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*Super-Chief and El Capitan. Congressional and St. Louisan. and No. 202.
†Commodore Vanderbilt and New
76.0 67 68.1
England States. Broadway_Limited, Congressional and East Wind. East Wind and No. 206. Senator
Some Fast Railway Runs in the U. S.
Source: World Almanac questionnaire
Bell's fundamental telephone patent, No. 174,465, for an "improvement in telegraphy' was issued to him on March 7, 1876. It is the one referred to in the American table above.
According to the Georgia Legislature, Dr. Crawford W. Long of that state discovered ether as an anaesthetic in 1842. A bust of Dr. W. T. Morton, a Boston dentist, is in the Hall of Fame, N. Y. University, as the pioneer in the use of ether as an anaesthetic. This was in 1846.
The first patent to S. F. B. Morse was issued June 20, 1840, for Telegraph Signs. First testing of his apparatus was made in 1835. In Sept., 1837, he exhibited the telegraph at New York University to visitors; in Oct., 1837, he filed his caveat at the Patent Office; first message sent over 10 miles of wire at New York University, Jan. 24, 1838, "Attention the Universe! By Kingdoms Right Wheel!" The first public message was sent over the line
between Baltimore and Washington, May 24, 1844. "What hath God wrought."
Prof. Joseph Henry of Princeton University said he, Henry, invented the electro-magnetic telegraph, when at the Albany Academy, in 1330.
In July, 1786, John Fitch moved a small skiff by steam on the Delaware River at Philadelhpia. The engine had a 3-inch cylinder which moved a screwpaddle-an endless chain with paddles fixed on it and placed on the sides of the boat. Later Fitch tried oars in the sides of the skiff which were moved by cranks and beams. This gave a speed of 7 miles an hour. In 1788 he got a patent. În Aug. 1787 he gave a trial of a boat at Philadelphia with a 12-inch cylinder engine and with 6 oars working perpendicularly on each side of his new 45-ft. boat which had a 12-ft. beam. In 1796 on Collect Pond, N. Y. City he exhibited a yawl which had a screw propeller at the stern. The experiments were then under the patronage of Robert R. Livingston.
monia and c. 02)
Chlorine (from air and
Paper, from wood pulp, sulfate (Kraft) proc.
1836 Wheatstone.. English 1837 Ericsson.. Swedish 1838 Wheatstone..English 1839 Daguerre and
1842 Mac Millian.. Scottish
Gottlieb Daimler, in 1885, drove, in Germany, a bicycle powered by a gasoline engine of his own invention.
In 1890, at Montrouge, France, Fernand Forest put his 4-cylinder engine, its carburetor, its watercooling system, and its magneto ignition on a wagon chassis-thereby creating, it is said, the first 4-cylinder automobile,
In 1892 (April 19), the first gasoline automobile in the U. S. was operated by its inventor, C. E. Duryea, who also won the first American contest, in Chicago, Nov. 1895.
On July 4, 1894, Elwood Haynes drove to Kokomo, Ind., a gasoline automobile of his own invention. The Duryea and Haynes machines are in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
Movable type. Their origin is obscure. Wooden type preceded metal. Laurens Janszoon Koster, of Haarlem, Holland (1370-1450), printed from movable type, about 1438, and used his own ink. Johann Gansfleisch (1397-1468), commonly called
Nitric acid (oxidation
Lubricants, solvent re-
Lubricants, high pressure...
Insulin (isolation for medical use).. Carbon oxides (hydrogenation to gasoline and oils)...
1900 Ostwaldt.. 1900 Heroult. 1902 Normann. 1903 Jatho. 1903 Unge. 1903 Fisker...
1905 Caro and
1908 Edeleanu.... Dutch 1908 LeBrocq.....English 1909 Benedictus... French
1910 Berglus...... German
1912 Just and
Hanaman... 1913 Haber.. 1916 Brennan.... 1916 Brearley..
1925 Fisher and
Methanol, synthesis of 1925 Patart..... Television....
Soap hard water "Soapless," based on alcohol sulfates...... Gasoline, high octane. Resin, synthetic (methyl methacrylate) Sulfanilamide, therapeutic use of..
Gutenberg, because his mother came from there, was the first to make cut metal type, from which, in partnership with a goldsmith named Johann Fust, he printed, in Germany, at Mainz on the Rhine, a number of copies of St. Jerome's' Latin translation of the Bible, 1450-5. This was the Vulgate Bible, first printed Bible.
Leonardo da Vinci was an inventor and builder as well as a painter. Models of 175 of his inventions have been shown in the Museum of Science and Industry, N. Y. City-steam cannon, armored car, alarm clock, olive oil press, flying machine and many others.
Speech was transmitted by electrical means in Germany by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorff 10 years before Bell's venture. His original instruments are in the South Kensington Museum in London.
Edouard Branley, a French physicist, invented the coherer, which had a part in the development of radiography-the means of detecting and receiving wireless impulses.
The Wonders of the Ancient World
Source: Historical Records
Pyramids of Egypt-Beginning at Gizeh, opposite | reservoir on the top terrace and was piped down Cairo, the pyramids stretch for 60 miles south on to the gardens. They date from about 600 B.C. Temple of Diana in Asia Minor at Ephesus, an the west bank of the Nile. They date from about ancient but now vanished city on the east side of 3000-1800 B. C. The most ancient is the famous the Aegean Sea, south of Smyrna, was built in step-pyramid at Saggara, tomb of Zoser, the the Fifth Century B.C. by the Ionian cities, as a second king of the third dynasty, about 3000 B. C. joint monument, from plans by the architect The pyramids were built with forced labor, it is Ctesiphon. The building was of marble, 425 x 225 said. The workers were let go home only at feet, and the roof was supported by 127 columns of planting and harvest time. Parian marble, each 60 feet high and each weighing about 150 tons. In 356 B.C., the temple was burned by Herostratus, a crank.
In May, 1939, at Sakkara, a few miles southwest of Cairo, a tomb was found and opened, offcially described as that of Pharaoh Zer, second King of the first dynasty. It contained a collection of copper swords, daggers, ivory, gaming pieces and other items.
In March, 1939, a tomb was opened at the ancient city of Tanis, in the Nile Delta, and therein was discovered, in a silver sarcophagus, the mummy of one of the five pharaohs or Kings ramed Sheshonq, who ruled Egypt in the 22nd dynasty, beginning in 950 B. C. It was at first thought the mummy was of King Psou-sen-nes, a father-in-law of King Solomon. The first Sheshonq conquered Jerusalem in the reign of Rehoboam. The two skeletons in the chamber with the mummy were presumably those of servants. They were so decomposed it was impossible to determine their identity. On one a long carnelian necklace was still intact. Also found in the chamber were canopic silver vases with covers, some shaped as heads of animals, others as heads of humans.
The tomb of Psou-sen-nes, who ruled in the 21st dynasty, was located and opened, near Tanis, early in 1940. The sarcophagus containing the mummy was of solid silver. The head of the mummy was encased in a mask of pure gold, similar to that of King Tut-ankh-Amen, and the rest of whose body was covered by silver gilt. In the sarcophagus were found many bracelets and necklaces, golden cases for the fingers and toes, a pair of golden shoes and other pieces of jewelry, which adorned the mummy. The dampness of the Delta region had caused the mummy to decompose, leaving only a handful of bones. Since most of the ornaments were made of gold, they have been hardly affected by climatic conditions. Also found was the tomb of King Amenemopet, son of Psou-sen-nes.
The Great Pyramid is that of the tyrant Pharaoh Cheops, and was, when intact, 481 feet high, and 756 feet square at the base. It is now 450 feet high, 746 feet square at the base, and covers nearly 13 acres. It contained, it is said, 2,300,000 blocks of diorite, a hard pale bluestone. The Cheops quarries were discovered early in 1938, in an unsurveyed part of the desert, near the Sudan frontier 60 miles or more from the Nile.
South of Luxor (ancient Thebes) is the tomb of young King Tutankhamen (1350 B.C.), discovered by Howard Carter in 1922. He was the son-in-law of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, and before going on the throne was Prince Tutankhaten. Sphinx, near Gizeh, is a great wingless crouching lion with a human head, hewn by order of Chephren, son of Cheops, or soon after Chephren's death. It had been rejected for the pyramid because it consisted of layers of hard gray and soft yellow stone. The body of the Sphinx was painted red, the headdress white, the eyes had a natural coloring. Its body is 150 feet long, the head 30 feet long, the front paws 50 feet long. The face is 14 feet wide. The distance from the crown of the head to the base of the figure is 70 feet. Being situated in a hollow it has been covered with windblown sand from time to time. The Sphinx was dug out in the 18th Dynasty, and was worshiped as the sun god. The Romans (100 B.C.) restored it. In the Middle Ages the Arabs called it Father of Fear.
Also in the Pyramid area, Hassan discovered. in 1935, two so-called sun boats, hewn in the rock south of the cult temple. It was an ancient Egyptian belief that every king, after his death, was like the sun god Ra and, like the sun, must make a journey daily from the East to the West. To be reborn each day in the East he must return at night from West to East. To make these two trips daily, he had two boats-a day boat and a night boat. The latter was called a resurrection boat.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon were near the Euphrates River, in the palace of King Nebuchadnezzar, 60 miles south of the present City of Bagdad, and not far from the eastern border of the Syrian Desert of Northern Arabia. The terraced gardens, planted with flowers and small trees, with fountains and refectories interspersed, were 75 to 300 feet above the ground. Water was stored in a
Statue of Jupiter Olympus, in the valley of Olympia, province of Elis, 12 miles or so inland from the west coast of the southern peninsula of Greece, which anciently was called the Peloponnesus, was begun by the Greek sculptor Phidias after he had been banished from Athens in 432 B.C. It was of marble encrusted with ivory and the draperies were of beaten gold.
Tomb of Mausolus, King of Čaria, in Asia Minor, at Halicarnassus, on the eastern side of the Aegean Sea opposite Greece, was built of marble about 352 B.C., by Queen Artemisia, the widow. was named Mausoleum, and was remarkable for its beauty and its magnificent interior. It was destroyed by an earthquake.
Pharos of Alexandria, a white marble lighthouse or watch-tower on the island of Pharos, in the port of Alexandria, Egypt, was completed by King Ptolemy Philadelphus 265-247 B.C. The island had been joined by Alexander the Great to the mainland of Egypt by a causeway when he founded Alexandria. The structure cost $850,000. It was over 400 feet high. It was partly razed in the 5th Century, A.D., and was destroyed in 1375 by an earthquake.
Colossus of Rhodes was a brass statue of the Greek sun-god Apollo, 70 cubits (about 109 feet) high, erected by Charles of Lindus at the port of the City of Rhodes, on the island of Rhodes. in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, north of Alexandria. It took 12 years to build, cost 300 talents ($258,000), was completed about 280 B.C. and was thrown down 224 B.C. by an earthquake.
Great Wall of China, dating from the Third Century B.C., extended along the Northern frontier of that country, from the northern part of the Gulf of Pechili, on the Yellow Sea, north of Peking (Peiping) in a zigzag course, to Syning, on the border of Turkestan. Prof. Geil, in 1908. after visiting both ends of it and several intermediate points, estimated the total length of the Great Wall, including all known spurs, curves, and loops, at 2,550 miles; with 25,000 watch-towers built into the wall and 15,000 detached watch-towers. The air-line distance between the point where the wall reaches the sea at Shanhaikwan and the western terminus, identified by Geil on the Great White River west of Suchow in the pan-handle of Kansu Province, is 1,145 miles.
The wall which has crumbled into heaps in many places was, at Kalgan (as measured in 1900 by Col. H. B. Ferguson), 17 feet 6 inches thick and 16 feet high, made of two walls of large brick, filled between with earth and stones. It was built by the Emperor Shih Huang-ti, by forced labor, as a measure of national defense, and has so continued to the present day.
Tower of Babel, at the Chaldean City of Ur in lower Mesopotamia, has completely disappeared. The base of the tower was 300 x 300 feet, tapering through 7 stages to the Shrine at the top. The height also was 300 feet. A smaller Tower of Babel was the Ziggurat at Ur, 195 x 130 feet at the base. and probably more than 150 feet high.
Stonehenge, an assemblage of huge shaped stones in 3 circles, one within another, on Salisbury Plain, 90 miles or so southwest of London, England. The outer circle is 100 feet in diameter, the next within is 75 feet in diameter, and the circle inside that one has a diameter of 40 feet. Extending around the outer circle is a deep trench 333 feet in diameter. The stones of the outer circle, originally about 30 in number, average 12 x 6 x 3 feet, fastened in couples by blocks fixed across the tops The stones in the inner circles are smaller.
The Circus Maximus, at Rome, built 605 B.C.. by King Tarquin and rebuilt and enlarged by Julius Caesar some years before the birth of Christ, was 312 feet high, 1,875 feet long, and 625 feet wide. It then held 150,000 spectators, but the capacity was increased to 385.000 in the Fourth Century A.D. The place was used for games and for horse and chariot races.
Coliseum, or Colosseum, at Rome, one of the largest amphitheatres in the world, was begun by the Emperor Vespasian and finished by the En
peror Domition, 82 A.D. In 238 A.D. a fourth
Appian Way, built 313 B.C. by Censor Appius Claudius, 360 miles long, extending from Rome south to Capua, above Naples, and thence to the East, across Italy to Brindisi (then called Brundusium), on the Adriatic Sea, opposite Turkey. It was the highway to the Levant.
Leaning Tower of Pisa, begun in 1173 A.D., at Pisa, Italy, by Romano Pisano and William of Innsbruck, and finished in 1350, was intended to stand upright, but commenced to tip during construction, owing to clay in the soil, which gradually gave way on one side, until the round 8-story marble building was 16 feet out of the perpendicular, and was 181 ft. high on the north side and 179 on the south. It is still sinking at a low rate according to Dr. Dimitri P. Krynine of Yale University, research associate in soil mechanics. In accordance with an order by Premier Mussolini, since 1932 more than 1,000 tons of high-strength cement have been injected into the foundation through 361 holes, each two inches in diameter. From September, 1934, to April 1935, the movement of the top of the tower was studied with an "inclinometer" designed by Girometti-Bonechi. "The results were almost incredible," Dr. Krynine said. "During September, 1934, the tower moved north, but at the end of that month turned around and moved south. This continued up to the end of January when the movement toward the north started again for a couple of months. At the same time the tower was persistently moving eastward. Of course, all these movements are microscopically small." Porcelain Tower of Nankin was built in that ancient capital of South China in the early part of the 15th Century. It was an octagonal 8-story tower, 261 feet high. The Taiping revolutionists destroyed it in 1853.
the south, where they established a new Cambodian Capital at Pnom Penh.
Temple of Karnak, in Egypt, built 3,500 years ago and now in ruins, inclosed 912 acres of ground, but it was a low structure, consisting of a series of connected halls, with open courts.
Palace of Shah Jehan, the Mogul emperor at Delhi, India, erected in the first half of the 17th century, inclosed more than 100 acres, the walls forming courts by meeting various wings. The building proper covered about 53 acres, the wing occupied by the women of the harem and the eunuchs covering 20 acres. The British destroyed most of the palace during the Indian Mutiny. excepting the private audience chamber. In the Great Audience Chamber was the Peacock Throne, covered with gems.
Palace of Pluto, discovered in 1939, is 150 feet beneath the King's Palace, at the 900-foot level of the Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. There are three vast chambers in Pluto's Palace in addition to those in Carlsbad Caverns. Together they are great forests of stalactites, stalagmites, and other forms fashioned in limestone during some 60 million years, including gigantic carvings of reptilelike creatures larger than the ancient dinosaurs. They may be only accidental mimicries by nature rather than petrified remains. The King's Palace is 4,000 feet long, 600 feet wide, and varies in height from 200 to 375 feet. One of the Chambers in the Palace of Pluto is approximately as large. In France and Spain there are caves on the walls of which are drawings by prehistoric men of the animals of their day. And in caves throughout North America, Europe and Asia are fossil remains of human beings, animals, fishes, insects. trees, etc. In the United States are many limestone caverns, such as Mammoth Cave. They are all wonders of both the ancient and the modern world.
Floating Gardens of Xochimilco, in Mexico. When the Spaniards entered the central basin they were surprised by the sight of large, orderly arranged settlements in the midst of great fields of blossoms intersected by canals along which a brisk traffic was in progress. This landscape, fashioned by the Indians in the shallow lake of Xochimilco, has persisted from the 13th Century until the presBetween the canals the Indians had built ent. small artificial islands known as chinampas, upon Angkor, a ruined temple city in Cambodia, in which flowers and vegetables were grown. The French Indo-China. Until 1907, it was in the prov-islands" were formed of rafts of decaying vegeince of Battambong, in Siam. Then it went to tation, reeds and roots, which were anchored by France, by treaty. The city was founded at the end thrusting quick-growing slips of Salix Bonplanof the Ninth Century by Yacovarman, king of the diana through them. The term "floating garden' Khmers, and lasted until the middle of the Thir- is therefore incorrect, and the reports of earlier teenth Century when the Siamese drove them to travelers were based on a misconception.
Mount Vernon and the Tomb of Washington
Source: Officials of the Institution
Mount Vernon, on the west shore of the Potomac, sixteen miles below Washington, is part of a large tract of land in Northern Virginia which was originally included in a royal grant made to Lord Culpepper, who, in 1674, granted five thousand acres to Nicholas Spencer and John Washington. The division between Spencer and Washington put John Washington's son Lawrence in possession of the Washington half in 1690. Later it became the property of Lawrence Washington's son Augustine, the father of George Washington. Lawrence Washington, elder half brother of George Washington, is said to have built the original house (1743) and renamed the plantation Mount Vernon, in honor of Admiral Vernon, under whom he had served in the West Indies. Lawrence Washington died in 1752 and two years later the title passed to George Washington.
To Mount Vernon (1759) George Washington took his wife, who was Martha Dandridge Custis, widow of Daniel Parke Custis, and here he lived the life of a southern planter during the years preceding the American Revolution. From Mount Vernon he went forth to become Commander-inChief of the revolutionary forces, and to Mount At this time the Vernon he returned (1783). remodeling of the mansion, which had been planned before the Revolution, was completed. The buildings, gardens and grounds were enlarged and developed in accordance with General Washington's own plans. The mansion and thirteen other buildings can still be seen today, and much of the original furniture has been restored. From Mount Vernon General Washington again went forth (April 14, 1789) by highway, ferry and barge to become the first president of the United States, and returned to it after eight years of service. Two years later, (1799) he died and was buried there.
The Mount Vernon mansion and surrounding plantation was left to General Washington's nephew, Judge Bushrod Washington, and by him bequeathed to his nephew John A. Washington, whose son, John Augustine Washington, became the last private owner of Mount Vernon. Two hundred acres, including the Mansion and Tomb were acquired (1859) by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Assoclation of the Union, after both the government of the United States and the Commonwealth of Virginia had declined to purchase the estate. This Association, founded by Miss Ann Pamela Cunningham of South Carolina, is the oldest patriotic association of women in America. It is incorporated under the laws of Virginia and holds Mount Vernon in trust for the people of the United States."
The Mansion and grounds are open to visitors every day during the year, including Sundays and holidays.
The Association is pledged to restore the Mansion and its surroundings as far as possible to their appearance in Washington's time, and to preserve the home and tomb of Washington for future generations. The income derived from the entrance fee of 25 cents maintains the estate. The organization consists of a Regent and Vice Regents representing the various states, who serve without remuneration. The present regent is Mrs. Horace Mann Towner, elected in 1937.
General Washington wrote of Mount Vernon: "No estate in the United States is more pleasantly situated than this. It lies in a high, dry and healthy country, 300 miles by water from the sea, and on one of the finest rivers in the world. I can truly say I had rather be at Mount Vernon with a friend or two about me than to be attended at the seat of government by the officers of state and the representatives of every power in Europe."