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GREAT INVENTIONS-FOREIGN
Nation

|Natior Invention Date Inventor ality

loveation Date loveator alty Pendulum..

1581 Galileo Italian Rayon (nitrocellulose) 1884 Chardonnet.. French White lead.

1622

Dutch Steel, manganese.. 1884 Hadfield... English Nitric acid (from so

Bordeaux mixture dium natrate and sul

(lime-copper sulfate) 1885 Millardet.... French furio acid). 1648 Glauber. ... German Powder, smokeless. 1886 Vielle.

.......French Clock, pendulum 1657 Huygens. Dutch Gold (cyanide process Leyden jar (conden

for extraction)

1887 MRcArthur 1745 von Kleist....German

Forest. British Bulfuric

acid
(lead

Tire, pneumatic.. 1888 Dunlop. English chamber process). 1746 Roebuck.. English Rayon (cuprammonCement, hydraulic. 1756 Smeaton. English

lum). .....

1890 Dupelsses. French Lens, achromatic. 1758 Dolland. English Rayon (viscose),

1892 Cross and BeEgine, steam. 1765 Watt.... English

van...

English Spinning Jenny (WEAV

Coke, oven.

1893 Hogman. Austrian er) 1767 Hargreaves.. English Gas mantle.

1893 Welsback, German Balloon.

1783 Montgolfer. French Oxygen (from liquid Shuttle, dying.

1784 Kay.
English alr).

1895 Linde.

Gerban Loom, power.

1785 Cartwright... English Rayon (acetate). 1896 Cross and BeSoda, trom salt 1791 LeBlanc. French

Van.

English Bleaching powder 1798 Tennant... English Telegraph, wireless, Paper, (the Fourdrin

low frequency.

1895 Preece.. English ier) cach, for making 1799 Robert .. French X-ray

1895 Roentgen. German Plle, electric battery

1800 Volta. ..... Italian Camphor, synthesis of 1896 Haller.. French Food preservation (by

Telegraph, wireless, sterilization and ex

high frequency.

1896 Marcoal ..... Italian clusion of air)

1810 Appert.. French Photographic paper, Safety lamp.

1816 Davy.
English sensitized.

1898 Baekeland Belgian Stethoscope. 1816 Laennec French Aspirin.

1899 Drwer..... German Kaleidoscope.

1817 Brewster .. English Motor, internal comUrea, synthetic, from

bustion..

1900 Diesel .... German ammonium cyanate.. 1828 Wohler.. German Nitric acid (oxidation Sewing machine. 1830 Thimonnier. French of ammonia.

1900 Ostwaldt.. German Match, phosphorus 1831 Sauria.. French Steel, electric

1900 Heroult. French Propeller, screw

1831 Sauvage.

French Fat, hardening of. 1902 Normann.. German Sulfuric acid (contact

Airplane..

1903 Jatho. German process)

1831 Phillips.....
English Bomb, depth.

1903 Unge.

Swedish Telegraph, electro

Barbital, sedative. 1903 Flaker.. German magnetic

1836 Wheatstone.. English Cyanide (from Propeller, screw

1837 Ericsson.. Swedish CaC2+N2).... 1905 Caro and Stereoscope. 1838 Wheatstone. . English

Frank.... German Photography 1839|Daguerre and

Lubricants, solvent re-
Niepce. French fining of....

1908 Edeleanu.... Dutch Bicycle. 1842 Mac Millian.. Scottish Novocaine.

1908 LeBrocq. English Mercerization of cel

Glass, laminated. 1909 Benedictus... French lulose textiles

1843 Mercer, J... English Coal, hydrogenation Cernent, Portland 1848 Johnson English to liquid fuels. 1910 Berglus...... German Lithopone.

1851 de Douhet. French Tungsten flament inGyroscope. 1852 Foucanta. French

candescent lamp.... 1912 Just and Telegraph, duplex 1853 Ginti. Austrian

Hanaman... Burn, gas 1855 Bunsen. German Nitrogen Oxation.. 1913 Haber.

German Dye, aniline (coal

Alrplane, helicopter... 1916 Brennan.. English tar) mauve 1856 Perkin. English Steel, stainless

1916 Brearley. English Steel..

1856 Bessemer English Urea - formaldehyde Dynamo, cont. current 1860 Picinotti. Italian resins.

1918 John.

Csech Linoleum

1860 Walton.. English Lubricante, high presFurnace, electric 1861 Siemens. English

1919 Southcombe Powder, smokeless. 1863 Schultze German

and Wells... English Soda (from salt, en

Insulin (isolation for monla and c. 02) 1863 Solvay. Belgian medical use).. 1922 Collip ....... Canadi. Typewriter.

1864 Mitterhoffer. Austrian Carbon oxides (hydroTorpedo

1866 Whitehead... English genation to gasoline Dynamite.

1867 Nobel
Swedish and oils)..

1925 Fisher and Chlorine (trom air and

Tropsch.. German hydrochloric soid).. 1868 Deacon.... English Methanol, synthesis of 1925 Patart. French Dynamo, cont. current 1870 Gramme. Belgian Television.

1926 Balrd.... Scottish Lithopone.

1874 Orr.

English Soap hard water Torpedo, dirigible 1876 Brennan. English "Soapless," based on Engine, gas, cycle. 1877 Otto,

German

alcohol sulfates..... 1928 Bertach. German Engine, auto, 2-stroke 1879 Benz.

German Gasoline, high octane. 1930 Ipatien.. Russian Cream separater. 1880 DeLaval. Swedish Resin,

synthetic Indigo, synthesis of... 1880 Baeyer German (methyl methacryRayon.

1883 Swan.

English
late).

1931 Hill....... English Paper, from wood pulp,

Sulfanilamide, therasulfate (Kraft) proc. 1884 Dahl.. Danziger peutic use of..

1935 Domagk..... German Gottlieb Daimler, in 1885, drove, in Germany, a | Gutenberg, because his mother came from there, bicycle powered by . gasoline engine of his own was the first to make cut metal type, from which,

in partnership with a goldsmith named Johann invention. In 1890, at Montrouge, France, Fernand Forest Rhine, a number of copies of st. Jerome's' Latin

Fust, he printed, in Germany, at Maint on the put his 4-cylinder engine, its carburetor, its water

translation of the Bible, 1450-5. This was the cooling system, and its magneto ignition on a Vulgate Bible, Arst printed Bible. wagon chassis--thereby creating, it is said, the Leonardo da Vinci was an inventor and builder first 4-cylinder automobile.

as well as a painter. Models of 175 of his invenIn 1892 (April 19), the first gasoline automobile tions have been shown

in the Museum of Science in the U. S. was operated by its inventor, C. E. and Industry, N. Y. City-Steam cannon, armored Duryea, who also won the first American contest, car, alarm clock, olive oil press, Aying machine in Chicago, Nov. 1895.

and many others. On July 4, 1894, Elwood Haynes drove to Kokomo, Speech was transmitted by electrical theans in Ind., a gasoline automobile of his own invention. Germany by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorft 10 The' Duryea and Haynes machines are in the years before Bell's venture. His original instruSmithsonian Institution, Washington.

ments are in the South Kensington Museum in Movable type. --Their origin is obscure. Wooden London. type preceded metal. Laurens Janszoon Koster,

of Edouard Branley, a French physicist, invented Haarlem, Holland (1370-1450), printed from mov- the coherer, which had a part in the development able type, about 1438, and used his own ink. Jo- of radiography- the means of detecting and rehann Gansneisch (1397-1468), commonly called 'ceiving wireless impulses.

sure.....

The Wonders of the Ancient World

Source: Historical Records Pyramids of Egypt-Beginning at Gizeh, opposite reservoir on the top terrace and was piped down Cairo, the pyramids stretch for 60 miles south on to the gardens. They date from about 600 B.C. the west bank of the Nile. They date from about

Temple of Diana in Asia Minor at Ephesus, an

ancient but now vanished city on the east side of 3000-1800 B. C. The most ancient is the famous

the Aegean Sea, south of Smyrna, was built in step-pyramid at Saggara, tomb of Zoser, the

the Fifth Century B.C. by the Ionian cities, as a second king of the third dynasty, about 3000 B. C. joint monument, from plans by the architect

The pyramids were built with forced labor, it is Ctesiphon. The building was of marble, 425 x 225 said. The workers were let go home only at feet, and the roof was supported by 127 columns of planting and harvest time.

Parian marble, each 60 feet high and each weighing In May, 1939, at Sakkara, a few miles south- about 150 tons. In 356 B.C., the temple was burned west of Cairo, a tomb was found and opened, off. by Herostratus, a crank. cially described as that of Pharaoh Zer, second Statue of Jupiter Olympus, in the valley of King of the first dynasty. It contained a collection Olympia, province of Elis, 12 miles or so inland of copper swords, daggers, ivory, gaming pieces from the west coast of the southern peninsula of and other items.

Greece, which anciently was called the PeloponIn March, 1939, a tomb was opened at the

nesus,, was begun by the Greek sculptor Phidias ancient city of Tanis, in the Nile Delta, and there

after he had been banished from Athens in 432 in was discovered, in a silver sarcophagus, the

B.C. It was of marble encrusted with ivory and murnmy of one of the five pharaohs or Kings

the draperles were of beaten gold. ramed Sheshong, who ruled Egypt in the 22nd dy

Tomb of Mausolus, King of Caria, in Asia Minor, nasty, beginning in 950 B. C. It was at first

at Halicarnassus, on the eastern side of the Aegean thought the mummy was of King Psou-sen-nes, a

Sea opposite Greece, was built of marble about father-in-law of King Solomon. The first Sheshong

352 B.C., by Queen Artemisia, the widow. was conquered Jerusalem in the reign of Rehoboam.

named Mausoleum, and was remarkable for its The two skeletons in the chamber with the

beauty, and its magnificent interior. It was de

stroyed by an earthquake. mummy were presumably those of servants. They

Pharos of Alexandria, & white marble lightwere so decomposed it was impossible to determine

house or watch-tower on the island of Pharos, their identity. On one a long carnelian necklace

in the port of Alexandria, Egypt, was completed by was still intact. Also found in the chamber were

King Ptolemy Philadelphus 265-247 B.C. The island canopic silver vases with covers, some shaped as

had been joined by Alexander the Great to the heads of animals, others as heads of humans. The tomb of Psou-sen-nes, who ruled in the 21st Alexandria. The structure cost $850,000. It was

mainland of Egypt by a causeway when he founded dynasty, was located and opened, near Tanis, over 400 feet high. It was partly razed in the 5th early in 1940. The sarcophagus containing Century, A.D., and was destroyed in 1375 by an the mummy Was of solid silver. The

head earthquake. of the mummy was encased in a mask of pure gold, Colossus of Rhodes was a brass statue of the similar to that of King Tut-ankh-Amen, and the rest of whose body was covered by silver gilt. In

Greek sun-god Apollo, 70 cubits (about 109 feet)

high, erected by Charles of Lindus at the port of the sarcophagus were found many bracelets and

the City of Rhodes, on the island of Rhodes, in the necklaces, golden cases for the fingers and toes,

eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, off the a pair of golden shoes and other pieces of jewelry, coast of Asia Minor, north of Alexandria. It took which adorned the mummy. The dampness of

12 years to build, cost 300 talents ($258,000), was the Delta region had caused the mummy to de- completed about 280 B.C. and was thrown down compose, leaving only a handful of bones. Since

224 B.C. by an earthquake. most of the ornaments were made of gold, they Great Wall of China, dating from the Third have been hardly affected by climatic conditions. Century B.C., extended along the Northern frontier

Also found was the tomb of King Amenemopet, of that country, from the northern part of the son of Psou-sen-nes.

Gulf of Pechili, on the Yellow Sea, north of The Great Pyramid is that of the tyrant Pharaoh Peking (Peiping) in a zigzag course, to Syning, on Cheops, and was, when intact, 481 feet high, and the border of Turkestan. Prof. Geil, in 1908. after 756 feet square at the base. It is now 450 feet high, visiting both ends of it and several intermediate 746 feet square at the base, and covers nearly 13 points, estimated the total length of the Great acres. It contained, it is said, 2,300,000 blocks of Wall, including all known spurs, curves, and loops, diorite, a hard pale bluestone. The Cheops quarries at 2,550 miles; with 25,000 watch-towers built into were discovered early in 1938, in an unsurveyed the wall and' 15.000 detached watch-towers. The part of the desert, near the Sudan frontier 60 air-line distance between the point where the miles or more from the Nile.

wall reaches the sea at Shanhaikwan and the South of Luxor (ancient Thebes) is the tomb of western termimus, identified by Geil on the Great young King Tutankhamen (1350 B.C.), discovered White River west of Suchow in the pan-handle of by Howard Carter in 1922. He was the son-in-law Kansu Province, is 1,145 miles. of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, and be- The wall which has crumbled into heaps in many fore going on the throne was Prince Tutankhaten. places was, at Kalgan (as measured in 1900 by

Sphinx, near Gizeh, is a great wingless crouch- Col. H. B. Ferguson). 17 feet 6 inches thick and inglion with a human head, hewn by order of 16 feet high, made of two walls of large brick Chephren, son of Cheops, or soon after Chephren's Alled between with earth and stones. It was built death. It had been rejected for the pyramid be- by the Emperor Shih Huang-ti, by forced labor, cause it consisted of layers of hard gray and soft as a measure of national defense, and has 80 yellow stone. The body of the Sphinx was painted continued to the present day. red, the headdress white, the eyes had a natural Tower of Babel, at the Chaldean City of Ur in coloring. Its body is 150 feet long, the head 30 feet i lower Mesopotamia, has completely disappeared. long, the front paws 50 feet long. The face is 14 The base of the tower was 300 x 300 feet, tapering feet wide. The distance from the crown of the through 7 stages to the Shrine at the top. The head to the base of the figure is 70 feet. Being height also was 300 feet. A smaller Tower of Babel situated in a hollow it has been covered with was the Ziggurat at Ur. 195 x 130 feet at the base. windblown sand from time to time. The Sphinx and probably more than 150 feet high. was dug out in the 18th Dynasty, and was wor- Stonehenge, an assemblage of huge shaped stones shiped as the sun god. The Romans (100 B.C.) in 3 circles, one within another, on Salisbury Plain, restored it. In the Middle Ages the Arabs called it 90 miles or so southwest of London, England. The Father of Fear,

outer circle is 100 feet in diameter, the next within Also in the Pyramid area, Hassan discovered. is 75 feet in diameter, and the circle inside that in 1935, two so-called sun boats, hewn in the rock one has a diameter of 40 feet. Extending around south of the cult temple. It was an ancient Egyp- the outer circle is a deep trench 333 feet in tian belief that every king, after his death, was diameter. The stones of the outer circle, originally like the sun god Ra and, like the sun, must make about 30 in number, average 12 x 6 x 3 feet, a journey daily from the East to the West. To be fastened in couples by blocks fixed across the tops reborn each day in the East he must return at The stones in the inner circles are smaller. night from West to East. To make these two trips The Circus Maximus, at Rome, built 605 B.C.. daily, he had two boats-a day boat and a night by King Tarquin and rebuilt and enlarged by boat. The latter was called a resurrection boat. Julius Caesar some years before the birth of Christ.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon were near the was 312 feet high, 1,875 feet long, and 625 feet Euphrates River, in the palace of King Nebu- wide. It then held 150,000 spectators, but the chadnezzar, 60 miles south of the present City of capacity was increased to 385.000 in the Fourth

Bagdad, and not far from the eastern border of the Century A.D. The place was used for games and Syrian Desert of Northern Arabia. The terraced for horse and chariot races. gardens, planted with flowers and small trees. with Coliseum, or Colosseum, at Rome, one of the fountains and refectories interspersed. were 75 to largest amphitheatres in the world, was begun by 300 feet above the ground. Water was stored in a the Emperor Vespasian and finished by the Em

peror Domition, 82 A.D. In 238 A.D. a fourth the south, where they established a new Cambodian story was added. The ruins still stand. The build- Capital at Pnom Penh. ing, elliptical, was 615 x 510 feet, and the floor of Temple of Karnak, in Egypt, built 3.500 years the arena was 281 x 176 feet. The walls were con- ago and now in ruins, inclosed 913 acres of ground, crete; the seats, marble; 50,000 persons could sit; but it was a low structure, consisting of a series 20,000 could stand. The cost was 10,000,000 crowns of connected halls, with open courts. ($ 15,000,000). The work of construction was done Palace of Shah Jehan, the Mogul emperor at by 12,000 slaves from Jerusalem. Wild animals Delhi, India, erected in the first half of the 17th were kept in dens under the floor. Thousands of century, inclosed more than 100 acres, the walls persons, including early Christians, perished informing courts by meeting various wings. The combats with lions and tigers. Gladiators also building proper covered about 53 acres, the wing fought there.

occupied by the women of the harem and the Appian Way, built 313 B.C. by Censor Appius eunuchs covering 20 acres. The British destroyed Claudius, 360 miles long, extending from Rome most of the palace during the Indian Mutiny, south to Capua, above Naples, and thence to the excepting the private audience chamber. In the East, across Italy to Brindisi (then called Brun- Great Audience Chamber was the Peacock Throne, dusium), on the Adriatic Sea, opposite Turkey. It covered with gems. was the highway to the Levant.

Palace of Pluto, discovered in 1939, is 150 feet Leaning Tower of Pisa, begun in 1173 A.D., at beneath the King's Palace, at the 900-foot level Pisa, Italy. by Romano Pisano and William of of the Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. There are Innsbruck, and finished in 1350, was intended to three vast chambers in Pluto's Palace in addition stand upright, but commenced to tip during con

to those in Carlsbad Caverns. Together they are struction, owing to clay in the soil, which grad great forests of stalactites, stalagmites, and other ually gave way on one side, until the round 8-story forms fashioned in limestone during some 60 mil. marble building was 16 feet out of the perpendic-llon years, including gigantic carvings of reptile. ular, and was 181 ft. high on the north side and like creatures larger than the ancient dinosaurs. 179 on the south. It is still sinking at a low rate They may be only accidental mimicrles by nature according to Dr. Dimitri P. Krynine of Yale rather than petrined remains. The King's Palace University, research associate in soil mechanics.is 4,000 feet long. 600 feet wide, and varies in In accordance with an order by Prernier Mussolini, height from 200 to 375 feet. One of the Chambers since 1932 more than 1,000 tons of high-strength in the Palace of Pluto is approximately as large, cement have been injected into the foundation

In France and Spain there are caves on the through 361 holes, each two inches in diameter. walls of which are drawings by prehistoric men From September, 1934, to April 1935, the movement of the animals of their day. And in caves throughof the top of the tower was studied with an

out North America, Europe and Asia are fossil re"Inclinometer" designed by Girometti-Bonechi. mains of human beings, animals, fishes, insects, **The results were almost incredible," Dr. Krynine trees, etc. In the United States are many limesaid. "During September, 1934, the tower moved stone caverns, such as Mammoth Cave. They are north, but at the end of that month turned around all wonders of both the ancient and the modern and moved south. This continued up to the end of world. January when the movement toward the north Floating Gardens of Xochimilco, in Mexico. started again for a couple of months. At the same

When the Spaniards entered the central basin they time the tower was persistently moving eastward. were surprised by the sight of large, orderly arOf course, all these movements are microscopically ranged settlements in the midst of great felds of small."

blossoms intersected by canals along which a brisk Porcelain Tower of Nankin was built in that traffic was in progress. This landscape, fashioned ancient capital of South China in the early part by the Indians in the shallow lake of Xochimilco, of the 15th Century. It was an octagonal 8-story has persisted from the 13th Century until the prestower, 261 feet high. The Taiping revolutionists ent. Between the canals the Indians had built destroyed it in 1853.

small artificial islands known as chinampas, upon Angkor, a ruined temple city in Cambodia, in

which flowers and vegetables were grown. French Indo-China. Until 1907, 1t was in the prov- "Islands" were formed of rafts of decaying vegeince of Battambong, in Siam. Then it went to tation, reeds and roots, which were anchored by France, by treaty. The city was founded at the end thrusting quick-growing slips of Salix Bonplanof the Ninth Century by Yacovarman, king of the diana through them. The term "floating garden Khmers, and lasted until the middle of the Thir- is therefore incorrect, and the reports of earlier teenth Century when the Siamese drove them to travelers were based on a misconception.

The

Mount Vernon and the Tomb of Washington
Source: Officials of the Institution

The Mount Vernon mansion and surrounding Mount Vernon, on the west shore of the Potomac,

plantation was left to General Washington's nephew sixteen miles below Washington, is part of a large

Judge Bushrod Washington, and by him bequeathed tract of land in Northern Virginia which was orig

to his nephew John A. Washington, whose son, inally included in a royal grant made to Lord

John Augustine Washington, became the last Culpepper, who, in 1674, granted five thousand private owner of Mount Vernon. Two hundred acres to Nicholas Spencer and John Washington.

acres, including the Mansion and Tomb were acThe division between Spencer and Washington put quired (1859) by the Mount Vernon Ladies' AssoJohn Washington's son Lawrence in possession of clation of the Union, after both the government the Washington half in 1690. Later it became the

of the United States and the Commonwealth of property of Lawrence Washington's son Augustine, Virginia had declined to purchase the estate. This Lawrence Washington, elder half brother of ningham of South Carolina, is the oldest patriotic

Association, founded by Miss Ann Pamela CunGeorge Washington, is said to have built the orig-association of women in America. It is incorpoinal house (1743) and renamed the plantation rated under the laws of Virginia and holds Mount Mount Vernon, in honor of Admiral Vernon, under Vernon "in trust for the people of the United whom he had served in the West Indies. Lawrence states." Washington died in 1752 and two years later the

The Mansion and grounds are open to visitors title passed to George Washington.

every day during the year, including Sundays and To Mount Vernon (1759) George Washington holidays. took his wife, who was Martha Dandridge Custis,

The Association is pledged to restore the Mansion widow of Daniel

Parke Custis, and here he lived and its surroundings as far as possible to their the life of a southern planter during

the years appearance in Washington's time, and to preserve Vernon he went forth to become Commander-In: generations. The income derived from the entrance Chier of the revolutionary forces, and to Mount fee of 25 cents maintains the estate. The organVernon he returned (1783). At this time the

ization consists of a Regent and Vice Regents remodeling of the mansion, which had been planned representing the various states, who serve without before the Revolution, was completed. The build

remuneration. The present regent is Mrs. Horace ings, gardens and grounds were ,enlarged and Mann Towner, elected in 1937. developed in accordance with General Washington's General Washington wrote of Mount Vernon: own plans. The mansion and thirteen other build- "No estate in the United States is more pleasantly ings can still be seen today. and much of the situated than this. It lies in a high, dry and original furniture has been restored. From Mount healthy country, 300 miles by water from the sea, Vernon General Washington again went forth and on one of the finest rivers in the world (April 14, 1789) by highway, ferry and barge to be. I can truly say I had rather be at Mount Vernon come the first president of the United States, and with a friend or two about me than to be attended returned to it after eight years of service. Two at the seat of government by the officers of state years later, (1799) he died and was buried there. and the representatives of every power in Europe.

975

27

50

22

English Rulers

Source: Official Government Records Name

Acces. Died. Age Rgd SAXONS AND DANES Egbert.. Son of Ealhmund, of Kent, King of Wessex, founded Heptarchy. 827 839

12 Ethelwulf...Son of Egbert, defeated Danes, by sea and land.

839 858

19 Ethelbald... Second son of Ethelwulf..

858 860

2 Ethelbert... Third son of Ethelwulf..

858 866 Ethelred Fourth son of Ethelwull, killed by Danes in battle.

866 871 Alfred, G't. Fifth son of Ethelwulf, defeated the Danes, author.

871 901 Ed'ard, Eld. Son of Alfred the Great, fought the Danes..

901 925 55 Athelstan... Eldest son of Edward the Elder..

925 940

45 15 Edmund.. Brother of Athelstan, murdered by a freebooter

940 946 25 6 Edred.. Brother of Edmund.

946 955

32 9 Edwy Eldest son of Edmund, died of grief.

955 958 18 3 Edgar. Second son of Edmund, suppressed piracy....

958

32 17 Edward "The Martyr," Son of Edgar, drove out Oslac, the Earl, murdered 975 979 17 4 Ethelred II. The Unready, half-brother of Edward, massacred Danes..

979 1016 48 37 Edmund.. "Ironside," eldest son of Ethelred, fought Canute, "King of London" 1016 1016 C'n'te, Dane By conquest and election, divided country with Edmund.

1017 1035 40 Harold I... Harefoot, son of Canute, Arst ruled north of the Thames..

1035 1040 Hardicanute Son of Canute, had been Danish King, mother & Norman.

1040 1042 Edward.. The Confessor, son of Ethelred II, canonized...

1042 1066 62 Harold II... Brother-in-law of Edward the Confessor. slain in battle.

1066 1066 44 0 HOUSE OF NORMANDY William I... Obtained Crown by conquest over Harold, at Hastings..

1066 1087 60 21 William II.. Third son of William I, surnamed Rufus, killed by arrow,

1087 1100 43 13 Henry I..... Youngest son of William I, surnamed Beauclerc...

1100

1135 67 35 HOUSE OF BLOIS Stephen.... Third son of Stepben, Count of Blois, by Adela, fourth daughter of William I.....

1135 1154 50 19 HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET Henry II.. Son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, by Matilda, only daughter of Henry I. 1154 1189 56 35 Richard I... Eldest surviving son of Henry II, surnamed Coeur de Lion...

1189

1199 42 10 Joha... Sixth and youngest son of Henry II, surnamed Lackland..

1199 1216

17 Henry III ... Eldest son of John, first King buried at Westminster.

1216 1272 65 56 Edward I.... Eldest son of Henry III, surname Longshanks.

1272 1307 68 35 Edward II. Eldest survivlog

son of Edward 1; deposed by Parliament,Jan 7,1327. 1307 1327 43 20 Edward III.. Eldest son of Edward II of Carnarvon

1327 1377 65 50 Richard II. Son of Black Prince and grandson of Edward ili (deposed)

1377 1399

34 HOUSE OF LANCASTER Henry IV:. ... Son of John of Gaunt (Ghent), 4th son of Edward III.

1399 1413 47 13 Henry V. Eldest son of Henry IV, hero of Agincourt.

1413 1422 34 9 Henry VI.... Only son of Henry v. (deposed 1461), died in the Tower of London. 1422 1471

49 39 HOUSE OF YORK Edward IV.. His grandfather was Richard, son of Edmund, 5th son of Edward

III., and his grandmother, Ann, was great-granddaughter of
Lionel, third son of Edward III: Edward IV was 6 ft., 3 in. tall. 1461 1483

41 22 Edward V Eldest son of Edward IV. murdered in the Tower of London.

1483 1483 13 0 Richard III. ("Crookback") Brother of Edward IV, fell at Bosworth Field 1483 1485 35 2

HOUSE OF TUDOR
Henry VII... Son of Edmund, eldest son of Owen Tudor, by Katherine, widow of

Henry V.; his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was great-grand-
daughter of John of Gaunt.

1485 1509 53 24 Henry VIII.. Only surviving son of Henry VII.; 2 of his 6 queens were beheaded.: 1509 1547

56 38 Edward VI. son of Henry VIII., by Jane Seymour, his third queen...

1547 1553 16 6 Mary I. Daughter of Henry VIII., by Catharine of Aragon.

1553 1558 43 Elizabeth... Daughter of Henry VIII., by Anne Boleyn who was beheaded.

1558 1603 70
HOUSE OF STUART
James I..... Son of Mary Queen of Scots, granddaughter of James IV., and
Margaret, daughter of Henry VII......

1603 1625 59 22 Charles I.... JOnly surviving son of James I.; beheaded at London.

1625 1649

48 24 COMMONWEALTH DECLARED MAY 19, 1649 The Crom- Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector....

1653 1658 59 wells... Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, resigned May 25, 1659.

1658

1712 86 HOUSE OF STUART (RESTOŘED) Charles II... Eldest son of Charles I, died without Issue.

1660 1685 55 25 James II .... Second son of Charles I. (Deposed 1688. Interregnum Dec. 11, 1688, to Feb. 13, 1689).

1685
1701

68 William III. Son of William Prince of Orange, by Mary. daughter of Charles 1.1

1702 51

1689 and Mary II Eldest daughter of James II. and wife William III...,

1694 33 Anne...... Second daughter of James II. Her children died before her.....

1714 49 HOUSE OF HANOVER

1702 George I.... son of Elector of Hanover, by Sophia, daughter of Elizabeth daughter of James I.

1714 1727

67

13 George II... Only son of George I., married Caroline of Brandenburg:

1727 1760 77 33 George III. Grandson of George II., married Charlotte of Mecklenburg.

1760

1820 81 59 His son, George IV, was Prince Regent, from Feb., 1811, owing

to the mental condition of George III. George IV.. Eldest son of George III., married Caroline of Brunswick.

1820 1830 67 10 William IV.. Third son of George III., married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen.

1830 1837 71 7 Victoria. ....Daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III.. 1837 1901

63 HOUSE OF SAXE-COBURG Edward VII. Eldest son of Victoria, married Alexandra, Princess of Denmark.... 1901 1910 68 9

HOUSE OF WINDSOR
George V. Second son of Edward VII, married Princess Mary of Teck. .... 1910 1936 70 25
Edward vili Eldest son of George V, proclaimed,

never crowned: acceded, Jan.20
1936; abdicated under date of Dec, 11, 1936; later he was created
His Royal Highness, Duke of Windsor. He retired to the Continent
and, at Monts, France, married Mrs. Wallis Warfield, of Baltimore:
Md.. June 3, 1937; appointed Governor of the Bahamas, July, 1940. 1936

1 George VI... Next eldest son of George V., born Dec. 14, 1895; married, April 7,

1923, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon; acceded to throne, Dec.11:
crowned, May 12, 1937...

1936
The name of the Royal Family was changed to Windsor by a proclamation (July 17, 1917).

Lady Jane Grey, daughter of the Marquis of Dorset and wife of Lord Dudley, was named by Edward VI just before his death, as his successor to the crown; and she was proclaimed (July 10, 1563) Queen by the Council of State, the Council proclaimed (July 19) Mary as Queen. Lady Jane was seized, and she and her husband pleaded guilty to treason and were beheaded.

Naww ::

81

Rulers of Scotland

Source: Donald A. MacKenzie, Scottish historian
A.D.
A.D.
A.D.

A.D.
Pictish Dynasty 761 Brude VI.

878 Eochald.

1124 David I. 555 Brude I. 763 Kenneth. 889 Donald II.

1153 Malcolm IV. 584 Garnait I. 775 Alpin II.

900 Constantine II. 1165 William (the Lyon) 601 Nechtan I. 780 Drust III. 943 Malcolm I.

1214 Alexander II. 621 Kenneth I. 780 Talorcan II. 954 Indull.

1249 Alexander III. 633 Garnait II. 782 Talorcan III. 962 Dub (Du).

1286 Margaret. 637 Brude II. 784 Conall. 966 Culen.

1292 John Baliol. 642 Talorc. 789 Constantine. 971 Kenneth II.

1298 Sir W. Wallace, Reg 653 Talorcan I. 820 Angus II.

995 Constantine III. 1306 Robert I, the Bruce. 657 Garnalt III. 834 Drust IV. 997 Kenneth III.

1329 David II. 663 Drust I. 836 Eoganan. 1005 Malcolm II.

1370 Robert II. 672 Brude III. 839 Wrad. 1034 Duncan I.

1390 Robert III. 693 Terain, 842 Brude VII. 1040 Macbeth.

1406 James I. 697 Brude IV.

1057 Lulach.

1437 James II. 706 Nechtan II. Scottish Dynasty 1058 Malcolm III.

1460 James III. 724 Drust II.

843 Kenneth I (S.C. Mac-1093 Donald III. (Bain). 1488 James IV. 726 Alpin I. 858 Donald I. (Alpin). 1094 Duncan II.

1513 James V. 750 Brude V. 862 Constantine 1. 1097 Edgar

1542 Mary. 752|Angus I. (again). 877|Aed. 1107 Alexander I.

1567 James VI. The first royal Stuart was Robert II (1316-1390). He was called the "Steward," and was a son of Walter, the steward of Scotland by the latter's wife, Marjorie, daughter of King Robert the Bruce.

James VI of Scotland succeeded to the throne of England as James I and was crowned in 1603 Margaret (1286), the "Maiden of Norway," granddaughter of Alexander, was recognized by the States of Scotland although a female, an infant, and a foreigner. She died on her passage to Scotland. In the competition for the vacant throne. Edward I of England decided in favor of John Balliol.

Welsh Sovereigns and Princes

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Source: National Chronicles of the Country Independent Princess, A.D. 630 to 1292 Dafydd ap Llywelyn

1240 Cadwallawn, King of Gwynedd. 630 Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.

1246 Cadwaladyr, his son.

634 Idwal, son

661

English Princes, Since A.D. 1301 Rhodri, or Roderic.

728 Edward, b. 1284 (Edwd. II), cr. Pr. of Wales 1301 Cynan and Howel

755 Edward the Black Prince, s. of Edwd. III... 1343 Mervyn, son-in-law

818 Richard (Richard II), s. of the Black Prince 1376 Rhodri the Great, son 844 Henry of Monmouth (Henry V)

1399 Ansrawd, son of Rhodri 877 Edward of Westminster, son of Henry VI

1454 Hywel Dda, the Good 943 Edward of Westminster (Edward V)

1471 Iago ab Idwal (or Ieuaf) 948 Edward, son of Richard III (d. 1484)

1483 Hywel ab Ieuaf, the Bad 972 Arthur Tudor, son of Henry VII

1489 Cadwallon, his brother

984 Henry Tudor (Hen. VIII), s. of Henry VII 1503 Maredudd ab Owain ap Hywel Dda. 985 Henry Stuart, son of James I (d. 1612)

1610 Id ap Meyric ap Edwal Voel, 992 Charles Stuart (Charles I), s. of James I

1616 Aedan 998 Charles (Charles II), son of Charles I

1630 Llewelyn ap Sitsyhit

1015 James Francis Edward, "The

Old Pretender" Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig 1023 (d. 1766)

1688 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ap Seisyll

1039 George Augustus (Geo. II), s. of George i 1714 Bleddyn ap Cynfyn

1067 Frederick Lewis, s. of George II (d. 1751). 1729 Trahaern ap Caradog 1073 George William Frederick (George III)

1751 Gruffydd ap Cynan ab Iago 1079 George Augustus Frederick (George IV)

1762 Owain Gwynedd...

1137
Albert Edward (Edward VII)

1841 Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd 1169 George (George V)

1901 Llywelyn Fawr, the Great. 1194 Edward (installed July 13, 1911),

1910

[graphic]

Russian (Muscovy) Rulers

Source: Historical Records Dukes of Kiel (Kiev)–(850) Ruric or Rurik: Vasali-Chouiski; (1610) Ladislaus of Poland: (1613) (879) Oleg: (913) Igor 1; (945) Olga, his widow: Michael-Feodorovitz, of the house of Romanov,

esce ded from John III; (1645) Alexis, his son; (955) Swiatoslaw I; (973) Jaropalk I; (980) Vald

(1676) Feodor III; (1682) Ivan V, and Peter I. imir; (1015) Swiatopalk; (1018) Jaroslaf; (1054) Isiaslaf 1; (1073) Swiatoslaw II; (1078) Wsewolod brothers of Feodor III. 1; (1093) 'Swiatopalk II; (1113) Vladimir II; (1125) foregoing, since known as Peter the Great (took

Czars, or Emperors, of Russia-Peter I, the Mitislat; (1132) Jaropalk II; (1138) Wiatschelaw, the title of emperor in 1721); (founded the city of and Wsewolod II; (1146) Isiaslaf II, and Igor II; St. Petersburg, later called Petrograd, and, still (1153) Rotislaf; '(1149) Jurie, or George i, who later, Leningrad); (1725) Catherine, his widow: built Moscow.

(1727) Peter II, son of Alexis Petrovitz, and grandGrand Dukes of Vladimir--(1157) Andrew I: son of Peter the Great; deposed: (1730) Anne, (1175) Michael I; (1177). Wsewolod II; (1213) Duchess of Courland, daughter of the Czar Ivan Jurie, or George II; (1217) Constantine: (1238) (1740) Ivan VI, infant, grand-nephew of Peter the Jaraslai II, then his son; (1245) Alexander-Nevski: Great, kept in prison, murdered in 1764; (1741) (1263) Jaraslas III; (1270) Vasali, or Basil 1: Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great: (1762) (1275) Dmitri, or Demetrius 1; (1281) Andrew II; Peter III, son of Anne, deposed and succeeded by (1294) Daniel-Alexandrovitz; (1303) Jurie, or his consort, Catherine II, known as Catherine the George III, deposed: (1305) Michael III: (1320) Great, daughter of a Prussian general of high Vasall, or Basil II; (1325) Jurie or George III, rank; (1796) Paul, her son, murdered in 1801; restored; (1327) Alexander II.

(1810) Alexander I, son of Paul; (1825) Nicholas I. Grand' Dukes of Moscow-(1328) Ivan, or John brother of Alexander 1; (1855) Alexander II, son 1; (1340) Simeon; (1353) John II; (1359) Demetrius of Nicholas; assassinated; (1881) Alexander' in: ii, Prince of Susdal; (1362) Demetrius III, Don- (1894) Nicholas II, son of Alexander III. The czar skot; (1389)

Basil III, Temnoi; (1425) Basil'iv. and his family were assassinated in 1918. He had Czars of Muscovy-(1462) Ivan (Basilovitz), or abdicated in 1917, after the revolution of March 12. John III (took title of Czar, 1482); (1505) Basii v; The General Secretary of the Communist Party, (1533)

Ivan, the Terrible; (1584) Feodor, or Theo- Joseph Vissarionovitch Stalin, was chosen premier dor 1, and his son, Demetrius; (1598) Boris of Soviet Russia in 1941, just before the Germans Godonov, usurper; (1605) Feodor II; (1606) began the war against his country "to abolish Demetrius, impostor, a Polish monk, succeeded by Bolshevism."

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