Official The Actors' Fund of America was incorporated June 8, 1882, by Edwin Booth, Joseph Jefferson, Lawrence Barrett, William J. Florence, Bartley Campbell, Louis Aldrich, A. M. Palmer, Augustin Daly, Lester Wallack, Edward Harrigan, William Henderson, and others.

The first regular meeting was held in Wallack's Theatre, New York City, June 15, 1882, and Lester Wallack was elected first President. At that time, Daniel Frohman, President of the Actors' Fund for thirty-six years, was at the first meeting elected the first Secretary, and was nominated for that office by Bartley Campbell, the American playwright.

During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1940, the Annual Report shows that Actors' Fund of America received from all sources $146,892.07; and expended $158,149.78. The cost of distributing relief is approximately 17 cents on each dollar.

It should be remembered that the Actors' Fund of America is a "national" institution, and the appeals for financial aid come from every section of our country. It is a theatrical charity and not a benefit society. Annual dues are $2, and the paid-up membership is 1,807.

of the Institution

The only support the Actors' Fund has is by donations and bequests, augmented by benefit performances in principal cities throughout the theatrical season, and from its regular income from a limited endowment fund which is not sufficient to make up the annual deficit.

The Actors' Fund Home was founded by Louis Aldrich, the fourth President of the Fund, and was opened at West New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y., in May. 1902. The Institution was transferred to Englewood, New Jersey, in April, 1928. M. T. Joyce, Superintendent.

The Percy Williams Home for Actors, Pine Acres, is at East Islip, Long Island, N. Y. The Directors are made up of Actors' Fund Trustees and members of The Lambs, New York City.

The Actors' Fund of America has two burial places. The first was opened July 15, 1886, in the Cemetery of the Evergreens, Brooklyn; the second in Kensico Cemetery, Westchester County, in September, 1925.

The offices of the Actors' Fund of America are at 1619 Broadway, New York City. Daniel Frohman, President; Robert Campbell, Secretary.

The Edwin Forrest Home, Philadelphia

Source: An Official The Edwin Forrest Home, established by the will of the famous actor of that name, is located in his native city of Philadelphia, on Parkside Ave., near Belmont Drive, overlooking Fairmont Park.

The institution, as provided in the will of the tragedian, is "for the support and maintenance of actors and actresses decayed by age or disabled by infirmity, who, if natives of the United States, shall have served at least five years in the theatrical profession, and if of foreign birth, shall have served in that profession at least ten years. whereof three years next previous to the application shall have been in the United States." The will provided also that "after the number of inmates therein shall exceed twelve, others to be admitted shall be such only as shall receive the ap

of the Institution

proval of the majority of the inmates, as well as
There is a small theater in the
of the managers."
Home for private exhibitions. Among the Forrest
relics in the edifice are his swords, rapiers, dirks,
daggers, etc., always inspected with interest by
members of the profession. One handsome, short,
Roman sword was originally the property of the
French tragedian. Talma; Forrest had a some-
what similar sword made for himself on which
his name is engraved, while another belonged to
Edwin Kean, another to John Philip Kemble.

Edwin Forrest was born March 9, 1806, in the Old Southwark part of Philadelphia, and he died Dec. 10, 1872. The Home was first opened in the mansion on his Springbrook estate, in the northern end of the city, Oct. 2, 1876, and was transferred to its present location, Sept. 27. 1928.

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