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The Merchant Fleets of the World
Source: Lloyd's Register of Shipping; figures cover vessels of 100 tons or over
On
INo. of Gross On No. of

Gross

On No. of Gross On No. of Gross July 1 Ships Tonnage | July 1 Ships Tonnage July 1 Ships Tonnagel July 1 Ships Tonnage 1892. 31,983/23,672,698|1904. 29,283/34,786,1321916... 30,167 48,683,136|1928 32,408 66,954,659 1893. 31,92624,236,865||1905 129,750135.998,1801917.

1929

32,482 68,074.312 1894 30,640 24,547,597||1906 30,087 37,550,477 1918

1930 32,713 69,607,644 1895 30,288 25.086,199||1907 30.19739,435,788|1919. 29,255 50,919,273||1931 32,34465,641,035 1896 29.80125,593,186|1908 30,524 40,920,551 1920... 31,595 57,314,065|1932. 32,247|69,734,310 1897 28,280 25,889,0441909. 30,536 41,447,8251921. 33,206 61,974,653||1933. 31,700 67,920,185 1898. 27.982 26.543,3601910...30.053 41,912,520 1922. 33,935 64,370,786||1934. 30,997 65,576,612 1899. 27,816 27,613,851 1911...30.082 43, 144,9091923... 33,50765, 166, 238 1935...30,979 64,885,972 1900 27,840 28,957,358||1912. 30,31644,600,677|1924. |32, 956 64,023,567| 1936 30,923 65,063,643 1901 28,209 30,479,971|1913 30.691 46,970,1131925... 32,916 64,641,418||1937 29,52465,271,440 1902. 28,63032, 302,412 1914. 30,836 49,089,5521926... 32,615 64,784,370|1938...29, 409 66,870, 151 1903 (28.90133,501,855 1915. 30.720/49,261,769/1927. 132, 175/65,192,910||1939. 29.76368,509,432

GROSS TONNAGE OF MERCHANT FLEETS OF CHIEF NATIONS On July 1 U.S. Gr. Brit. Germany France Japan Norway Holland Italy Belgium

Tons Tons Tons Tons Tons Tons Tons Tons Tons 1915

8,389,429 19,541,368 4,706,027 2,285,728 1,826 068 2,529,188 1,522,547 1,736,545 276,427 1916

8,469,649|19,134,857 4,151,552 2,216,643 1,847,453 2.771,022 1,508,9161,896,534 272,160 1917

8,871,037 19,637,418 3,156,008 2,152,524 2,059,601 2,307,164 1,552,382 1,757,605 233,606 1918

9,924,518/21,035, 149 3,225,294 2,029,884 2,299,405 1,806,5761,288,245 1,283,790 193,538 1919

12,907,300 16,555,471 3,503,380 2,233,631 2,325,266 1,857,829 1,591,911 1,370,097 313,276 1920.

16,324,024 18.330,424 672,671 3,245,194 2,995,878 2,114,190 1,848,348 2,406,958 464,659 1921

17,026,002 19,571,554 717,4503,652,249|3,354,8062,584,058/2,225,787 2,650,673 551,031 19:2

16,986,196 19,295,637 1,887,408 3,845,792 3,586,9182,600,861 2,632,7132,866,335 1923

16,952,018 19,281,549 2,590,073 3,737,2443,604,147 2,561,91212,625,741 3,033, 742 605,050 1924

15,956,967 19,105,8382,953,6713,498,233 3,842,7072,305,393 2,556,4172,832,212 560,597 1925

16,377,480 19,440,7113,073,7133,511,984 3,919,807 2,680,642 2,600,8313,028,661 542,583 190.

14,797,717, 19,399 797 3,110,918 3,490,6063,967,617/2.841,905 2,564,904 3,240,630 507,473 1927

14,585,300 19,309,022 3,363,046 3,469,980 4.033,304 2,824,225 2,654,003 3,483,383 499,229 1928

14,537,958 19,875,350 3,777,251 3,344, 465 4 139.815 2,968,207 2,8 16,705 3,428,817 492,609 19.9

14,377,114 20,166,331 4,092,552 3,378,663 4,186,662 3.224,493 2.939,067 3,284,660 529,043 1930.

13,946.846 20,438,444 4,229,235 3,530,879 4,316,804 3,668,289 3.086,315 3,331,226 553,037 1931

13,642,183 23,379,999 4,254.601 3,566,227 4,276,341 4,065,506 3,118.170 3,335,673 547,470 1932

13,546,620 22,784,383 4,164,842 3,557,006 4,255,014 4,166,839 2,963,840 3,390,572 537,442 1933

13,357 799 21,819,687 3,901,274 3,512,219 4,258, 159 4,079,540 2.765,457 3,149,807 456,207 1934

13,045,037 20,841,218 3,690,990 3,298,063 4,072,707 3,981,354 2,618,016 2,928,396 414,655 1935

12,852,250 20,510,9213,703,662 3,025,136 4,085,650 3,967,972 2.558,383 2,884,406 402,221 1936

12,556,563 20,385,138 3,718,417 3,002,455 4,215,690 4,054,485 2,511,281 3.098.159 388,413 1937

11,788,272 20,398,157 3,927,916 2,843,688 4,475, 1104,346,782 2,630.802 3,174,089 420.454 1938

11,515,258 20,719,090 4.231,657 2.280,783 5,006,712 4.613,175 2,852,012 3,258,992 430,624 1939

11,470,177 21.001,925 4,482,662)2,933,933 5,629,8454,833,813 2,969,578 3,424,804 408,418

MERCHANT VESSELS LAUNCHED, BY COUNTRIES, 1920-1938

United Kingd. Dominions Denmark France Germany Holland
Year
No. Tons No. Tons No. Tons

No.
Tons No. Tons No.

Tons 1920 618 2,065,624 109 203,644 30 60,669 50 93,449

99 183,149 1921

426 1,538,052 54 129,675 37 77,238 65 210,663 242 509,064 98 232,402 1922

235 1,031,081 39 62,765 23 41,016 62 184,509 195 575,264 60 163,132 1923

645,651 44 41,263 24 49,479 27 96,644 109 345,062 35 65,632 1924

494 1,439,885 31 44,879 33 63,937 26 79,685 108 175,113 41 63,627 1925

342 1,084,633 51 46,078 21 73,268 35 75,569 121 406,374 47 78,823 1926

197 639,568 42 33,678 25 72,108 34 121,342 60 180,548 47 73.671 1927

371 1,225,873 29 30,250 20 72,038 22, 44,335 105 289.622 68 119,790 1928

420 1,445,929 48) 23,693 31 138,712 201 81,416 81 376,416 74 166,754 1929

489 1,522,623 501 33,141 34 111,496 161 81,607 85 249,077 77 186,517 1930

481/1,478,563 79 43,750 38 137,230 18 100,917 92 245,557 74153,072 1931

148 502,487 31 13,612 30 125,974) 22 103,419 58 103,934 99 120,296 1932

100 187,794 16 4,760 181 22,413 23 89,310 15 80,799 30 26,232 1933

108 133,115 20 12,958 19 34,016 29 34,073 43 42,195 25 35,899 1934.

173 459,877 16 9,112 21 61,729 10 15,950 57 73,733 31 46,905 1935.

185 499,011 30 11,191 33 122,095 101 42,873 78 226,343 481 57.133 1936

328 856,259 25 6,239 35 97,537 17 39,208 161 379,981 69 93.831 1937

309 920,822 38 13,880 26 131,411 9 26,544 174 435.606 112183,509 1938. 234 764,307 161 13.295 15 97,338 15

18/151,654 711 186,547 Italy Japan Norway Sweden United States Oth's Co's. World Total Year

No. Tons No. Tons No. 1 Tons No. Tons No. Tons No. Tons No. Tons 1917 11 38,906 104 350,141 44 46,103 34 26,760 326 997,919 27 32,538 1,112/2,937,786 1918

15 60,791 198 489,924 51 47.723 36 39,583 929/3,033,030 40 34,478 1,866 5,447.444 1919. 32 82,713 133 611,883 82 57,578 53 50,971 1,051 4,075,385 77 79,364 2,483 7,144,549 1920

82 133,190 140 456,642 30 38,855 46 63,823 509 2,474,253 52 96,368 1,759 5,861.666 1921 85 164,748 43 227,425 35 61.458 27

65,911 173 1,006,413 92 128,630 1.377 4,341.679 1922 42 101,177 49 83,419 23 32,291 14 30,038 591 119,138 59 92,589 8522,467,084 1923 21 66,523 44 72,475 48 42,619 10] 20.118 83 172,817 34 24,898 701 1,643,181 1924 19 82,526 31 72,757 34 25,139 12 31,211 79 139,463 16 29,529 924 2,247,751 1925. 31 142,046 231 55.784 48 28.805 171 53.750 101 128,776 18 19.498 855 2,193,404 1926 27 220,021 26 52 405 251 9,237 14 53,518 78 150,613 25 48,268 600 1,674,977 1927 25 101,076 1942,359 12 5,363 18/ 67,361 66 179,218 47 108,394 802 2,285,679 1928

29 58,640 37|103,663 12 10,401 20 106,912 63 91,357 34) 95.3551 8692.699,239 1929 32 71,497 40 164,457 51 39,604 29 107,246 63 126,063 46 99,882 1,012 2.793,210 1930 36 87,709 37 151,272 53 53,843 31 131.781 100 346,687 45 59,091 1.084 2,889,472 1931

33165,048 42 83,721 20 18,163 20 112,703 57 205,865 35 61,893 596 1,617,115 1932

8 47,441 44 54,422 811,129 12 43,000 18 143,559 15 15,732 307 726,591 1933 3 16,560 30 74,290 7 9,718 14 60.860 141 10,771 18 24,561 330

489.016 1934

6 26,638 165 152,420 12 18,857 12 49,542 21 25,625 22 28,031 536 967.419 1935

4 22,667 177 145,914 23 25,716 22 105,538 14 32,607 25 11.084 649|1,302,080 1936

7 11,345| 180294,861 33/33,162 33 154,044 69 111,885 42 39.576 999 2,117,924 1937 6 21.918 180 451,121 38 41,993 38 161.008

239,445 48 63,323 1,101 2.690,580 1938

5 35,056 15 31 621 411,334 24 115,678) 16 76.3331 201 24,300 444/1,545,196 - The United States Maritme Commission states that there are no later data.

.

222

123

Principal Rivers of the United States

Source: U. S. Geological Survey, Army Engineer, and Weather Bureau records.
River

Source

Outflow

Miles Alabama

Junction of Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers,
Elmore County, Ala...

Mobile River..

315 Allegheny Potter County, Pa..

Ohio River...

325 Altamaha

Junction of Oconee and Ocmulgee Rivers,
Montgomery County, Ga.

Atlantic Ocean

137 Altamaha-Ocmulgee...

Junction of Yellow and South Rivers,
Newton County, Ga..

Atlantic Ocean.

392 Androscoggin.. Umbagog Lake, Maine.

Atlantic Ocean.

171 Apalachicola,

Junction of Flint and Chattahoochee
Rivers, Seminole County, Ga.

Gulf of Mexico.

90 A palachicola-Chattahoochee.. Towns County, Ga.

Gulf of Mexico.

500 Arkansas. Lake County, Colo

Mississippi River.

1.450 Big Black (Miss.). Webster County, Miss

Mississippi River.

330 Big Horn.

Junction of wind and Popo Agle Rivers,
Fremont County. Wyo

Yellowstone River .. 336 Black (Mo.-Ark.).

Junction of East and West Forks, Rey-
nolds County, Mo....

White River..

280 Black Warrior.

Junction of Locust and Mulberry Forks,
Jefferson County, Ala.

Tombigbee River...

178 Brazos...

Junction of Salt and Double Mountain
Forks, Stonewall County, Tex.

Gulf of Mexico..

870 Canadian Colfax County, N. Mex.

Arkansas River.

906 Cape Fear.

Junction of Haw and Deep Rivers,
Chatham County, N. C..

Atlantic Ocean.

202 Cedar (Iowa) Dodge County, Minn

Iowa River.

329 Cheyenne

Junction of South Fork and Beaver Creek,
Fall River County, S. Dak..

Missouri River..

290 Chippewa...

Junction of East and West Forks, Sawyer
County, Wis..

Mississippi River.

183 Cimarron Colfax County, N. Mex.

Arkansas River.

600 Clark Fork (Mont.-idaho). Silver Bow County, Mont.

Columbia River

505 Colorado (Ariz.) Rocky Mountain National Park, Colo. Ariz.-Sonora Bd. line

1,360 Colorado (Texas). Dawson County, Texas..

Matagorda Bay,

840 Columbia Columbia Lake, British Columbia

Pacific Ocean.

1,214 Columbla, Upper Columbia Lake, British Columbia

To mouth of Snake Riv.

890 Connecticut. Third Connecticut Lake, N. H..

Long Island Sound

407 Coosa..

Junction of Etowah and Oostanaula
Rivers, Floyd County, Ga.

Alabaina River ...

286 Cumberland.

Junction of Poor and Clover Forks, Har-
lan County, Ky..

Ohio River.

687 Delaware...

Junction of East and West Branches, at Deepwater Point on
Hancock, N. Y

Delaware Bay

296 Deschutes. Lava Lake, Deschutes County, Oreg.

Columbia River.

250 Des Moines

Junction of East and West Forks, Hum-
boldt County, Iowa...

Mississippi River.

327 Dolores.. Dolores County, Colo..

Colorado River,

230 Flint....

Junction of Mud and Camp Creeks, Fay-
ette County, Ga

Apalachicola River

265 For (Wis.) Columbia County, Wis.

Green Bay..

175 French Broad..

Junction of North and West Forks, Tran-
sylvania County, N. C.

Tennessee River

210 Genesee. Potter County, Pa..

Lake Ontario.

144 Gila. Catron County. N. Mex.

Colorado River

630 Grand (Mich.). Jackson County, Mich.

Lake Michigan.

260 Green (Ky.). Lincoln County, Ky.

Ohio River

360 Green (Utah-Wyo.)

Junction of Wells and Trail Creeks, Sub-
lette County, Wyo.

Colorado River

730 Gunnison...

Junction of Taylor and East Rivers, Gun-
nison County, Colo..

Colorado River.

150 Holston....

Junction of North and South Forks, Sul-
livan County, Tenn

Tennessee.

140 Housatonic Town of Washington, Mass.

Long Island Sound. 148 Hudson

Henderson Lake, Essex County, N. Y. Upper New York Bay 306 Humboldt. Mouth of Bishop Creek. Elko Co., Nev Humboldt Siuk...

290 Illinois.

Junction of Kankakee and Des Plaines
Rivers, Grundy County, Ill. ...

Mississippi River. 273 lowa ......

Junction of East and West Branches,
Wright County, la...

Mississippi River

291 James (N. Dak.-S. Dak.) Wells County, North Dakota

Missouri River ..

710 James (Va.).

Junction of Jackson and Cowpasture
Rivers, Botetourt County, Va.

Hampton Roads..

340 Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Source of Red Rock River in Beaverhead Rock.. County, Mont...

Missouri River.

248 John Day. Blue Mountains, Grant County, Oreg. Columbia River.

281 Kanawha.

Junction of New and Gauley Rivers, Fay-
ette County, W. Va.

Ohio River

97 Kanawha-New..

Junction of North and South Forks of
New River, Ashe County, N. C.... Ohio River.

352 Kansas.

Junction of Smoky Hill and Republican
Rivers, Geary County, Kans..

Missouri River.

169 Kennebec. Moosehead Lake, Maine

Atlantic Ocean

164 Kentucky

Junction of North and Middle Forks, Lee
County, Ky..

Ohio River...

259 Klamath.. Lake Ewauna, Klamath Falls, Oreg. Pacific Ocean.

250 Little Colorado Latitude 34°, Apache County, Ariz.

Colorado River

300 Little Missouri, Crook County, Wyo..

Missouri River.

560 Merrimack

Junction of Pemigewassett and Winnipe-
naukee Rivers, Franklin, N. H

Atlantic Ocean.

110 Miami. Indian Lake, Logan County. Ohio.

Ohio River....

160 Milk.

Junction of North and South Forks, Al-
berta Province.

Missouri River.

625 Minnesota. Big Stone Lake, Minn,

Mississippi River

332 Mississippi Near Lake Itasca, Minn.

Head of Passes

2,470 Mississippi, Upper Near Lake Itasca, Mina.

To mouth of Missouri
River..

11.205

GREAT RIVERS--(Continued)

River

Source

Outflow

IMiles

Mississippi Missouri.
Missouri..

3,988

2,475 2,723

Missouri-Red Rock
Mobile....

38

Mobile-Alabama-Coosa

639

Mohawk.

148

Monogahela..

128

Muskingum..

Neches..
Neosho
Neuse.

110 280 460

260

New...

Niobrara
North Canadian
North Platte.

255 431 760

618 338

Nueces. Ohio.

981

Ohio-Allegheny.
Osage.

1,306

500 605

Ounchita
Owyhee ..
Pearl..
Pecos.
Pee Dee.

250 490 735

Pee Dee.Yadkin
Pemigewasset
Penobscot.

233 435 70

101

[blocks in formation]

Source of Red Rock River, Mont.

Head of Passes
Junction Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin

Rivers, Madison County, Mont... Mississippi River..
Source of Red Rock River, Mont..

Mississippi River,
Junction of Alabama and Tombigbee
Rivers, Baldwin County, Ala.

Mobile Bay
Junction of Etowah and Oostanaula
Rivers, Floyd County, Ga.

Mobile Bay
Junction of East and West Branches,
Oneida County, N. Y..

Hudson River.
Junction of West Fork and Tygart Rivers,
Marion County, W. Va.

Ohio River...
Junction of Tuscarawas and Walhonding

Rivers, Coshocton County, Ohio... Ohio River.
Van Zandt County, Tex...

Sabine Lake.
Morris County, Kans.

Arkansas River.
Junction of Eno and Flat Rivers, Durham
County, N. C.

Pamlico Sound.
Junction of North and South Forks, Ashe
County, N. C....

Kanawha River.
Niobrara County, Wyo..

Missouri River.
Union County, V. Mex.

Canadian River.
Junction of Grizzly and Little Grizzly
Creeks, Jackson County, Colo..

Platte River..
Edwards County, Tex...

Nueces Bay...
Junction of Allegheny and Monongahela
Rivers, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Mississippi River.
Potter County, Pa..

Mississippi River.
Junction of Elm and Onion Creeks, Lyon
County. Kans

Missouri River.
Polk County. Ark.

Red River ..
Junction of East and South Forks, Owy-
hee County, Idaho..

Snake River
Nesboba County, Miss.

Gulf of Mexico.
Mora County, N. Mex.

Rio Grande
Junction of Yadkin and Uharie Rivers,
Montgomery County, N. C..

Winyah Bay
Watauga County, N. C.

Winyah Bay
Profile Lake, Grafton County. N. H.. Merrimack River,
Junction of East and West Branches,
Medway, Maine,

Atlantic Ocean.
Junction of North and South Platte
Rivers, North Platte, Nebr.

Missouri River.
Junction of North and South Branches,
Hampshire County, W. Va

Chesapeake Bay
Junction of South and Middle Forks,
Johnson County. Wyo...

Yellowstone River.
Faquier and Rappahannock Counties, Va, Chesapeake Bay
Junction of Prairie Dog Town and North

Forks, Tillman County, Okla... Mississippi River.
Junction of Otter Tail and Bois de Sioux
Rivers, Wilkin County, Minn,

Lake Winnipeg.
Junction of North Fork and Arlkaree

River, Dundy County, Nebr... Kansas River.
San Juan County, Colo

Gulf of Mexico.
Junction of North and South Forks, Mont-
gomery County. Va..

Albemarle Sound..
Washington County, Wis.

Mississippi River.
Junction of South and Caddo Forks, Hunt
County. Tex...

Sabine Lake.
Siskiyou County, Calll.

Suisun Bay..
Upper St. Croix Lake, Wis.

Mississippi River
Iron County, Mo..

Mississippi River
Lake Washington, Brevard County, Fla Atlantic Ocean
Hillsdale County, Mich.

Lake Michigan.
Custer County, Idano.

Snake River.
Junction of South and Middle Forks,
Madera County, Calir.

Suisun Bay.
Silver Lake, Archuleta County, Colo Colorado River
Junction of Wateree and Congaree Rivers,
Richland, S. (..

Atlantic Ocean.
McDowell County. N. C.

Atlantic Ocean.
Junction of Seneca and Tugaloo Rivers,
Anderson County, SC

Atlantic Ocean.
Near Tuscarora Schuylkill County, Pa. Delaware River
Auglaize County, Ohio

Ohio River.....
Junction of North and South Forks at
Riverton, Va....

Potomac River.
Cheyenne County, Colo,

Kansas River.
Ocean Plateau, Teton County, Wyo. Columbia River..
Junction of North and South Rivers at
Port Republic. Va

Shenandoah River.
Junction of South and Middle Forks, Park
County, Colo....

Platte River
Otsego Lake, Otsego County, NY Chesapeake Bay
Junction of North and Log Rivers, Charl-
ton County, Ga.

Gulf of Mexico.
Tippah County, Misy.

Yazoo River
Near Embry in Paulding County, Ga. Alabama River.
l'erson County, N. (..

Pamlico Bay
Junction of French Broad and Holston
Rivers, Knox County, Tenn..

Ohio River.....
Junction of North and West Forks of

French Broad. Transylvania County, N.C.Ohio River, ...
Junction of East and West Forks, Monroe
County, Miss...

Mobile River...

1,018

Red (U. S.-Can.).

545

Republican....
Rio Grande..
Roanoke.

445 1,800

380 300

Rock (111.-Wis.)
Sabine..

Sacramento
St. Croix (Minn.-Wis).
St. Francis
St. Johns (Fla.).
St. Joseph
Salmon (Idaho).
San Joaquin

380 382 164 425 276 210 420

350 360

San Juan..
Santee ...

143 538

Santee-Wateree-Catawba
Savannah

314 131 237

Schuylkill.
Scioto.
Shenandoah.
Smoky Hill.
Snake.
South Fork Shenandoah
South Platte..

55 540 1,038

100

424

Susquehanna.
Suwanee..

Tallahatchie.
Talla poosa
Tar-Pamlico.
Tennessee..

190 331 208 215

652

Tennessee-French Broad....
Tombigbee.

862

409 GREAT RIVERS-(Continued)

Source

River

Outflow

Miles

Tongue

Junction of North and South Forks, Sher-
idan County, Wyo.

Yellowstone River..

246 Trinity.

Junction of East and West Forks, Kauf-
man County, Tex.

Galveston Bay

360 Wabash. Darke County, Ohio.

Ohio River...

475 Washita Hemphill County. Tex

Red River.

500 West Branch Penobscot Junction of North and South Branches, Somerset County, Maine..

Penobscot River..

112 White (Ark.-Mo.) Madison County, Ark.

Mississippi River.

690 Willamette.

Junction of Coast and Middle Forks, near
Eugene, Ore

Columbia River.

190 Wisconsin Lae Vieux Desert, Vilas County, Wis. Mississippi River.

430 Yazoo..

Junction of Tallahatchie and Yalobusha
Rivers, Lefiore County, Miss... Mississippi River.

188 Yellowstone Park County, Wyo.

Missouri River.

671 Yukon.

Junction of Lewes and Pelly Rivers, Yukon
Province.

Bering Sea....

1,800 The length of a river is that of the channel to which the name generally is applied.

The Snake River is in a definite canyon from, and the width of the canyon varies from 5 to 10 Kinney Creek to the mouth of the Grande Ronde miles. River, approximately 100 miles, although the desig- The greatest width and greatest depth of Hell's nation Hell's Canyon might be applied to the 30 Canyon is probably at He Devil, the elevation of miles from Kinney Creek to Temperance Creek which is 9,387 feet. The elevation of the Snake, through which the river drops at the rate of about northwest of He Devil, is 1,350 feet, making a dii. 12'4 feet per mile. The width of the river through ference in elevation, in 572 miles horizontally, of this part of the canyon varies from 100 to 500 feet. 18.037 feet.

Principal Foreign Rivers

Source: Official Records of Various Countries.
Lgth
Lgth

Lgth
River
Outfiow M'S River

Outflow M'S

River

Outflow M's Albany... Hudson Bay.. 610 Jordan.. Dead Sea

200 Rio Theo Amazon. Atlantic Ocean 3.900 Kootenay. Columbia Riv., 400 dore RooseAmu Darya Aral Sex 1,500 La Plata. Atlantic Ocean. 2,300 velt (River Amur... Tartary Strait. 2,900 Lena. Arctic Ocean. ..2,800 of Doubt).. Riy, Madeirs.. 950 Arno Mediterranean.. 75 Loire. Bay of Biscay 650 Saguenayi St. Law. Riv...

405 Athabaska. Lake Athabaska 765 Mackenzie. Beaufort Sea... 2,525 St. John.... Bay of Fundy.. 390 Back

Arctic Ocean 605 Madeira.. Amazon River 2,000 St. Law'nce Gulf St. Law... 1.900 Bra'putra Bay of Bengal. 1,680 Magdalena. Caribbean Sea. 950 St. Maurice St. Law. Riv.. 325 Bug

Dnieper River. 500 Maros. Theiss River... 500 Salween ... Gull of MartaBug.. Vistula River 450 Marne Seine River.. 310

ban..

1.750 Churchill Hudson Bay 1,000 Mekong China Sea. 2,500 Sao FanCongo. Atlantic Ocean. 2.900 Meuse. North Sea.

575 cisco. Atlantic Ocean. 1.800 Danube Black Sea 1,725 Murray. Indian Ocean.. 2,310 Sas'tch'an. Lake Winnipeg 1,205 Darling Murray River.1,160 Nelson Hudson Bay.. 1,660 Seine... English Chan..

475 Dnieper.. Black Sea., 1,400 Niger. Gull of Guinea. 2,600 Shannon Atlantic Ocean.

250 Dniester. Black Sea

800 Nile

Mediterranean. 4,000 Si-Klang China Sea ... 1,650 Don. Sea of AZOV. 1,100 Ob

Gull of Ob... 3,200 Sungari. Amur River 1,130 Drava Danube River. 450 Oder

Baltic Sea. 550 Tagus... Atlantic Ocean. 550 Dyina, Orange Atlantic Ocean 1,300 Thames. North Sea..

215 Northern. White Sea... 400 Orinoco Atlantic Ocean. 1,700 Theiss, Danube River. 800 Ebro. Mediterranean 400 Ottawa St La River, 685 Tiber.

Mediterranean. 245 Elbe. North Sea. 700 Paraguay.

Parana River. 1.500 Tigris. Euphrates. 1,150 Euphrates. Persian Gulf... 1,700 Parana... Atlantic Ocean. 2,450 Ural., Caspian Sea.. 1,400 Fraser. Pacitic Ocean .. 695 Peace Great Slave Rv. 1.065 Vistula. Guli of Danzig.

630 Gambia Atlantic Ocean. 500 Pilcomayo.. Paraguay Riv 1.000 Volga Caspian Sea.

2,300 Ganges. Bay of Bengal. . 1,540 Po

Adriatic Sea ... 420 Waikato. Tasman Sea.. 220 Garonne Bay of Biscay.. 385 Red (of No.) Lake Win'peg.. 545 Weser. North Sea.. 500 Hamilton Lake Melville 350 Rhine.. North Sea... 700 Yangtze.

China Sea.. 3,100 Hwang Ho Gulf of Chihli. 2,700 Rhone Gull of Lion.. 500 Yenise i. Arctic Ocean.2,800 Indus

Arabian Sea 1,700 Rio Negro.. Amazon River. 1.400 Zambezi. Indian Ocean .. (1,600 Irrawaddy.. Bay of Bengal 1.250

The source of the St. Lawrence River is in the State of Minnesota. The St. Lawrence is viewed as a part of the Great Lakes Waterway and its source is considered the head of the St. Louis River which feeds into Lake Superior. The St. Louis River rises in Minnesota,

Area (sq. miles) of great river basins--Amazon (2,772,000); Congo (1,425,000); Nile (1,293,000); Mississippi (1,290,000); La Plata (1,198,000); Yangtze (689.000); Volga (592,000); St. Lawrence (565,200); Danube (320,300): Colorado (250,000); Rio Grande (232,300).

Bell Time on Shipboard

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Source: United States Maritime Commission Tine, A.M. Time, A.M. Time, A.M. Time, P.M. Time, P.M. Time, P.M. 1 Bell 12.30 1 Bell 4.30 1 Bell

8.301 Bell 12.30 1 Bell 4.30 1 Bell 8.30 2 Bells 1.00 2 Bells. 5.002 Bells. 9.00 2 Bells. 1.002 Bells 5.00 2 Bells. 9.00 3 1.303 5.30/3 9.30 3 1.30 3 5.30 3

9.30 2.004 6.004 10.00 4 2.004 6.004

10.00 2.305 6.30 5 10.30 5 2.30 5 6.30 5

10.30 6 3.0016 7.00 6 11.00 6 3.0016 7.00 6

11.00
3.30 7.
7.30 7
11.30 7

3.30 7
7.30 7

11.30 8 4.00 8 8.008 Noon 8

4.00 8

8.00 8 Midnight The custom of keeping Bell Time aboard ship is eight hours duty in a twenty-four hour day. The still existent in both the naval service and the deck and engine department personnel divided merchant marine. The day commences at noon into three watches (except day men) four hours and is divided into watches. The Three Watch on duty and eight hours off duty. System in the U. S. Merchant Marine consists of

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Notable Bridges

Source: Various Official Data

Chan

Chan-1
Bridge
Location nel Com-

Bridge

Location nel ComSpan pleted

Span pleted Suspension

Seattle
Wash, (Siate)..

800 1932 Bronx-Whitestone E. River, N.Y.C. 2.300) 1939 Memphis.

Mississippi Riv. 790 1892 Golden Gate San Fr cisco Bay. 4,200 1937 Sciotoville.

Ohio kiver..

775 1918 George Washington Hudson River

Beaver, Pa.
Ohio River..

709 1910
N. Y. C..
3,500 1931 Mingo, W. Va. Ohio River..

769 1910 San Fran.-Oakland San Fran. Bay..

1936 Outerbridge,

S.I.S'd, N. Y.C. 750 1928 Ambassador Detroit.U.S.-Can 1,850 1929 Sewickley, Pa. Ohio River

750 1910 Delaware River Phila.-Camden.. 1,750 1926 Thebes, in..

Mississippi Riv. 671 1905 Bear Mountain. Hudson Riv.

Goethals,

Ar. Kill, N. Y. C. 672 1928 (West Pt.). 1.632 1924 Port Arthur.

Neches River, Williamsburgh. E. Riv., N. Y.C. 1.600 1904

Orange Texas, ...

680 1938 Brooklyn. E. Riv., N.Y.C. 1,595 1883 Red Rock..

Colo. Riv., Cal. 660_

1890 Mid-Hudson. Hudson River,

Rip Va n Winkle.. Hud. R., Catsk

1935
Poughkeepsie 1,500 1930 Steel Arch
Manhattan.
E. Riv., NYC. 1.470 1909 Bayonne..

KIII Van Kull,
Triborough
E. Riv, NYC. 1,380 1936

N.Y.C.

1,675 1931 Thousand Islands.. St. Lawrence Riv † 1938 Henry Hudson Arch Harlem River, Willa mette Portland, Ore,, 1,207 1931

N. Y.C...

800 1936 Connecticut River. Middletown,

Flarbor

Syaney, Austr., 1.650 1932 Portland, 1.200 1938 Hell Gate

E. Riv., N. Y. C. 1,017 1917 Montreal.

St. Lawice Riv 1,097 1930 International, Niagara River. 840 1898 Ohio River. Cincinnati 1,057 1898 Colorado River Ariz. -Culil.

592 1916 Ojuela. Manpini, Mex. 1.030 1900 Cuyaloga River Cleveland, O.

591 1917 Wheeling. Ohio River. 1,010 1862 Eads (Miss. River) St. Louis

520 1874 Rondout Kingston, N. Y.. 705 1921 Washington

Harlem Riv., Cantilever

V Y C.

509 1888 Huey P. Long. Miss, Riv. N. Or. 3.524

Bigh Bridge....... Harlem Riv.,
Quebec.
St. Law'ce Riv.. 1,800 1917

N. Y. C....

425 1848 Queensferry Firth of Forth,

Simple Truss
Scot
1.710 1890 Castleton

Hud. Riv., N. Y. 1,008 1924
Longview
Col'bia R., Wash 1,200 1930 Metropolis, III, Ohio River..

72:1 1917 Queensborough. E. Riv., NYC. 1,182 1909 Mississippi Riv St. Louis

668 1918 Carquinez Crockett, Calit 1.100 1927 St Lawrence River. Quebec, Can.

640 1917 Cooper River. Charleston, SC. 1,050 1929 Ohto River

Cincinnati.

B42

1889 Monongahela Pittsburgh, Pa.. 812 1904 Delaware River Philadelphia

533 1896 Vicksburg, Miss, . Mississippi Riv.. 800)

1930 Peace.

Niagara R. Bull.

360 1927 American span 800 ft.; Canadian, 750 ft. (See below.) *Two suspension spans each 2,310 ft. long; three of 1,160 feet; and a cantilever span 1,400 ft. long. The Henry Hudson Arch Bridge, New York City, The Thousand Islands International Bridge, has the longest plate girder, fixed steel arch in the formally opened on Aug. 18, 1938, extends from world. The main central span is flanked by 300-ft. Collins Landing (near Alexandria Bay) in New

York State to Ivy Lea continuous steel girder viaducts of 60-ft. spans.

(near Gananoque) in

Ontario. This crossing, 892 miles long, utilizes the The total length of steel is 1,555 feet and the total

islands to reduce the span

lengths required. Clearance, length of entire structure is 2,000 feet.

The crossing over the American channel, from the 142.5 feet. above high water; cost of lower level,

mainland to Wells Island, consists of a suspension $1,255,690; cost of upper level, $800,000. The upper

bridge 800 ft. main span, with an underclearance level was opened in 1938.

of 150 ft. above the river. The $18,000,000 Bronx-Whitestone Bridge is a

The Canadian crossing includes: a continuous link in the Belt Parkway program of the City of truss of two 300-ft spans (from Hill Island to New York It connects the Belt Parkway from

Constance Island), a steel arch of 348-ft. span the northerly end of the Cross Island Parkway (from Constance Island to Georgina Island), and on the Easterly boundary of Queens, across the a suspension bridge of 750-ft. span and 120 it. East River into the Bronx where it connects underclearance from Georgina Island to the Ontario with Eastern Boulevard and with the projected mainland The boundary at the International southern extension of the Hutchinson River Rift, between Wells Island and Hill Island, is Parkway leading to Westchester, upstate, and bridged by a 90-ft. rigid frame arched span of Connecticut.

reinforced concrete with masonry facing. The bridge is 4,000 feet long from anchorage Near Seattle, Wash., a “ribbon" of 100.000 tons to anchorage, with a maín span of 2.300 feet, of floating concrete, stretching out across Lake entire length including approaches, 7,140 feet; Washington, drew crowds on July 2, 1940, for its height of span above high water, 150 feet at dedication as the first pontoon bridge of its kind center and 135 feet at Channel line near Bronx in engineering history. Built by the state with Shore. The bridge deck is 74 feet wide divided Federal financing assistance, it is the longest into two 29-ft roadways (separated by a curb) pontoon bridge ever built and the first of reinand two sidewalks. The towers are 377 feet high. forced concrete. With connecting highway links, The $35,000,000 Golden Gate Bridge (1933-1937)

the structure provides a cutoff of 15 miles in crosscrosses the portal of the harbor of San Francisco. state travel Its towers are 746 feet high: the deck is 200 feet The bridge is composed of 25 pontoons, each above high-water at the center of the span. Eleven filled with watertight compartments. The pontoons lives were lost during construction--ten of them on are bolted together, and each has two or more Feb. 17, 1937, when dislodged wood and steel tore 65-ton anchors. The four-lane bridge is more open the safety net underneath the span and than a mile in length. carried the men down into the water.

The span, built in a year and a half, was financed In the construction of the $77,000,000 cross-bay by a P. W. A grant of $3,794,000 and a bond bridge which joins San Francisco and Oakland with issue of $5,500,000, to be retired by toll charges. a center rest on Yerba Buena Island, 24 persons The Calvin Coolidge Memorial Bridge, which were killed and over 1,100 were injured.

crosses the Connecticut River near Northampton, The $60,000,000 Triborough Bridge at N. Y. City Mass., was opened to traffic on Oct. 12, 1939. is a toll structure and consists of a suspension The Connecticut River Bridge, between Middlebridge of 1,380 st. channe span and 705 ft. side town and Portland, the largest bridge in New spans over the East River at Hell Gate; a vertical England, formally opened on Aug. 6, 1938. is of ilft bridge over the Harlem River with lift span of steel and concrete and cost $3,500,000. Including 310 ft.; fixed truss spans over the Bronx Kills with the approaches, it is 3,420 feet in length. channel span of 350 ft.; plate girder viaduct struc- A new bridge across the Mississippi River at ture in Queens, on Ward's and Randall's Island, La Crosse, Wis., was opened in Sept., 1939. It is over Little Hell Gate and in Manhattan, and with of steel and concrete and is 2.206 feet long. concrete viaduct construction at points in Queens, One of Europe's longest bridges, 10,432 feet, Manhattan and the Bronx and at the junction of completed in September, 1937, extends across the the Manhattan branch with the Queens to Bronx sound, between the Danish islands of Zealand and branch on Randall's Island.

Falster. It cost about $8,844.000.

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