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25 Mysteries of Life and Matter A gathering of college students was told recently 10. What is the nature of the atom, molecule by Charles F. Kettering, of the research labora- and the electron? tories of the General Motors Corporation, that

11. What are proteins, carbo-hydrates and fats?

12. What is the nature of hormones? there are 25 unanswered problems relating to life

13. What is the nature of vitamins? on this earth. They are as follows:

14. How to use farm products more effectively. 1. How to cure many diseases-colds, cancer, 15. What is mass or matter? ills of old age, etc.

16. How do catalysts work? 2. How plants fix sun's energy.

17. The what and why of solubility. 3. What is friction?

18. What is energ 4. What makes glass transparent, metals opaque? 19. What is the photo-electric effect? 5. How do fuels burn in an engine cylinder?

20. What can be done with chemiluminescence? 6. What is magnetism?

21. What is a lubricant and how does it work? 7. What is electricity?

22. What does & molecule look like? 8. What is fatigue of metals?

23. What are enzymes, viruses, etc.? 9. What is the nature of light and other electro- 24. How do our minds function? magnetic waves?

25. What is immunity to disease?

Rate of Speed of a Falling Body

Source: Aviation and Army Records The speed of a falling body is regulated by the the end of the nth second is given in feet by mulforce of gravitation. Theoretically, the drawing - tiplying the square of the time in seconds by 16. down power of the earth is modified by the pull

Thus at the end of the first second it has fallen of the moon and the sun.

16 feet, at the end of the second second 2 X 2 X 16 The experimental department at Wright Field of

= 64 feet, at the end of the third second 3 X 3 X 16

= 144 feet; at the end of the fifth, 5 X 5 X 16 = the Army Air Corps has stated that a man falling

400 feet. Conversely, to find the time in seconds to from any altitude with a ute ack attached fall any distance, divide the distance in feet by 16 never attains a velocity of greater than 118 miles and extract the square root; thus to fall a mile per hour and does not lose consciousness.

divide 5,280 by 16, which gives 330, and the square In the first second of its descent a body falls 16 root of 330 is a little over 18, the number of seconds feet; second second, 16 + 32 = 48 feet; third second, which is the vacuum time to fall & mile. Owing to 16 + 64 = 80 feet, fourth second, 16 + 96 = 112 feet; the resistance of the air, it takes about 19 seconds fifth second, 16 + 128 = 144 feet; nth second, 16 + 32 for a bomb to reach the earth when dropped from (n-1) feet. The total distance fallen by a body at an airplane a mile high.

The Dionne Quintuplets

The Dionne quintuplets--Emilie, Yvonne, Cecile, four guardians, including their father. The othMarie and Annette--were born to Mr. and Mrs. ers are Percy D. Wilson, official guardian for the Oliva Dionne (May 28, 1934) in Callander, Ontario, province of Ontario: Dr. Dafoe, and Judge J. A. Canada. Dr. Allan R. Dafoe, & country doctor, de- Valin. In their charge are the children's regimen, livered the babies all of whom were born within living conditions, entourage, consisting of nurses, a half hour in the log farm home of their par- guards and servants. and the administration of ents. The aggregate weight of the babies at birth the estate, estimated (1940) at $750,000. Through was 13 pounds 6 ounces but they have developed a business manager, Keith Munro, the guardians in weight until they are about 30 per cent heavier also negotiate the various commercial contracts than the average child of their age. Dr. Dafoe which bring the children additional income varyreports they have grown into normal, healthy ing from Ave to six figures in amount. children with all the likes and dislikes of any Premier Hepburn informed the father (Sept. 12, other child. The children enjoy good health and 1941) that the Ontario Government had accepted the only ailments to bother them have been colds. in principle" the suggestions of Dionne that the Their health improved after their tonsils and family be reunited under one roof. The quintuplets adenoids were removed by operation (1938).

have lived apart from their parents and seven By act of the Ontario legislature the quin- sisters and brothers since their birth. The Premier tuplets are wards of the Crown. Technically, un- indicated that the entire family would live together der this act, their affairs are run by a board of again as soon as a new home could be constructed.

SoundHow Far, How Fast, Does It Go? ?

Source: Scientific Records. On a day in Dec., 1933, a dynamite explosion set plosion by one of the "zones of silence" usually off on the Arctic Island of Nova Zembla was de- encountered in such experiments, a zone in which tected at Berlin, more than 2,000 miles away.

the noise is unheard although it is heard both Thunder, which is the loudest common noise,

closer to the explosion and farther away.

This also explains longer distance records, such never has been heard unmistakably more than

as the one from Nova Zembla. about 20 miles from the flash.

Such long-distance sound waves do not travel in Continual cannon fire has been heard 100 miles

the ordinary air close to the ground but in the rarer away and somewhat doubtfully as far as 300 miles. and less resistant air 50 or 60 miles up. These high

The landing of the great Siberian meteor, which level sound waves gradually bend downward again fell on June 30, 1908, was heard 400 miles away and toward the earth, so that they travel in a vast bowaffected weather instruments in Europe.

shaped curve. The world's loudest noise, the volcanic explosion "How far away was that flash of lightning?" is of the Island of Krakatoa in 1883, was heard by & common question. The answer is that sound human ears as far off as Bangkok, something more travels through hot summer air (100°) at 1.266 feet than 1,400 miles.

& second. In zero weather sound flies through dry At La Courtine in France, in 1924, tons of excess air at 1,088 to 1,150 feet a second. war munitions were exploded, under scientific con- Speed of sound (feet per second) in other me. trol and reports obtained from listeners and instru- diums-ice-cold vapor, 4,708; vapor at 60 degrees, ment stations in all directions over Europe. The 5,657; ice-cold water, 4,938; granite, 12,960; iron maximum distances unmistakably recorded in this (hot). 15,480 to 17,390: steel, cast, 16,360; wood instance were but little more than 200 miles.

(oak), 12,620; brick, 11,980; glass, 16,410 to 19,690; This distance was separated from the actual ex- clay rock, 11,420; gold, 5,717 to 6,890, silver, 8,658.

The Apostles' Creed

The English form of the Apostles' Creed, as now He descended into hell; the third day He rose again said in the Roman Catholic Church, is as follows: from the dead; He ascended into heaven; sitteth at

the right hand of God the Father Almighty: from "I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator

thence He shall come to judge the living and the of heaven and earth. And in Jesus Christ, His only

dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost; the Holy Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy

Catholic Church; the communion of saints; the Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried; I and life everlasting. Amen."

Important Tunnels of the World

Source: Railroad and Other Records
(Figures in parentheses show length and year completed or put in operation)
UNITED STATES

Taft-(8,750 ft.) In the Bitter Root Mountains. Alameda-Oakland, Calif.; vehicular, under Inner Constructed in 1908-1909 for the Chicago, MilHarbor, 4,500 ft.

waukee & Puget Sound Railroad. Baltimore, Md., railroad (Baltimore & Ohio)- Pittsburgh-Vehicular, under Mt. Washington,

Under Howard St., over 7,000 ft., 1894; (Penn- 5,889 ft., 1924. sylvania), under Hoffman St., 3,400 ft., 1871; St. Clair-Under St. Clair River from Sarnia, Ont., under Wilson St. 4,960 ft., 1873; under Win- to Port Huron, Mich., 2 miles; opened 1891. chester St., 2,190 ft., 1873.

Southern Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad Bitter Root Mountains, Mont.-Idaho, railroad, tunnels: Chatsworth Park, through Coast Range 10,100 ft.

Mountains, in Los Angeles County, Cal.. 1.4 Busk-Ivanhoe, Colo.-Originally railroad, but now miles; San Fernando, through Spur 1.32 miles; automobile highway, 9,600 ft., under Rocky Mts., Siskiyou, on Shasta Line, 3, 107.7

ft. long; began at Continental Divide.

operation Oct. 5, 1887; Shasta, 3,654.6 ft. long: Cascade, Wash.-Railroad (Great Northern), under operation began Sept.' 1, 1926 Norden, on the

Cascade Mts., 41,152 ft. (7.79 miles), straight as Ogden route, in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. a rifle bore, 1929.

between Norden and Eder, built on a tangent; Cumberland, Tenn.- Under Cumberland Mts. 8,000 10,325 feet long, opened to trafic on Oct. 15. 1925. ft.

Strawberry-Through the Wasatch Mountains. Detroit (1) railroad (Mich. Central), under De- Sutro-Drains the Comstock Lode in Nevada. 495

troit River to Windsor, Can., 2,668 ft. excl. miles; opened 1879. approaches, 1910; (2) vehicular, under Detroit

CANADA River, to 'Windsor, can., 2,200 ft. excl. ap- Connaught-Through Selkirk Mountains, under proaches, 1930.

Rogers. Pass, British Columbia; on Canadian Gallitzin-Railroad (Pennsylvania), under Alle- Pacific Railway, double track, five miles long,

gheny Mts. at Gallitzen, Pa., 3,600 ft., 1854; completed 1916. also a parallel tube, 3,600 ft., 1904; also new Spiral-The tunnels on the Canadian Pacific RailPortage Tunnels, 1,610 ft., 1855.

way, between Hector and Fields, B. C., conGunnison, Col.-Irrigation, 6 miles, 1909.

sist of two spiral tubes, the westerly, 3,255 feet Hoosac, Mass.--Railroad,' under Hoosac Mts., 434 long, under Cathedral Mountain; and the eastmiles, 1873.

erly, 2,921 feet long, under Mt. Ogden, with the Moffat, Colo.-Railroad (6.1 miles) (Denver & Salt Kicking Horse River between. Lake)-under James Peak, Rocky Mts., at Con

ENGLAND tinental, 1927. East end of tube is 9,198 ft. above Liverpool-Birkenhead Vehicular-Under the River sea level. The railway cut-off leading to the

Mersey. Opened by the King in 1934; bored tunnel was opened in June 1934. In driving the

through solid rock, distance from Old Haymarket, Railroad Tunnel the pioneer bore type of con

Liverpool, to Chester St., Birkenhead, 2.13 miles. struction was used. in which a small tunnel Blackwell-Under River Thames, England, 123 parallel to and 75 feet from the Railroad miles; opened 1897. Tunnel was driven simultaneously, with the

Severn-From Monmouthshire to Gloucestershire, heading in the Railroad Tunnel and used for

England, 416 miles; opened 1886. power lines, transportation, etc. When the Rail. Totley-374 miles. road Tunnel was completed the Pioneer Tunnel

CONTINENTAL EUROPE became available to Denver for use as a water

Alberg-Under the Alps at the Arl Mountains and tunnel.

extends from Langen to St. Anton, 694 miles: Mt. Roberts, Juneau, Alaska--13 miles.

opened 1884. New York City--Railroad, 3 (6 tubes) under Hud

Col des Montets-On the electric railway from son River, 10 (22 tubes) under East River, 2

Fayet, France, to the Swiss frontier; length. under the city, river to river, and 3 (6 tubes)

1882 meters (about 1 1/6 miles); opened in 1918. under Harlem River. Vehicular, 2 (3 tubes)

Loetschberg-Through the Alps, in under Hudson; under East River, 1 (2 tubes).

Oberland,

Switzerland, 47,685 feet; opened June 20, 1913, There are 118 miles of tunnel now in use in

costing nearly $10,000,000. the New York City water supply system. On the

Mont Cenis--Italy to France, under the Col de completion of the Delaware system this will be

Frejus, 42,150 feet, opened 1871. increased to 235 miles. The new Croton aqueduct

Mont d'or Between France and Switzerland, from Croton Lake to the 135th St. (Manhattan)

was bored through October 2, 1913. The tunnel gate house is 30°4 miles long, of which 2912 miles

pierces the Jura Mountains from Fresne to Valis tunnel, driven from 42 shafts and inclines

lorbe, and is 334 miles long. from 21 feet to 391 feet deep, and from six por

Nice-Cuneo--Under tals. The two longest tunnels are respectively 892

the Alps, opened for rail

traffic in 1928. There are 2 tunnels on the line: and 9 miles long. The maximum depth of tunnel is about 500 feet. Put in service in 1890.

one of 5,939 metres, at the Col de Braus; one of

3,888 metres under Mont Grazian. Shandaken tunnel of the Catskill water supply system carries the water of Schoharle creek under Samport--In the Pyrenees Mountains, from Pau. the Catskill mountains from the northerly side to

France, to Canfranc, in Spain; over 4 miles: the southerly side. It is 18 miles long. was driven

opened in 1928. from 1 portal and from 8 shafts from 260 to 647

St. Gothard-Through the Alps, connects Goschefeet deep. The maximum depth of the tunnel nen with Airolo, in Switzerland, 48,927 feet: below the surface is about 2,200 feet. Put in

begun in 1872, opened on May 27, 1882: cost, service in 1924. At the other end of the Catskill $23,800,000; now electrified. system, deep under the Boroughs of The Bronx, Simplon-Through the Alps, 64,971 feet; opened Manhattan, Queens and Brooklyn, there are two

1905; twin tunnel opened in 1921; electrified.

the distributing tunnels (called City Tunnels), which Wasserfluh-In Alps, between Bunnadern now distribute Catskill water and will distribute

and Lichtensteig, Switz., 2 miles, opened 1909. Delaware water to the different parts of the City.

Italy-Railway double-track tunnel under EtruCity Tunnel No. 1 is 18 miles long and from 15 scan Appennine Mountain range; length, 11.3 feet to 11 feet in diameter. It was driven from miles; begun in 1920, finished in 1930; cost 25 shafts and is from 200 feet to 750 feet deep, $100,000,000, including the other tunnels on the Connections to street mains are made through 22

61 miles of electrified railway connecting Bologna shafts. Put in service in 1917. City Tunnel No. 2 and Florence; dedicated in April, 1934; 98 workis 20 miles long. generally 17 feet in diameter, men lost their lives during construction, driven from 18 shafts and is generally 520 feet Vosges In France President Albert Lebrun forto 750 feet deep. Connections to street mains are mally opened, on Aug. 8, 1937, the Vosges Tunnel, made through 15 shafts, Put in service March which provides a new access to the recovered 31. 1936.

province of Alsace. The tunnel is nearly seven Franklin-Railroad, A. T. & S. F., (5600 ft.) miles long and was bored for approximately

opened 1900; 30 miles east of San Francisco. two miles through solid granite. It extends New Musconetcong--Railroad, Lehigh Valley, (4895 from Saint-Dle to Sainte-Maria-Aux-Mines. Es

ft.), near Pattenburg, N. J. Constructed 1926- 25 feet wide and 20 feet high and is equipped 1928.

with a single track. The maximum grade is 15 Bergen Hill-Rallroad, Delaware, Lackawanna & per cent. Western (4280 st.) in N. J.

Trans-Andine Ry. (South America) Tunnel---3.463 New Kingswood-Railroad, Baltimore & Onio, yards long, 10,512 feet above sea level and affords

(4211 ft.) In Allegheny Mountains, W. Va. direct communication between Valparaiso and Constructed in 1910.

Buenos Aires; opened April 5, 1910. Kennerdell--Railroad, Pennsylvania (3500 ft.), in Khojak Pass-India, Quetta to Landabar, 2 miles. Pennsylvania, constructed 1913-1915.

Otira-In New Zealand, 52 miles.

Fastest Scheduled Trains in the World
Source: The Railway Gazette, London, England. Figures are based on runs in Europe through 1938,

and in United States through Summer of 1940.
DIESEL TRACTION (over 72 m.p.h.)
FOREIGN

Dis-
Country Railway

Train
From

To

tance Time Speed Miles Min. m.p.

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[blocks in formation]

Fliegende Kolner Hamın.

Hanover
FDt 520..
Bielefeld.

Hamm.
Fliegende Kolner Berlin (200) Hanover
Fliegende Kolner Hanover. Hamm
FDt 520,.
Hanover,

Bielefeld
FDt 51.
Hanover

Berlin (Zoo)
FDt 52

Berlin (200). Hanover
FDt 584.
Halle,

Magdeburg.
FDt 45..

Berlin (Schles). Breslau ..
FDt 231
Bremen

Hanover
FDt 551 & 572 . Berlin (Anhalter) Leipzig.
FDt 583.
Magdeburg

Halle
FDt 45.

Breslau... Oppeln.
Fliegende Ham-

burger.. Berlin (Lehrter). Hamburg.
Fliegende Ham-
burger
Hamburg ...

Berlin (Lehrter)
FDt 45 do 46 Oppeln

Heydebreck
FDt 52 & 232 Hanover

Bremen
FDt 22 & 23. Berlin (Lehrter). Hamburg.
FDt 571..
Leipzig

Berlin (A'h'iter)
FDt 515 & 520.. Magdeburg Halle.
FDt 25 & 28... Berlin (Lehrter). Hamburg
FDt 46.
Breslau.

Berlin (Schles).
FDt 33
Halle.

Berlin (A'h'lter)
FDt 459..
Liegnitz

Breslau
FDt 33 & 49. Greiburg

Baden (Oos).
Fliegende Kolner Hanover.

Berlin (Zoo).

[blocks in formation]

:

[blocks in formation]

:::::::::::

178.2
25.8
76.0
178.2
102.1

53.5
178.2
204.7
100.4
40.5
64.0
157.9

76.4 76.3

80 42 140 161 79 32 51 126

76.2 76.2 75.9 75.3 75.2

UNITED STATES

US

39

Burlington.... Zephyr

East Dubuque.. Prairie du Chien
Union Pacific.. City of Denver.. Grand Island. Columbus
Burlington.. Zephyr

La Crosse. Prairie du Chien
Union Pacific.. City of Denver. North Platte Kearney
Santa Fe
Two trains La Junta

Dodge City
Union Pacific.. "City" Services. North Platte Grand Island
City of Denver.. Julesburg

North Platte,
Burlington... Denver Zephyr.. Aurora..

Galesburg
Zephyr ...

Pralrie du Chien. 'La Crosse
Santa Fe Super-Chief Dodge City Hutchinson.
Chicago & N.WİThe 400.

Evanston

Racine
Santa Fe. El Capitan. Dodge City La Junta.
Florida E. Coast Henry M. Flagler Cocoa Rockledge Titusville,
Burlington.. Zephyr... North La Crosse Miner..

Aurora

Oregon,
Santa Fe

El Capitan Dodge City Newton
Union Pacific.. City of Denver. Kearney..

North Platte.
Sterling

Julesburg
Kearney

Grand Island
Burlington.. Denver Zephyr. . Fort Morgan.. McCook

Denver..

Fort Morgan.
Hastings.

Lincoln
Chicago & N.W. The 400.

Milwaukee. Evanston.
Sante Fe. Super-Chief. Dodge City La Junta..
Union Pacifc, City of Denver.. La Salle.

Sterling
Burlington. Denver Zephyr.. McCook..

Oxford.
Rock Island... Rocket

Jollet ...

Ottawa.
Colby

Norton.
Union Pacinc City of Denver. Columnbus. Grand Island
Chicago & N.W. The 400

Wyeville.

Eau Claire.
Santa Fe.. Super-Chief. Newton.

Hutchinson

54.6 62.4 57.7 95.0 202.4 137.2

81.2 124.6

57.7 120.2

49.8 202.4

19.1 26.8 60.5 153.1 95.0 57.5 42.2 176.3 78.0 96.5 72.9 202.4 93.6 54.1 44.3 69.8 62.4 84.2 32.9

46 43 71 155 106 63 97 45 94 39 159 16 21 48 122 76 46 34 142 63 78 59 164 76 44 36 57 51 69 27

84.0 81.4 80.5 80.3 78.3 77.7 77.3 77.1 76.9 76.7 76.6 76.4 76.4 76.0 75.6 75.3 75.0 75.0 74.5 74.5 74.3 74.2 74.1 74.0 73.9 73.8 73.8 73.5 73.4 73.2 73.1

[blocks in formation]

UNITED STATES
Milwaukee Hiawatha. Sparta:
Hiawatha

New Lisbon
Chippewa.

Sturtevant..
Hiawatha. Portage.
Hiawaths

Portage.
Pennsylvania... Detroit Arrow. Englewood.
Milwaukee Hiawath&... New Lisbon.
Pennsylvania. . Detroit Arrow... Fort Wayne.
Juniata.

Plymouth.
N. Y. Central .20th Cent. Ltd. Elkhart.

23

Portage
Portage
Deerfield.
Watertown
Columbus
Fort Wayne
La Crosse
Englewood
Fort Wayne
Toledo...

78.3 43.1 37.9 46.9 28.2 140.9

59.8 140.9

81.0 78.4 75.8 74.1 73.6 73.5 73.2 72.9 72.6 72.5

115

49 116

64.1 133.0

53 110

[blocks in formation]

70.0

58.9

U.S.
Milwaukee.. Hiawatha
Wisconsin Dells. Mauston

19.2 16 72.0 Hiawatha. Deerfield.. Milwaukee

61.1 51 71.9
Hiawatha.
Chicago..
Milwaukee

85.0 71 71.8
Hiawatha.
Milwaukee, Portage

92.9 78 71.5 Pennsylvanla Liberty Ltd. Plymouth. Fort Wayne

64.1 54

71.2 N. Y. Central 20 Cent. Ltd Toledo

Elkhart

133.0 113

70.6 Illinois Central Daylight.. Kankakee. Gibson City

54.1 46 70.6 Pe ylvania.. Broadway Ltd. Englewood Fort Wayne 140.9 120 70.5 Milwaukee. Hiawatha. La Crosse, Sparta.

24.6 21 70.3 N. Y. Central .. Pacemaker. Elkhart.

Toledo.

133.0 114 Milwaukee.... CopperC'try Ltd. Western Avenue. Deerfield .

21.0 18

70.0 Pennsylvania.. Golden Arrow Plymouth, Fort Wayne. 64.1 55 69.9 Milwaukee... Hiawatha. Portage.

New Lisbon

43.1 37 69.9 Chicago & E. ni. Zipper.

Villa Grove Chicago Heights 118.5 102 69.7
Seashore...
Cruiser
Absecon.
Haddonfeld

45.3 39 69.7 Pennsylvania Trail Blazer Gary

Plymouth

51 69.3 N. Y. Central.. New Eng. States Toledo.

Elkhart.

133.0 116 68.8 Seashore... Boardwalk Flyer Broadway

Atlantic City 57.3 50 68.8 Pennsylvania. Broadway Ltd., Fort Wayne. Englewood

140.9 123 68.7 Trail Blazer.. Plymouth

Fort Wayne 64.1 56 68.7
Chicago & E. III. Daylight. Farmer City Gibson City. 20.6 18 68.7
Reading ...
Crusader.
West Trenton Jenkintown.

21.7 19 68.5 N. Y. Central. Two trainst. Elkhart

Toledo..

133.0 117 68.2 Big Four.. N. Y. Express. Granite City Hillsboro.

48.9 43 68.2 Milwaukee. Hiawatha.. Winona.

Red Wing..

62.4 55 68.1 Pennsylvania. Golden Arrow Gary..

Plymouth

58.9 52 68.0 Milwaukee. Hiawatha

Chicago.
Milwaukee

85.0 75 68.0 Hiawatha. Portage.

Milwaukee

92.9 82 68.0 No. 27. Western Avenue. Sturtevant. 58.9

52 68.0 ELECTRIC TRACTION (over 68 m.p.h.)

FOREIGN
Italy
State.
R 527
Rome..

Naples
(Mergellina).. 130.5 108

72.5 R 525 & 527 Milan.

Bologna.

135.6 113 72.0 R 525... Rome..

Naples

(Mergellina). 130.5 109 71.8 R 528..

Naples
(Mergellina). Rome..

130.5

71.2 R 524 & 528. Bologna

Milan.

135.6 114

70.8 R 524 & 528.. Florence..

Bologna.

60.2 51

70.8 R 524

Naples
(Mergellina). Rome

130.5 111 70.5 France. National (8.W.) Sud Express. Poitiers.

Angouleme

70.1 60 70.1 Italy State R 525 & 527. Bologna.

Florence.

60.2 52 69.4
UNITED STATES
US
C.S.S. & S.B... One run

Davis
Lake Park.

14.3 12 71.5 Pennsylvania... Congressional, N. Philadelphia. Newark.

76.0 64

71.3 No. 403. Newark (Del.).. Baltimore

56.4 48 70.5 Three trainsi. Newark

N. Philadelphia. 76.0 6.5 70.2 East Wind. N. Philadelphia. . Trenton.

27.9 24 69.8 Two trains Baltimore. Wilmington. 68.4 59 69.6 Broadway Ltd.. Newark

X. Philadelphia 76.0 66

69.1 Sea Plane Trenton..

Elizabeth..

42.6 37 69.1 Two trains Newark

Trenton.

48.1 42 68.7 Seven runs Baltimore.

Wilmington

68.4 60 68.4 Two trains Newark .. N Philadelphia 76.0 67 68.1 *Sper-Chief and El Capitan. Commodore Vanderbilt and New England States. * Broadway Limited, Congressional and St. Louisan. $Congressional and East Wind. Il East Wind and No. 206. Senator ana No. 202.

Some Fast Railway Runs in the U. S.

Source:
World Almanac questionnaire

Time. M.P.
Date
Railroad

Run

Miles H. M. S. Hour

110

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May 1893 N Y Central & H. R.
Crittenden-Empire State Exp." 1

32 112.5 Aug, 1895 Pennsylvania.

Landover--Anacosta.

5.1

3 102 Mar, 1902 Burlington Route

Eckley- Wray

14.8

98.7 Jan. 1903 N Y Central & H. R.

Palmyra Macedon.

7.29

109.35 April, 1904 Michigan Central

Crisman Lake.

2.73

105 July, 1904 Ph.ladelphia & Reading

Egg Harbor Brigantine Junction, 4.8 2 30 115.20 July, 1904 Great Western (England)

Paddington-Bristor.

118.5 1 24 84.6 Oct., 1904 N. Y. Central & HR.

Croton-Ossining.

3.51 2 105 Apr11.1911 20th Century Ltd.," on L. Shore Toledo-Fikhart.

133 1 46 75.28 April, 1927 Florida East Coast.

Miami --St. Augustine,

310 5 8 60.4 June, 1927 Pennsylvania Washington, D. C.--N. Y, City. 224.5 3 7

72.0 Jan, 1928 New York (Central Special. Granite City, mu.-Berea. O. 536.1 8 29

67.3 May, 1932 London & North Eastern

Grantham-London.

105.50 1 40 63.3 June, 1932 Great Western (England)

Swindon London

77 25 56 47 81.6 May, 1934 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. Denver

--Chicago (non-stop) 1015.31 13 5 44 77.6 July, 1934 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. Chicago-Milwaukee

85.0 1 7 35 75.46 July, 1934 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul.. Edgebrook --Oakwood.

61.4 39 46 92.62 Oct., 1934 Union Pacific,

Dix-Potter--Nebraska.

9

4 301 120 Oct, 1934 Union Pacific-C. & N. W.

Los Angeles Chicago.

2287 38 52 58.8 Oct. 1934 Union Pacife.

Cheyenne-Omaha

507 6 00 84 Jan., 1936 Pennsylvania.

Philadelphia--Washington

134 1 50 73.1 Jan. 1935 Pennsylvania,

Wilmington- No. Pt., Md.

61.6 45 09 80.8 April, 1935 N. Y., N. H. & H. (New Haven).. New Haven-Boston..

156.8 2 23 65 78 April, 1935 N. Y. N. H. and H,

Providence- Boston.

43.8 32 35 86.65 Oct., 1936 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Chicago-Denver.

1017.23 12 12 27 83.3 May 1937 | Santa Fe.

Chicago-Los Angeles, Calil

2228.6 34 52 63.9 May 1937 Santa Fe LaJunta, Col.-Dodge City, Kas 202,4 2 19

87.3 Nov. 1939 Chicago, Rock Island and Pacifc. Rock Island, 111 -Chicago.

181 2 55 65.5

Great Inventions
Source: Historical and Scientific Records

AMERICAN
Inventor Date

Invention

Invention

Inventor

Date

ing:

Lightning rod.

Franklin
1752 Engraving, hall-tone. Ives

1893 Submarine, torpedo

Bushnell
1776 Motion picture machine. Edison.

1893 Steamboat.

Fitch.
1787 Submarine, even keel

Lake

1894 Cotton gin..

Whitney
1793 Automobile, gasoline. Selden,

1895 Steamboat

Fulton.
1793 Airplane, experimental. Langley

1896 Carding machine

Whittemore
1797 Plow, disk.

Hardy

1896 Plow, cast iron..

Newbold.

1797 oil flotation for ore extractEngine, steam, high-pres

Elmore.

1899 sure

Evans

1799 Steel alloy, high-speed Taylor & White, 1901 Propeller, screw.

Stevens
1804 Radio broadcaster..

Stubblefield.. 1902 Paper, machine (cylinder)

Telephone, radio..

Poulsen and for making Dickinson, John 1809

Tessenden. 1902 Magnet, electro.

Henry

1828 Airplane, motor-driven. ....Wright Bros.. Mowing machine.

Manning.
1831

Orville, Wilbur 1903 Telegraph, magnetic. Morse

1832 Automatic Acceleration of Reaper .. Schnebleyrallway motors

Westinghouse, G. 1904 Hussey

1833

Gyroscope com pass and
Pistol (revolver)

Colt
1835 stabilizer ...

Sperry

1905 Harvester..

Moore
1836 Radio vacuum tube.

de Forest.

1907 Match, phosphorus. Phillips

1836
Lens, fused bifocal.

Borsch.

1908 Rubber, vulcanized. Goodyear 1839 Alrplane, hydro..... Curtiss.

1911 Ether, use as an anaesthetic Long

1842 Electric filter (telephone). Campbell 1911 Lathe, turret.

Fitch
1845 Lamp, mercury vapor..

Hewitt

1912 Tire, pneumatic.

Thompson.
1845 Tungsten, ductile.

Coolidge

1912 Printing press, rotary

Hoe.
1846 Gasoline, cracked.

Burton, W.M. 1913 Sewing machine.

Howe.

1846 Radio receiver, heterodyne Fessenden. 1913 Pin, safety ....

Hunt

1849 Tungsten (drawn) flament Turbine, hydraulic.

Francis
1849 lamp

Coolidge

1913 Engine, electric (locomot.) Vall.

1851 Bomb, depth..

Tait..

1916 Elevator, with brake. Otis

1852

Gas Alled incandescent Collar, paper.

Hunt.

1854
lamp.

Langmuir

1916 Steel ...

Kelly
1857 X-ray tube

Coolidge

1916 Shoe-sewing machine.. McKay

1860 Airplane, autogyro

de la Cierva. 1920 Machine gun.

Gatling

1861 Condenser microphone Monitor, warship

Eric SOD

1861
(telephone)

Wente....

1920 Motion picture projector .. Sellery

1861

Voice reinforcement (tele
Printing press, web. Bullock

1865
phone)

Maxfield

1920 Paper, Irom wood pulp, sul

Lacquers, nitro cellulose. Flaherty

1921 fite process

Tilghman. 1866 Gasoline, anti-knock (lead Block signals, railway. Hall

1867 ethyl)

Midgely.

1922 Paper, sulfte process.

Tilghman

1867

Bromine, froin sea water... Edgar and
Mower, lawn..

Huls.
1868

Kramer.. 1924 Refrigerator car, rallway. David.

1868 Lens, achromatic fused blTypewriter. Sholes & Glidden 1868 focal..

Drescher

1924 Air brake. Westinghouse.. 1869 Orthophonic phonograph. Harrison

1924 Celluloid.

Hyatt.

1870
Vitamin D, by irradiation Steenbock.

1924 ('ar couppler

Janney

1873
Circuit breaker (oil blast).. Hilliard

1925 Telegraph, quadruplex. Edison

1874 Engine, gas, compound. Eickemeyer. 1926 ('oal gas (water).

Lowe
1875 Permalloy (telephone) Elman

1926 Telephone

Bell

1876
Dynamic loudspeaker.

1927 Talking machine.

Edison

1877

Color photography, CONWelding, electric.

Thomson.

1877

trolled penetration process Manpes and Lamp, incandescent.

Edison.
1878

Godowsky.. 1928 Lamp, arc.

Brush

1879 Nylon (fiber-forming synPen, fountain.. Waterinan. 1884

thetic polyamides .... Carothers.. 1930 Pen, fountain.

Wirt.

1885 Refrigerants, low bolling Trolley car, electric. Van Depoele

fluorine compounds...... Midgely and and Sprague. 1884-87

Co-workers. ... 1930 Aluminum, electrolytic pro

Rubber (neoprene) chlorocess

Hall..

1885
prene ...

Carothers and
Linotype.

Mergenthaler..
1885

Collins.... 1930 Transformer, A. C.

Stanley

1885
Dynamic loudspeaker. Kellogg

1931 Monotype.

Lanston.

1887

High-capacity A. C. Railway Motor, split-phase induc

motors

Jungk.

1933 tion ....

Tesla

1887

A. C. recelving tubes (radio) Freeman and
Adding machine.

Burroughs.
1888

Wade

1933 Calcium carbide.

Willson
1888 Pushbutton elevator.... Kinnard.

1934 Photo film, transparent Eastman

Television

Zworykin, V. K. 1934 Goodwin.

1888 Glasy seal for electric disMeter, Induction.. Shallenberger. 1888 charge tubes.

Scott.....

1936 Silicon carbide

Acheson.

1891 Terrain clearance indicator Steel alloy

Harvey

1891
(telephone)

Espenschied 1936 Automobile, gasoline. Duryea, C.E. 1892 Feedback amplifier (telep.) Black.

1937 Motor, A.C

Teyla..

1892 Bell's fundamental telephone patent, No. 174, 465. I between Baltimore and Washington, May 24, 1844.

"What hath God wrought." for an "improvement in telegraphy' was issued to

Prof. Joseph Henry of Princeton University said him on March 7, 1876. It is the one referred to in

he, Henry, invented the electro-magnetic telegraph, the American table above.

when at the Albany Academy, in 1330. According to the Georgia Legislature, Dr. Craw

In July, 1786, John Fitch moved a small skiff ford W. Long of that state discovered ether as an

by steam on the Delaware River at Philadelhpia. anaesthetic in 1842. A bust of Dr. W. T. Morton, The engine had a 3-inch cylinder which moved a a Boston dentist, is in the Hall of Fame, N. Y. screwpaddle--an endless chain with paddles fixed University, as the pioneer In the use of ether as on it and placed on the sides of the boat. Later an anaesthetic. This was in 1846.

Fitch tried oars in the sides of the skiff which were The Arst patent to S. F. B. Morse was issued moved by cranks and beams. This gave a speed of June 20. 1840, for Telegraph Signs. First testing 7 miles an hour. In 1788 he got a patent. In Aug. of his apparatus was made in 1835. In Sept., 1837, 1787 he gave a trial of a boat at Philadelphia with he exhibited the telegraph at New York University a 12-inch cylinder engine and with 6 oars working to visitors; in Oct., 1837, he filed his caveat at the perpendicularly on each side of his new 45-ft. boat Patent Office; first message sent over 10 miles of which had a 12-ft. beam. In 1796 on Collect Pond. wire at New York University, Jan. 24, 1838. "Atten- N. Y. City he exhibited a yawl which had a screw tion the Universe! By Kingdoms Right Wheel!" propeller at the stern. The experiments were then The Arst public message was sent over the line | under the patronage of Robert R. Livingston.

Rico..

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