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Rulers of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire

Source: Historical Records Carlovingian Dynasty-Ludwig "The German,' Frederick III, 1439-1493; cousin of Albert; wars 873-876.

with the Turks and with Charles of Burgundy. Charles "The Fat," 876-887; reunited the Empire Maximilian I, 1493-1519; son, married Mary of of Charlemagne, was crowned Emperor by the Pope | Burgundy. End of the period of the middle ages. and deposed after a treaty with the Normans, Charles V. 1519-1556; King of Spain; grandson of

Arnulf, Duke of Karthia, 887-900; nephew of Maximilian; Edict of Worms, 1521; Martin Charles the Fat; final separation of the Empire. Luther; Reformation; civil war with the imperial

Ludwig "The Child." 900-911; last of the descen- knights, 1521; and with the peasantry, 1525; wars dants of Charlemagne.

with Francis I of France; religious wars. Konrad I, Duke of Frankonia, 911-919; first Ferdinand I, 1558-1564. Maximilian II. 1564elected sovereign.

1576; son, Rudolf II, 1676-1612; son, Protestant Saxon Dynasty-Henry I "The Fowler," Duke of Union, 1608. Saxony, 919-936.

Mathias, 1612-1619; brother; 1618 beginning of Otto I "The Great," 936-973; son of Henry the the 30 years' war. Fowler, crowned in 962 by the Pope John XII as Ferdinand II "of Steiermark," 1619-1637: leader Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

of the Catholic Liga; elected emperor at FrankOtto II, 973-983; son of Otto i; attempted the fort; religious wars: Gustav Adolph of Sweden. conquest of Lower Italy from the Greeks and Arabs Ferdinand III, 1637-1657; Wallenstein; Peace of and lost the battle of Cotrone; was buried in Rome. Westphalia, 1648. Leopold I, 1658-1705; son, Joseph

Otto III, 982-1002; son of Otto II; was 3 years I, 1705-1711; son, Charles VI, 1711-1740: son of old when his father died; regency of his mother Leopold I. Teophano and his grandmother Adelheid: at the Maria Theresa, 1740-1780; daughter of Charles age of 16 was crowned Emperior by the Pope. VI; Queen of Hungary: 7 years' war with Frederic

Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, 1002-1024; son of the Great, King of Prussia. Henry the Quarreler, duke of Bavaria, and great- Charles VII of Bavaria, 1742-1745; pretender to grandson of Henry the Fowler.

the throne, crowned; defeated by Maria Theresa. House of Franconia (The Salic House)-Konrad Franz I of Lothringen Toscana, 1745-1765: husII, 1024-1039; great-grandson of Konrad I, and band of Maria Theresa; raised by her to co-heir: son-in-law of Otto the Great.

(since then reigning of the dynasty HabsburgHenry III, 1039-1056; son of Konrad II; occupied Lorrain-Toscana). himself with church affairs; at the Synod in Sutry Joseph II, 1765-1790; son; first partition of deposed three popes and had a German bishop Poland. Leopold II, 1790-1792 elected; annexed Bohemia to the Empire and was Franz II, 1792-1806; abdicated as Emperor of the temporarily recognized as ruler of Hungary. German Nation; continued to reign as Emperor of

Henry IV, 1056-1106; son of Henry III; regency | Austria; died in 1835. of his mother, Agnes of Poitou; contest with the After the Peace of Pressburg, Napoleon set up the Pope Gregory VII.

Rhine Confederation; in 1815 it was succeeded by Henry V, 1106-1125; son of Henry IV; continua- the Germanic confederation, which included Austion of the conflict with the church; agreement of tria, Prussia, Denmark, Holland and practically Worms 1122; end of the Salic House.

all of the German States. As a result of the Lothar, Duke of Saxony, 1125-1137; crowned in Austro-Prussian war, Austria retired from the Rome 1134; beginning of the contest between the Confederation in 1866; new confederation formed Suabian House of Staufen and the Bavarian House by Prussia and called North German Union; ended of Welf; 1134 Albrecht the Bear was made count of with establishment of German Empire, 1871. the Northern Mark, from which developed Prussia. Rulers of Prussia--Prussia's rulers were called

Hohenstaufen Dynasty-Conrad III, Duke of Markgrafs of Brandenburg; from 1134 till 1356: Suabia. 1138-1152; wars with the Bavarian House they were also known as Dukes of Prussia. From of the Welfs; participation in the 2nd Crusade. 1356 (the Golden Bull) they were Electors (Kur

Frederic I Barbarossa" 1152-1190; conquest of furst of Brandenburg), and from 1701 Kings of the cities of Lombardy; second conflict with the Prussia. Pope; loss of Upper Italy: the 3rd Crusade. The first Markgraf of Brandenburg was Albrecht

Henry VI, 1190-1197; conquest of Lower Italy the Bear, 1134-1170. The first Hohenzollern was from the Normans; Kingdom of Palermo, inherited Frederick, Burggraf of Nuremberg (Nurnberg), by his only son Frederic.

1415-1440 Philipp of Suabia, 1198-1208; younger son of Frederick William, 1640-1688, is known as the Frederic Barbarossa; war against Otto of Bavaria, Great Elector; his son Frederick III, 1688-1713. was assassinated.

crowned King Frederick I of Prussia on January Otto (of the House of Welf), 1198-1215; excom- 18. 1701. municated and deposed 1215: died 1218.

Frederick I, 1701-1713, of the House of Hohen. Frederic II, 1215-1250; son of Henry VI; ruler of zollern; first King of Prussia; war with Sweden. the Kingdom of Palermo; 5th Crusade; crowned as Frederick William I, 1713-1740; organization of King of Jerusalem; third conflict with the Pope. the State.

Conrad IV, 1250-1254; son of Frederic II: King- Frederick II “The Great," 1740-1786; 7 years' dom of Palermo inherited by his brother Manfred; war; annexing of Silesia; first partition of Poland. Pope assists brother of French king, Charles of Frederick William II, 1786-1797; brother of Anjou, to seize Lower Italy, Unsuccessful attempt Frederick the Great; third partition of Poland: of Conradin to restore the throne of the Staufen annexing of Ansbach and Bayreuth. House in Italy, 1268; Conradin was beheaded. Frederick William III, 1797-1840; Napoleonic

Interregnum, 1250-1273; different pretenders wars; liberation of the peasants. elected, but none came to power; William of Hol- Frederick William IV, 1840-1861; German Rev. land; Richard of Cornwallis; Alfons of Castilia. olution, 1848-49; first Government Parliament in

Rulers of Different Houses-Rudolf of Habsburg. Frankfort-on-Main in 1848; Prussian Constitution. 1273-1291; wars with King Ottokar of Bohemia. 1848; attempt to reunite the German Empire. and conquest of Bohemia; bequeathed Austria to William I, 1861-1888; brother of Frederick Wilhis eldest son; foundation of Austria.

liam IV: German Emperor, January 18. 1871 Adolphus, Count of Nassau, 1291-1298; wars with Danish war; annexing of Schleswig: GermanAlbrecht of Austria, killed in battle of Göllheim. Franco-Prussian war; annexing of Hannover.

Albrecht I. Duke of Austria, 1298-1308; mur- Frederick III, 1888. William II, 1888-1918. dered by his nephew John.

The German Empire was restored on Jan. 18 Henry VII of Luxembourg, 1308-1313; march into 1871, and King William of Prussia was proclaimed Italy: crowned emperor in Rome.

German Emperor at Versailles. After his death he Ludwig of Bavaria, 1314-1347; at the same time was succeeded by his son Frederick and, a year election of Frederic the Beautiful of the Austrian later, by Frederick's son, William II. house (1314-1330); civil war; abolition of the William II abdicated as German Emperor and papal sanction for the election of an emperor. King of Prussia on November 9, 1918. At the same

Charles IV of Luxembourg, 1347-1378: grandson time, or shortly after, the other ruling sovereigns in of Henry VII; ruler of Bohemia; Golden Bull. Germany also abdicated and Germany became a

Wenzelaus. 1378-1400; son of the King of Bo- Republic. A constitution was adopted Weimar on hemia; deposed.

July 31, 1919. The first president was Frederick Rupprecht, Duke of the Palatinate; 1400-1410. Ebert, February 11, 1919-February 28, 1925: suc

Sigismund, 1411-1437; King of Hungary; wars ceeded May 12, 1925, by Field-Marshal Paul von against pretenders; Jost of Brandenburg and Wen- Hindenburg-Beneckendorff (reelected in 1932) zeslaus; Council of Constanz, 1414-18: Hussit Wars. He died, Aug. 2, 1934; on Aug. 19, Chancellor

Habsburg Dynasty-Albert of Austria, 1438-1439; Adolph Hitler was chosen successor, under the son-in-law of Wenzeslaus, inherited from him the title, Leader-Chancellor, by 38,362,760 votes out of Kingdom of Hungary, and Bohemia; beginning of 43,629,710 cast, of which 4,295,654 were in opposithe wars against the Turks.

tion, and 872,296 were defective.

Rulers of France

Source: Official Records After Hannibal crossed the Alps in 218 B.C., the his natural son, Charles Martel (martel peans Romans held possession of Gaul until 428 A.D., hammer), father of King Pepin the short and when the Franks, (Merovingian branch) a Ger-grandfather of Charlemagne (Charles the Great) manic people, expelled them as a governing class, who, in 800, at Rome, was crowned Emperor by and began the gradual establishment of the King- Pope Leo III. dom of France, which then included Belgium and The original Pepin in history came from Landen, the Rhine Valley to the sea, as well as much of in what is now Belgium, north of Llege. but his Germany.

origin is obscure. The Pepins were warriors. The Arst great Merovinglan king was Clovis Charlemagne and his brother Carloman, who (Chlodwig, Ludwig, Louis) son of Childeric, who were born at or near Landen, were to rule jointly began to reign in 481 A.D. The Dynasty lasted over France, Germany, Spain and Italy; Carloman until Childeric III, 742, when Charles Martel, con- lived only three years thereafter. Charlemagne queror of the invading Saracens, took hold. Mean. died in 814, at Aix la Chapelle, which the Germans time the Merovingians had split into east and west call Aachen. His grandsons fought among themclasses, called Austrasians and Neustrians. The selves with armies backing them, but made peace mayors of the palace were often the real rulers. at Verdun in 843 and the empire was divided.

The first powerful mayor of the palace was Pepin France fell to Charles the Bald, son of King of Heristal (687-714); and the next after him was 'Louis, and thereafter was a separate kingdom.

RULERS OF FRANCE AS A KINGDOM AND AS A REPUBLIC
Acc.
Name

Асс. .

Name
The Carlovinginas

1610 Louis XIII, (the Just), son.
840 Charles (the Bald). Emperor of the Romans. 1643 Louis XIV. (the Great), warrior, gallant.
877 Louis II, (the Stammerer), son,

1715 Louis XV., great grandson. 879 Louls III, (died 882), and Carloman II.

1774 Louis XVI.. grandson; married Marie Antot 884 Charles II, (the Gross).

nette: both beheaded. 887 Eudes (Hugh) Count of Paris.

1793 Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI. sald to have died 898 Charles III, deposed, died in prison, 929.

In prison, in 1795. He never reigned. 922 Robert, brother of Eudes, killed in war.

First Republic 923 Rodolph (Raoul), Duke of Burgundy.

1792 National Convention, 936 Louis IV., son of Chas. III. Dled in all of horse.

1795 Directory, under Barras and others. 954 Lotherlus, son, polsoned. 986 Louis V., his son, poisoned by queen.

1799 Consulate, Napoleon Bonaparte. First Consut

In 1802 he was elected by popular vote Consul The Capets

for life. 987 Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, (Hugh the Great).

First Empire son of Hugh the Abbott, selzed the crown. 996 Robert (the Wige), his son.

1804 Napoleon, Emperor, so chosen by popular wote 1031 Henry I., his son, last Normandy.

(3,672,329 to 2,569). 1060 Philip I. (the Fair), son, King at 14.

Bourbons Restored 1108 Louis VI. (le Gros), son.

1814 Louis XVIII., King; brother of Louis XVI. 1137 Louis VII. (le Jeune), son.

1824 Charles X., brother: deposed. 1180 Philip II. (Augustus), son, crowned at Rhelms.

House of Orleans 1223 Louis VIII., The Lion, son.

1830 Louis Philippe (Egalue), King. 1226 Louis IX. (Saint Louis), son, died at Tunis.

Second Republic 1270 Philip III. (the Hardy), son. 1285 Philip IV. (the Fair), son, King at 17.

1848 Louis Napoleon elected President.

Second Empire 1314 Louis X. (the Headstrong), soa.

1852 Louis Napoleon. Emperor, deposed 1870. 1315 John 1.,. posthumous son. 1316 Philip V. (the Tall), brother.

Third Republic-Presidents 1322 Charles IV. (the Fair), brother,

1871 Thlers, Louis Adolphe (1797-1877), historian. House of Valols

1873 MacMahon, Marshal Patrice M. (1808-1893). 1328 Pbilip VI. (of Valois), grandson of Philip III.

1872 Grevy, Paul J. (1807-1891), resigned. 1350 John II. (the Good), his son, retired to England.

1887 Sadi-Carnot, M. (1837-1894), assassinated. 1364 Charles V. (the Wise), son.

1894 Casimir-Perler, Jean P. P. (1847-1907), resigned 1380 Charles VI. (the Beloved), son.

1895 Faure, Francois Fellx (1841-1899). 1422 Charles VII. (the Victorious), son,

1899 Loubet, Emile (1838-1929). 1461 Louis XI. (the Cruel), son, civil reforma.

1906 Fallieres, Armand (1841-1931). 1483 Charles VIII. (the Affable), son.

1913 Poincare, Raymond 1860-1934). 1498 Louis XII., Duke of Orleans, grt. grandson of

1920 Deschanel, Paul (1856-1922), resigned. Charles V.

1924 Doumergue, Gaston (1863-1937),

2. Resigked. 1515 Francis I., of Anjouleme, nephew, son-in-law. 1547 Henry II., son, killed at & joust.

1931 Doumer, Paul (1857-1932), assassinated May 6. 1559 Francis II., son, married Mary Stuart.

1932, at Paris. 1560 Charles IX., brother, son of Catherine de

1932)Lebrun, Albert (1871-1940). Medici. 1574 Henry III., brother, King of Poland, stabbed

Germany, in June, 1940, conquered France, occuto death,

pying Paris and a large part of the coastal and House of Bourbon

border regions. The third Republic of France has 1589 Henry IV. of Navarre, son-in-law of Henry II: disappeared and the Government (Oct. 1, 1941) has tourdered.

not assumed final form. Kings of Sweden --Before 1001 the Swedish The rulers have been-(630) Olaf of Sweden: rulers were known as Kings of Upsala. The 640) Halfdan 1; (700) Eystein 1; (730) Halldan u sovereigns since 1389 when Margaret of Denmark (784) Gudrod; (824) Halfdan II, the Black Warrior was called to the throne, have been: (1412) Eric

(865) his son; (934) his son, Eric I, the Bloody XIII; (1440)

Charles
Christopher III;

Axe; (923) Hako the Good, then Herold, son or
VIII

Eric; (977) Hako the Earl; (995) Olaf 1; (1015) his (Canuteson); (1483) John II; (1620) Christian II;

son, Olaf II; (1028) Canute the Invader, then (1522) Gustavus I (Vasa); (1560) Eric XIV; (1569) Sweyn; (1035) Magnus I, natural son of Olat 11: John III; (1582) Sigismund III; (1604) Charles (1047) 'Harold Hardrada;' (1066) Olaf III, Magnus 1X;" (1611) Gustavus II (Adolphus the Great): : (1093) Magnus III, son of Olat ni: (1103) (1633) his daughter, Christina; (1654) Charles x Sigurd 1, Elystein 11, Olaf IV (1130) Magnus iv. Ulrica Eleanora and her husband Frederick 1: (1162) Magnus Vi (1186) swerro the Adventurer: (1741) Prederick 1; (1751) Adolphus Frederick: (1202) Hako, his son; (1204) Inge Baardson; (1217) (1771) Gustavus III; (1792) Gustavus IV; (1809) Haakon Haakonsson; (1263) Magnus Lagaboter; Charles XII:. (1818) Charles XIV (Jean Barna- (1280) Erik Magnusson; (1299) Haakon V. Magaus. dotte, formerly one of Napoleon's marshals) : son; (1319) Magnus Eriksson; (1355) Haakon vi (1944) Oscar 1; 1859) Charles XV; (1872) Oscar Magnusson: (1381) Olay Haakonsson: (1388) Mar. II; (1007) Gustavus v.

greta: (1389) Erik of Pommern; (1443) Kristofer Norway, which had been united with Denmark of Bayern: (1449) Karl Knutsson (1450-1824) same and Sweden, in 1389, under Margaret, declared sovereigns as Denmark; (1814) Kristian Fredrik: Independence in 1814, but the union

of Norway and (1814-1905) same rulers as Sweden: (1905) Hagkon Sweden was not finally dissolved until 1905, when VII (Prince Carl of Denmark). He fled to England Prince Carl of Denmark was elected King of in 1940 when the Germans forcibly seized his Norway as Haakon VII.

country.

Roman Rulers

Source: Historical Records
B.C.
Name

A.D.
Name

A.D.

Name
The Seven Kings

37 Caligula (Calus Caesar), slain, 275 Tacitus. 752 Romulus (legendary), Tatlus.

41 Claudius, uncle of Caligula. 276 Probus Marcus Aurelius; slain

54) Nero Claudius 715 Numa Pompilius (elected).

Caesar, 8 282 Carus, kulled by lightning. 672) Tullus Hostilius (murdered).

suicide.

283 Carinus and Numerianus. 640) Ancus Martius, gr. s. of Numa.

68 Galba, assassinated.

284 Diocletian (Caius Aurelius). 616 Tarquinius Priscus (Greek).

69) Otho, killed himsell.

305 Galerius and Constantius. 578 Servius Tullius, ex-slave.

69 Vitellius (Aulus), killed.

306 Constantine the Great,

70 Vespasian (Titus Flavius 330 Constantine removes seat ol 534 Tarquinius Superbus.

Sabinus).

Empire to Constantinople The Republic

79 Titus (Flavius), son of Ves- 337 Constantine II., Constans and 509 Tarquinius, expelled.

paslan.

Constantius. 498 Lartlus, first dictator.

81 Domitian, son of Vespasian. 361 Julian the Apostate. 488 Tribunes created.

96 Nerva (Marcus Coccelus). 363 Jovian, restored Christianity 483 Quaestors Instituted.

98 Trajan (Marcus Ulphus). 364 Valentinian (West). Valens 456 Cincinnatus, dictator. 117 Adrian (or Hadrian).

(East). 453 Tribunes incr. 5 to 10. 138) Antonius Plus.

367 Gratian (West). 445 Military Tribune created. 161 Marcus Aurelius Antonius and 375 Valentinian II.

(West). 437| Censorship Instituted.

Lucius Verus.

379 Theodosius the Great (East) 391 Marcus F. Camillus, dictator. 171 Marcus Aurelius (alone).

394 Theodosius (East and West). 325 Papirius Cursor, dictator.

1801 Commodus (son of above) 395 Arcadius (East), Honorlus 301 Fabius Maximus and 192 Pertinax; Julianus.

(West),
Valerius Corvus.
193 Septimius Severus.

408 Theodosius II. (East).
260 Provin. Quaestors Inst.
211 Caracalla and Geta.

425 Valentinian III. (West) 217 Fabius Maximus, dictator. 212 Caracalla (alone); slain.

450 Marcian (East). 183 Cato, the Elder, Censor. 217 Macrinus (Marcus), slain. 455 Petronius Maximus (West) 82 Sylla (8ulla), dictator. 218 Heliogabalus (ex-priest).

455 Avitus (West). 70 Crassus and Pompey, Consuls. 222) Alexander Severus.

457 Leo the Great (East).
59 Pompey (slain in Egypt). 235 Maximinus ("The Thracian'') 457 Majorianus (West).
49 (Calus) Octavius Caesar, Marc 238 Gordianus I. Gordianus II. 461 Severus (West).
Antony and Lepidus, 2nd 238 Puplenus and Balbinus.

467 Anthemlus (West).
Triumvirate.
238 Gordianus III.

472 Ollbius (West).
244 Philip the Arablan.

473 Glycerius (West).
Emperors
249 Decius, slain by Goths.

474 Julius Nepos (West). 31 Augustus (Calus Jullus Caesar 251 Gallus, slain by his troons. 474 Zeno (East). Octavianus).

254 Valerianus, slaln by Persians. 475 Augustulus Romulus (West). A.D.

260 Gallienus, slain by his troops. 476 Rome taken by Odoacer, King 14 Tiberius (Claudius Nero Cae 268 Claudius II. (Marcus Aurelius).

of Italy; extinction ol
sar).
270 Aurelian

Western Empire.
ROMAN EMPIRE OF THE EAST
A.D.
Ruler
A.D.
Ruler
A.D.

Ruler 491 Anastasius I., Dicorus.

842 Michael III. Assassinated 1204 Alexius IV. Deposed. 518 Justin I., the Goth. 867 Basilius.

1205 Alexius V. Ducas. Killed. 527 Justinian I., the Great. 886) Leo VI. (the Philosopher).

Latin Emperors 565) Justin II., his nephew. 911 Constantine VII.

1204 Baldwin I., Earl of Flanders. 578 Tiberius II.

919 Constantine and Romanus 1206 Henry I., his brother. 582 Maurice (Flavius Tiberius). 959 Romanus II.

1216 Peter de Courtenay. 602 Phocas, the Centurion.

963 Nicephorus II., Phocas. 1221 Robert de Courtenay. 610 Heraclius, the Cappadocian. 969) John Zemisses.

1228 Baldwin II. Deposed. 641 Constantine III, Heracleonas. 976 Basilfus.

Greek Emperors at Nicaea, 641 Constans II., Heracllus. 1025 Constantine VIII.

Asia Minor 668 Constantine IV., the Bearded.||1028 Romanus Argyrus.

1204 Theodore I., Lascaris 685 Justinian II. (Short Nose). 1034 Michael IV., Paphlagonian. 1222 John III., Ducas, 695 Leonthus.

1041 Michael V (the Calker), 1255 Theodore Lascaris II. 698 Tiberius III., Aspimar, 1042 Constantine (Monomachus). 1259 John IV. Lascaris. Deposed 705 Justinian II. (again). 1054 Theodora (Empress).

Restored to Constantinople 711 Philippicus Bardanes.

1056 Michael VI., the Warrior. 1261 Michael VIII., Palaeologis. 713 Anastasius II., Artemius. 1057) Isaac I., Comnenus.

1282) Andronicus II. 716 Theodosius III.

1059 Constantine X. (Ducas). 1295 Michael IX. Palaeologus. 718 Leo (the Isaurian). 1068 Romanus Diogenes.

1328 Andronicus III. 741 Constantine V. (Copronymus). 1071 Michael VII., Ducas.

1341 John Palaeologus I. 775 Leo IV., an Isaurian.

1078 Nicephorus III. Dethroned. 1347 John Cantacuzenus (Regent). 780) Constantine VI. (Flavius).

1081) Alexlus I. (Comnenus). 1391 Manuel II., Palaeologus. 797 Irene, his tnother. 1118 John (Comnenus).

1425 John Palaeologus II. 802 Nicephorus, fought Turks 1143 Manuel I. (Comnenus). 1448 Constantine XIII. (Palaeolo811 Michael I. (Rhangabe). 1180) Alexius II. (Comnenus).

gus). Killed, 813 Leo V. (the Armenian). 1183) Andronicus (Comnenus). 1453 Constantinople taken by the 820) Michael II., Balbus. 1185 Isaac II., Angelus (Comnenus).

Turks; extinction of the 829 Theophilus. 1195) Alexius Angelus (the Tyrant).

Eastern Empire. Kings of Modern Italy--(1805) Napoleon, Em- XII: (1886) Alphonso XIII (died Feb. 28, 1941, of peror of the French; he abdicated in 1814; (1861) a heart attack. in Rome, at the age of 54. His Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, (1878) Humbert I. property and his citzenship had been restored. (1900) Victor Emmanuel III who, in 1937, was On April 14, 1931, Alphonso quit Madrid without proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia.

formally resigning the throne, and a republic was Rulers of Austria-Hungary (1804) Francis I, proclaimed under the provisional presidency of who reigned as Francis II of Germany until 1806, Niceto Alcala Zamora. Later, a Republican Parlia(1835) Ferdinand, his son; (1848) Francis-Joseph, ment (Cortes) was elected, Zamora was chosen son of Francis-Charles, who was a brother of Ferdi- president, and a constitution was established. He nand. The Dual Monarchy dissolved in the World was removed on April 7, 1936, by the Cortes, which War, Austria becoming a republic and Hungary a chose as his successor ex-Premier Manuel Azana, kingdom, with a regent at its head. Francis-Joseph who resigned on Feb. 27, 1939, and Spain weni died, Nov. 21, 1916, and was succeeded by Charles under the military rule of Gen. Francisco Franco. who abdicated, Nov., 1918, and died in exile in Kings of Denmark-(1839) Christian VIII, son 1922. Austria was absorbed by Germany in 1938. of Frederick VI (who was King of Denmark and

Kings of the Belgians-(1831) Leopold 1; (1865) Norway); (1848) Frederick VII; (1863) Christian Leopold II; (1909) Albert, nephew of Leopold II; IX: (1906) Frederick VIII; (1912) Christian X. (1934) Leopold ní, son of Albert.

Rulers of Holland-(1806) Louis Bonaparte, Kings of Spain-(1512) Ferdinand V.; (1516) brother of Napoleon, abdicated in 1810; Holland reCharles I; (1556) Philip II; (1598) Philip III: united to France; (1813) William Frederick, Prince (1621) Philip IV: (1665) Charles II; (1700) Philip of Orange; (1840) William II; (1849) William III; v (the first Bourbon); (1724) Louis I: (1746) (1890) Wilhelmina (daughter of William III and Ferdinand Vi; (1759) Charles 111; (1788) Charles his second wife, Princess Emma of Waldeck). She IV: (1808) Ferdinand VII; (1808) Joseph Bona- fled to England with the Princess Juliana, in 1940 parte; (1813) Ferdinand VII; (1833) Isabella II: when the Germans seized her country, but had (1870) Amadeo I; (1873) a republic; (1874) Alphonso not resigned.

D.

1807

- 1763

1823

Noted Americans of the Past

Source: Biographical Records (See also Presidents, and wives, Vice-Presidents, U. S. Supreme Court Justices, Ambassadors, Signers

of the Declaration of Independence, Actors, Composers, Singers, Painters, etc.) B. D.

Name
Occupation B.

Name

Occupation 1883 1916 Abbe, Cleveland. Meteorologist 1843 1888 Campbell, Bartley

Dramatist 1851 1928 Abbe, Robert. Surg. Radium 1847

Edncator 1803 1879 Abbot, Jacob.

Juv, Fiction 1863 1941 Cannon, Annie J.. Astronomer 1835 1922 Abbott, Lyman

Preacher

1835 1919 Carnegie. Andrew .. Iron Master 1886 Adams, Charles F. Statesman

1737

1832 Carroll, Charles.. Statesman 1835 1915 Adams, Charles F

Historian

1809) 1868 Carson, Kit (Chris.) Scout 1838 1918 Adams, Henry Hist.. Biog. 1782 1866 Cass, Lewis.

Ben., Cabinet 1722 1803 Adams, Samuel

Gov., Patriot 1828

1914 Chamberlain, Joshua L. Soldier 1822 1897 Adams, William T. Juv. Fiction 1813 1879 Chandler, Zach..

Sen., Cabinet 1860 1935 Addams, Jane,

Civic Worker

1780 1842 Channing, William E... Theol. Retorm. 1807 1873 Agassiz, Louis J. R Scientist

1829 1894 Childs, Geo. W

Newspaper 1799 1888 Alcott, A. Bronson Philosophy

1799 1859 Choate. Rufus.

Lawyer 1832 1888 Alcott. Louisa May. Fiction

1832) 1917 Chnate, Joseph H

Lawyer 1836 1919 Alden, Henry M.

Ed. Mag.

1752 1818 Clark, Geo. Rogers. Soldier 1841 1915 Aldrich, Nelson w. U.S. Senator 1770 1838 Clark William

Explorer 1836 1907 Aldrich, Thos. Bailey. Fiction

1854 1916 Clarke, James P

Gov., Sen 1834 1899 Alger, Horatio.. Juv. Fiction 1777 1852 Clay, Henry

Sen., Cablnet 1737 1789 Allen, Ethan.

Patriot

1796| 1856 Clayton, John M.. Law., State. 1849 1925 Allen, James Lane. Fiction

1835| 1910'lernens, Samuel L. Humorist 1803 1879 Allen, william..

Gov., Sen.
1769 1828 Clinton, DeWitt

Sen. Gov. 1758 1808 Ames, Fisher.

Lawyer
1739| 1812 Cunton, George.

V.P., Gov.. 1804 1873 Ames, Oakes.

Credit Mobil. 1845 1917 Cody, wulan F. Scout 1844 1917 Anderson, Elisha B. Educator

1792 1865 Collamer, Jacob.

Jur., P.M.G. 1818 1867 Andrew, John A.

War. Gov.

1829 1888 Conkling, Roscoe. U.S. Senator 1841 1935 Andrus, John E.. Financier

1830 1886 Cooke, John Esten Fiction 1829

1916 Angell, James B. Eduo., Diplo. 1865| 1940 Cook, Dr. F. A. Polar Explorer 1797 1867 Anthon, Charles.

Educator

1789

1851 Cooper, J. Fenimore. Fiction 1820 1906 Anthony, Susan B. Suffrage

1791 1883 Cooper, Peter.

Merch., Phil 1832

1901 Armour, Philip D. Meat Packer 1824 1889 Cox, 8. S. (Sunset). Congressm'n 1745 1816 Asbury, Francis

Bishop

1867 1906 Craigie, Pearl M. (John 1848 Astor, John Jacob. Merchant

Oliver Hobbes).

Fiction 1830 1908 Astor, William Landowner 1870) 1900 Crane, Stephen

Fiction 1792 1875 Astor, William B.. Landowner 1845] 1909 Crawford, F. Marlon. Fiction 1847 1919 Astor, Wm, Waldorf. Landowner 1787) 1863 Crittenden, John J. U.S. Senator 1780 1851 Audubon, John James.. Naturalist

1786
1836 Crockett, David.

Hunter
1790
1836 Austin, Stephen F. Texas Founder 1841 1922 Croker, Richard

Politics 1859 1912 Aycock, Charles B. Gov., Educ. 1825 1903 Curry, J. L, M.

Diplomat 1888 Baird, Spencer F.

Zoologist

1850 1933 Curtis, Cyrus H, K. Publisher 1871 1937 Baker, Newton D. Sec. War

1812 1894 Curtis, Geo. Ticknor.. Historian 1771 1852 Ballou, Hosea

Preacher

1824 1892 Curtis, Geo. Wm. Essayist 1761 1851 Baldwin, Simeon. Jurist

1839 1876 Custer, Geo. A..

Soldier 1800 1891 Bancroft, George,

Historian

1819 1897 Dana, Chas. A... Newspaper 1816 1894 Banks, Nathaniel P Soldier

1813 1895 Dana, James Dwight... Geologist 1754 1812 Barlow, Joel

Poet

1856 1929 Dana, John Cotton Librarian 1810 1891 Barnum, Phineas T.. Showman

1787) 1879 Dans, Richard Henry Poet. Essayist 1821 1912 Barton, Clara H.

Red Cris F'dir 1815 1882 Dana, Richard Henry.Jr. Author. Law 1911 Bascom, John.

Educator

57 1938 Darrow, Clarence Lawyer 1767 1815 Bayard, James A. Sr U.S. Senator 1808 1889 Davis, Jefferson

Confed. Pres. 1799

1880 Bayard, James A. Jr.. U.S. Senator 1864 1916 Davis. Richard Harding. Fiction 1828 1898 Bayard, Thomas F. Sec. St'te, Sen. 1855 1926 Debs, Eugene V. Socialist 1853 Beaumont, William Army Surg. 1779 1820 Decatur, Stephen

Naval 1813 1887 Beecher, Henry Ward... Preacher 1834 1928 Depew, Chauncey M Orator 1775 1863 Beecher, Lyman, Preacher

1838 1917 Dewey, George, Admiral Naval 1847 1922 Bell, Alexander G. Inventor

1756 1834 DeWitt, Simeon. Geographer 1850 1898 Bellamy, Edward. Author

1849| 1925 de Young, M. H.. Newspaper 1816 1890 Belmont, August. Banker

1830 1886 Dickinson, Emily Poetry, 1919 Belmont August. Subway Bldr. 1732 1803 Dickinson, John.. Statesman 1811 1884 Benjamin, Judah P. Lawyer

1835) 1905 Dodge, Mary E, Mapes. Author, EL 1795 1872 Bennett, James Gordon Newspaper

1634

1715 Dongan, Thomas.. Statesmap 1841

1918 Bennett, J. G., Jr Newspaper 1819 1893 Doubleday, Arthur Bolaler baseb'.

1858 Benton, Thomas H, Statesinan 1813 1861 Douglas, Stephen A. Statesman 1862 1927 Beveridge, Albert J... U.S. Senator 1817 1895 Douglass, Fred (Negro) Publicist 1842 1914 Bierce, Ambrose

Fiction

1804
1897 Dow. Neal.

Prohibitionist 1893 Blaine James G.

Statesman

1795 1820 Drake, Jos, Rodman. Poet, Phys, 1821 1875 Blair. Francis P.. Sold., Edit. 1811 1882 Draper, John W. Chem. Hist. 1735 1820 Boone, Daniel.

Hunter

1826 1893 Drexel, Anthony J. Banker 1939 Borah, William E U.S. Senator 1872) 1906 Dunbar, Paul Laurence. Poet 1773 1838 Bowditch, Nathaniel. Mathenatia

1817 duPont, Pierre S. Powder Mi'r 1826 1874 Bowles, Samuel II Journalist

1803 1865 Dupont, Samuel F. Adm. Naval 1910 Bowne, Borden P.. Theologian 1861 1938 Duryea, Charles E. Auto Inv. 1848 1895 Boyesen, Hjalmar H...

Fiction
1820 1887 Eads, James B

Engineer
1863
1932 Bradford, Gamaliel. Biographer 1854 1932 Eastman, George.

Inventor 1672 Bradstreet, Anne

Poetry

18211 1910 Eddy. Mary Baker. Christ. Scien 1823

1896 Brady, Matthew B. Photographer 1847 1931 Edison, Thos. Alva. Inventor 1760

1806 Breckenridge, John. Statesman 1703 1758 Edwards, Jonathan. Theologian 1837 1904 Breckenridge, W. C. P. Confederate 1837| 1902 Eggleston, Edward. Fiction 1644 Brewster, William Pilgr. Father 1834 1926 Eliot, Charles W

Educator 1864 1936 Brisbane, Arthur

Editor
1604 1690 Eliot, John..

Missionary 1835 1893 Brooks, Phillips

Preacher

1882 Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Essayist 1848 1908 Brooks, William K. Biologist

18031889 Ericsson, John..

Inventor 1711 1810 Brown, Chas. Brockden Fiction

1818) 1901 Evarts, William M. Statesrpan 1800 1859 Brown, John

Abolitionist 1794 1865 Everett, Edward. Statesman 1877 Brownlow, William G. "Parson"

1801 1870 Farragut. DavidG., Adm. Naval 1803 1876 Brownson, Orestes A. Author

1859 1930 Faunce, William H. P. Educator 1860 1925 Bryan, William J. statesman

1806 1869 Fessenden, William P.. U.S. Sen. 1794 1878 Brvant, William C.. Poet, Editor 1819 1892 Field, Cyrus W.

Atlantic cable 1582 1658 Bulkeley, Peter.

Preacher
1850 1895 Field, Eugene.

Poet 1855 1896 Bunner, Henry Cuyler. Humor

1835 1906 Field, Marshall

Merchant 1849 1926 Burbank, Luther.

Botanist
1816 1899 Field, Stephen J

Jurist 1820 1870 Burlingame, Anson. Diplomat

1917) 1881 Fields. James T.

Blography 1837 1921 Burroughs, John. Naturalist

1863 1940 Finley, John H..

Educ., Editor 1818 1893 Butler, Benjamin F. I aw, Soldier 1842 1901 Fiske, John..

Historian 1844 1925 Cable, George W

Fiction
1865 1909 Fitch, Clyde.

Drama
1751 1823 Cabot, George.
U.S. Senator 1743 1798 Fitch, John.

Inventor 17821 1850|Calhoun, John C. Isen., V. Pres. 1865' 1902 Ford, Paul Leicester Fiction, Hist.

18

1785

1853

1782

1830

1865

1739

1847

1613

1567

1803

1805

B. D.

Name
Occupation B. D.

Name

Occupation 1826 1864 Foster, Stephen C Ballads

1824 1863 Jackson (Stonewall), T.J. Soldier 1862 1919 Freeman, Mary E. W. Fiction

1843 1916 James, Henry.

Fiction 1813 1890 Fremont, John C.. Explorer

1842 1910 James, William.

Philosophy 1752 1832 Frenesu, Philip

Poetry
1795 1885 Jervis, John B.

Civ. Eng. 1860 1915 Frohman, Charles. Theater Prod. 1849 1909 Jewett, Sarah Orne. Fiction 1851 1940 Frohman, Daniel. Theater Prod. 1811 1891 Jones, George.

Newspaper 1830 1911 Frye, William P. U.S. Senator 1747 1792 Jones. John Paul.

Naval 1810 1850 Fuller, Sara Marg. Autbor

1788 1850 Judson, Adoniram Missionary 1765 1815 Fulton, Robert.

Inventor

1849 1927 Judson, Harry P. Educator 1874 1938 Gale, Zona

Fiction

1776 1865 Jumel, Mme. (Betsy 1761 1849 Galatın, Albert.

Statesman

Bowen)

Patriot 1787 1851 Ga t. Thomas H.. Educator

1843 1926 Kohler, Kaufmann. Rabbi, Educa 1805 1879 Garrison, W. Lloyd. Abolitionist 1820 1867 Kane, Elisha K..

Explorer 1818 1903 Gatling, Richard J. Gun Invent. 1815 1862 Kearny, Philip

Soldier 1839 1897 George, Henry Economist 1837 1932 Keen, Williaro W

Surgeon 1826 1897 George, James L.. Sold.,Jur., Sen. 1813 1901 Kellogg. Elijah .. Author 1844 1909 Gilder. Richard W Poet, Editor 1856 1937 Kellogg. Frank B. Sec. State 1831 1908 Gilman, Daniel C Educator

1848 1893 Kenna, John E.

Sold., Sen. 1750 1831 Girard, Stephen.

Merchant
1795 1870 Kennedy, John P

Fiction 1827 1911 Glick. George W. Gov., Sold. 1763 1847 Kent, James.

Jurist 1831 1902 Godkin, Edwin L. Newsp. Editor 1780) 1843 Key, Francis Soott.

Poet 1809 1879 Goelet, Robert... Landowner 1886 1918 Kllmer, Joyce

Poet 1846 1897 Goelet, Ogden.

Landowner 1824 1864 King, Rev. Thos. Start. Patriot 1858 1928 Goethals, Maj.-Gen.G.W. Canal Eng. 1768 1852 King, William

Gov., Fin. 1850

1924 Gompers, Samuel. Labor Leader 1813 1894 Kirkwood, Samuel J.. Sen., Gov.. 1793 1860 Goodrich, S.G.(P.Parley) Author

Dip. 1800 1860 Goodyear, Charles. Inventor

1750 1806 Knox, Henry

Soldier (Rev.) 1839 1906 Gornan, Arthur Pue. Politics

1848 1909 Laftan, Williarn.

Newspaper 1803 1855 Gorrie. Dr. John.

Inventor

1855 1925 La Follette, Robert M Statesman 1836 1892 Gould, Jay ..

Rallways

1834 1906 Langley, Samuel P Astronomer 1851 1889 Grady, Henry W

Journalist
1842 1881 Lanler, Sidney

oet
1810
1888 Gray, Ass

Botanist
1885 1933 Lardner, Ring W

Iumorist 1835 1901 Gray, Elisha

Inventor

1850 1925 Lawson, Victor F. Newspaper 1811 1872 Greeley, Horace. Newspaper

1849 1887 Lazarus, Emma.

Poet. Novel. 1844 1935 Greely. Gen. A W.. Sold., Explo. 1823 1901 Leconte, Joseph. Geologist 1846 1935 Green, Anna Katharine

1758 1818 Lee, Henry

Soldier (Rev.) (Mrs. Charles Rohlts). Fiction

1732 1794 Lee, Rich. Henry.

Statesman 1834 1916 Green, Henrietta (Hetty) Finance

1807 1870 Lee, Robert E.

Soldier 1742 1786 Greene. Nathaniel Soldier

1823 1891 Leidy. Joseph

Scientist 1872 1926 Greenway, Gen. John C. Engineer

1824 1903 Leland, Chas. Godfrey.. Poet 1861 1920 Guiney, Louise Imogene. Poetry

1774 1809 Lewis, Meriwether Explorer 1822) 1909 Hale, Edward Everett. Essayist

1764 1836 Livingston, Edward. Statesman 1755 1776 Hale. Nathan....

Patriot

1746 1813 Livingston, Robt. R. Statesman 1788 1879 Hale, Sarah J. Poet Auth. 1833 1888 Locke, David R.

Humor 1844) 1924 Hall, Granville S.. Psychologist 1850) 1924 Lodge, Henry Cabot. Statesman 1790 1867 Halleck, Fitz-Greene...

Poet
1725 1780 Logan, John.

Indian Chlet 1829 1908 Halstead. Murat. Journalist

1876) 1916 London, Jack..

Fiction 1757 1804 Hamilton, Alexander. Statesman 1815 1878 Long. Dr. Crawford w.. Anaesthesia 1830 1896 Hamilton, Gall (Mary

1807 1882 Longfellow, Henry W.. Poet Abigail Dodge) Fiction

18501933 Lord, Chester s... Newsp. Ed. 1811 1900 Hamlin, Cyrus.. Coll. Found'r 1796 1867 Lorilard. Peter.

Tobacco M'I'r 1809 1891 Hamlin, Hannibal Vice Pres., Gov 1833 1901 Lorillard, Pierre,

Tobacco M'I'r 1818 1902 Hampton, Wade. Sold., Statesm. 1813 1891 Lossing, Benson J. History 1824 1886 Hancock, W. S... Soldier

1838 1915 Lounsbury, T. R. Essayist 1837 1904 11anna, Mark. Iron, Politic. 1802 1837 Lovejoy, Elijah J

Newsp. Editor 1820 1899 Harlan, James Sen., Cabinet 1850 1916 Low. Seth..

Mayor, Educ. 1795 1865 Harper, James.

Publisber
1874 1925 Lowell, Amy

Poet 1797 1875 Harper, John.

Publisher

1819 1891 Lowell, Jas, Russell. Poet 1856 1906 Harper, William R. Educator

1797 1849 Lyon, Mary

Educator 1837 1909 Harriman, Edward H.. Financier

1845 1916 Mabie, Hamilton W. Author 1843 1908 Harris, Joel C.

Humor

1861 1908 MacDowell. Edward A. Composer 1839 1902 Harte, Francis Bret. Fiction

1831 1902 Mackay. John W. Mine Owner 1607 1638 Harvard, John..

Univ. Found 1863 1941 McAdoo, William G... Fin., States. 1839 1897 Havemeyer, Theo, A.. Sugar M'I'r 1809 1884 McCormick, Cyrus H.. Inventor 1804 1864 Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Fiction

1808 1895 McCulloch, Hugh.. Sec. Treas'y 1838 1905 Hay, John..

Statesman 1771 1830 McDowell, Ephralm. Physician 1832 1881 Hayes, Isaac I.

Explorer

1800 1873 McGuffey, Wiliam H. Educator 1830 1886 Hayne, Paul Hamilton

Poet

1757 1811 McIntire, Samuel Woodcarver 1791 1839 Hayne, Robert Y Statesman 1816 1890 McLean, Washington... Journalist 1850 1904 Hearn, Lafcadio.. Essayist

1852 1932 McMaster, John Bache. Historian 1799 1878 Henry, Joseph.

Inventor
1796 1859 Mann, Horace

Educator 1736 1799 Henry, Patriek.. Statesman 1733 1795 Marion, Francis..

Soldier (Rev.) 1859 1924 Herbert, Victor.

Composer
1852 1940 Markham, Edwin

Poet 1748 1830 Hicks. Ellas.

Quaker

1801 1882 Marsh, George P Lawy. Dipl. 1843 1910 Hin, David B. U.S. Senator 1856 1929 Marshall, Louis.

Lawyer 1838 1916 Hin. James J.

Rallroads
1725 1792 Mason, George.

Statesman 1869 1933 Hillquit, Morris. Socialist

1663 1728 Mather, Cotton.

Preacher 1809 1894 Holmes, Oliver W Poet, Essayist 1638 1723 Mather, Increase

Educator 1841 1935 Holmes, Oliver W. Jurist

1852 1929 Matthews, J. Brander Writer 1814 1879 Hooker, Joseph.

Boldier

1806 1873 Maury, Matthew F Hydrographer 1718 1802 Hopkins, Esek, Com. Naval

1823 1899 Medin, Joseph M, Newgp Editor 1795 1873 Hopkins, Johns.

Unlv. Found 1855 1937 Mellon. Andrew W. Fin., Industr. 1802 1887 Hopkins, Mark.

Educator

1819 1891 Melville, Herman. Adventure 1770 1842 Hopkinson, Joseph Poet

1849 1922 Miller, Charles R. Newspaper 1822 1885 Hough, Franklin B Forester

1841 1913 Miller, Joaquin.

Poet 1858 1938 House, Edward.

Diplomat
1825 1910 Mills, Darius.

Finance 1793 1863 Houston, Sam

Sold., States. 1822 1908 Mitchell, Donald G. Essayist 1864 1900 Hovey, Richard.

Poet

1852 1927 Mitchell, Edward P. Editor 1842 1908 Howard, Bronson.

Drama
1818 1889 Mitchell, Maria..

Astronomer 1830 1909 Howard, Oliver O.. Soldier

1829 1914 Mitchell, Silas Weir. Fiction 1819 1867 Howe, Elias

Inventor

1737 1775 Montgomery, Richard. Soldier (Rev.) 1819 1910 Howe, Julia Ward.

Poet

1837 1899 Moody. Dwight L. Preacher 1837 1920 Howells, William D Fiction

1869 1910 Moody, William Vaughn Drama, Poetry 1859 1921 Huneker, James Gibbons Essayist

1837 1913 Morgan, J. Pierpont. Banker 1796 1859 Hunt, Walter..

Inventor

1813 1890 Morgan, Junius S Banker 1821 1900 Huntington, C. P. Rallways

1838 1923 Morley, Edward W Chemist 1590 1643 Hutchinson, Anne. Preacher

1802 1864 Morris, George P.

Poet 1833

1900 Ingalls, John James. Sen., orator 1752 1816 Morris, Gouverneur Statesinan 1833 1899 Ingersoll, Robert G.. Agnostic

1832 1902 Morton, J. S...

Gov. Cabinet 1783 1859 Irving, Washington.. Fiction, Hist 1791 1872 Morse, Samuei F. B Inventor 18311 1885 Jackson, Helen Hunt. ... Fiction

1823 1877 Morton, Ollver P. Gov., Sen.

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