Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

placement, left the Barbados, West Indies, on town, Mass., in collision with Coast Guard deMarch 4, 1918, and never heard of since.

She

stroyer Paulding: 40. had on board 309.

1928-July 7. Chilean transport, Angames, wrecked June

27. British hospital ship. Llandovery in storm in Bay of Arauco; 291. Castle sunk by submarine of England; 234. -Aug. 6. Italian submarine F14 sunk in Adriatic July 6. River steamer Columbia sunk in Illinois Sea in collision with destroyer; 31. River at Wesley City: 87.

Oct. 3. French submarine, Ondine, in collision -July 12. Japanese battleship Kawachi blown up with Greek steamer, off Portugal; 43. in Tokayama Bay: 500.

-Nov. 12. British steamer Vestris, N. Y., for July 14. French troop ship Djamnah sunk by So. America, sunk in gale of Virginia; 110. torpedo in Mediterranean; 442.

-Danish cadet auxiliary sailing ship, Kobenhavn - July 19. U. S. Cruiser, San Diego, sunk by mine, left Montevideo, Uruguay, in Dec. 1928, bound off Fire Island, N. Y.; 50.

for Australia; never heard from; 60. -Aug. 3. British hospital ship, Warilda, torpedoed 1929—Jan. 2. Steamship Malakoff (formerly the off England; 123.

Pannonia), in Mediterranean; 40. -Sept, 12. British transport, Galway Castle, tor--April 22. Japanese steamer, Toyo Kuni Maru. pedoed in Atlantic; 189.

crashed on Rocky Cape Erino; 103. -Sept. 26. U. S. ship Tampa, torpedoed off Eng. -July 9. British submarine, H-47, in collision land; 118.

with sister submarine L-12; 21. - Sept. 30. U. S. ship, Ticonderoga, torpedoed in --Aug. 30. Coasting steamer, San Juan, sunk in Atlantic; 213..

collision with tanker, off Santa Cruz, Calif.; 70. -Oct. 6. Otranto, British ship with U. S. troops, -Oct. 7. Norwegian steamer, Haakon VII, hit rock sunk in collison off Scotland, 431.

in storm and sank near Floroe; 44. Oct. 10. Irish mail steamer, Leinster, torpedoed --Dec. 21. Chinese steamer, Lee Cheong, sank on in St. George's Channel; 480.

way from Swabue for Hong Kong: 300. -Oct. 25. Canadian steamship Princess Sophia 1930-April 2. Ferry-boat capsized near Tobata; 110. sunk on coast of Alaska; 398.

June 10. Oil tanker Pinthis sunk in Massa1919-Jan. 1. British steam yacht Iolaire (Eagle), chusetts Bay in collision with coast steamer, off Stornoway, Scotland; 30 of 300 saved.

Fairfax; 50. -Jan. 11. Steamer Yuma sunk en route Pedro 1931-Jan. 20. Russian steamer, Javaria, sunk in d'Macoris to New York: 79.

storm in Black Sea; 50. -Jan. 17. French steamer Chaouia lost in Straits --Feb. 9. French steamer, Porthos, sunk in snow of Messina; 460.

storm off Kobe, Japan; 50. -Sept. 9-10. Spanish steamer, Valbanera, lost - March 11. Chinese steamer exploded in Yangtse

between Havana, Cuba, and Key West, Fla.: 500. River; 300. -Nov. 9. American steamship Polar Land van--April 1. Collision of French immigrant steamer, ished off Nova Scotia; 51.

Florida, and British aircraft carrier, Glorious, 1920-Jan. 12. French steamship sunk in Bay of off Malaga, Spain; 40. Biscay: 500.

June 9. British submarine, Poseidon, sunk in 1921-Spanish steamer Santa Isabel storm-wrecked collision with steamer, Yuta, off China; 20. near Villagarcia; 214.

June 14. French excursion steamer, upset in gale --Jan. 20. British submarine K5 failed to return off St. Nazaire; 450. to port: 55.

-Oct. 24. Russian submarine sunk in Gull of - March 18. Steamer Hongkong hit rock near Finland: 50. Swatow, China: 1,000.

1932---Jan. 26. British submarine, M-2, sunk off 1922-Jan. 4. Greek torpedo boat blew up at Portland Bill, England; 60. Piraeus; 55.

-Feb. 25. British submarine H42 sunk oft -May 20. British steamer Egypt, in collision off Gibraltar; 26. France; 98.

--May 16. French passenger motorship. Georges -Aug. 26. French battleship France, 23,000 tons, Philippar, burned and sunk in Arabian Sea; 41, hit rock and sank off Quiberon Bay; 3.

---July 7. New French submarine, Promethee, off Aug. 26. Japanese cruiser Niitaka sank in storm Cherbourg: 62. off Kamchatka; 300.

-Sept. 9. Steamboat Observation, carrying work-Aug 29. Chillan steamer Itata sank in storm men to Riker's Island, blown to bits by explosion off Coquimbo; 301.

of boiler, in the East River, N. Y. City: 72. 1923- March 10. Greek transport Alexander sank -Dec. 5. Japanese destroyer, Sawarabi, turned upoff Piraeus; 150.

side down by gale off Formosa; 105. -April 23 Portuguese mail steamer Mossamedes 1933-Jan. 4. New 41,000-ton French steamer, went aground at Cape Frio, Africa: 220.

L'Atlantique, burned in English Channel; 17. ---July 13. The Mallory liner Swiftstar leit Gulf --April 4, U. S. Navy dirigible balloon, 'Akron, end of Panama Canal, never heard of; 33.

crashed on the Atlantic in a thunder storm, 20 -Aug. 21. Japanese submarine 70 sunk: 88.

miles southeast of Barnegat Inlet Light, N. J.; - Sept. 3. Fleet of seven U. S. destroyers, in- 73. There were but 3 survivors, cluding the Delphy, S. P. Lee, Chauncey, Fuller, 1934-Jan. 21. Chinese steamer, Weitung, on YangWoodbury, Nicholas, and Young, went on rocks tse River, burned and sank; 216. in fog off Honda Point, Cal.; 22.

--Mch. 12. Japanese torpedo, boat Tomozuru upset 1924 Jan. 10. British submarine L-24 sunk off west of Nagasaki; 103.

Portland, England, in collision with British bat- -Sept. 8. American steamship Morro Castle, Hatleship, Resolute; 48.

vana for New York with 318 passengers and crew March 11. Ward Line steamship Santiago of 231, took fire off Asbury Park, N. J.: 134. sunk by storm off Cape Hatteras; 25.

1935-Jan. 24. Ward Line steamer Mohawk, in -March 19. Japanese submarine 43 sunk in collision off New Jersey coast with Norwegian

Collision off Sasebo, with battleship Tatsuta; 49. freighter, Talisman; 45. -June 12 Explosion on U. S. S. Mississippi, at ---July 3. Japanese cruise steamer, Midori Maru, gun practice off San Pedro, Calif., 48.

sunk in collision in the Inland Sea; 104. 1925—March 12. Japanese steamer Uwajima Maru -July 25. Russian submarine, B-3, sunk in Baltic lost in gale off Takashima; 103.

Sea, in collision with another warship; 55. -Aux 18. Excursion steamboat Mackinac, 1936-Jan. 12. Freight steamer Iowa sunk in gale Narragansett Bay, boiler explosion; 47.

at mouth of Columbia River, Oreg.; 34. -Sept. 25. U. S. submarine S-51 sunk in col- --Nov. 8. German motorship, Isis, sunk in storm

lision with City of Rome, off Block Isi., R. I.; 37. off Land's End, England; 39. -Nov. 11. British submarine, M-1, sunk in col- -Dec. 12. Spanish submarine sunk off Malaga lision in English Channel: 69.

by a torpedo; 47. 1926-April 27.

Passenger steamer Chichibu --Dec. 26. Italian steamship. Cesare Battiste, blew grounded in storm oti Horomushiro, Japan; 230. up in harbor of Massaua, Eritrea; 36 killed. -Aug. 28.

Passenger steamboat Buryvestnik 1939-Feb. 2. Japanese submarine 163 sunk in smashed into a river pier near Cronstadt, Russia, Bungo Channel: 81. and sank; 300.

---May 23. U. S. submarine Squalus, sunk in prac-Oct. 16. troopship blown up in Yangtse River, tice dive off Portsmouth. N. H.; 26: 33 rescued. at Klukiang, China; 1,200.

Open air intake valve blamed. This boat was -Oct. 20. British navy sloop, Valerian, sunk in raised and recommissioned in 1940. storm south of Bermuda; 84.

June 1, British submarine Thetis sunk in test -Dec. 20. Oil tug, Linseed King, overturned in

dive in Irish sea off Great Ormes Head, Wales; Hudson River at New York City; 45.

99, 4 rescued. 1927-Aug. 25. Japanese destroyer Warabi sunk -- June 15, French submarine, Phenix, sunk in

and destroyer Ashi crushed in collisions with practice dive, Carn-Ranh Bay, of Indo-China; 63.

cruisers Jiutsu, and Naka, off Bungo Straits: 129. --Sept. 3. British merchant ship. Athenia, sunk in -Oct. 25. Italian steamship, Principessa Mafalda the Atlantic, on the way to Montreal, 200 miles

blew up and sank, off Porto Seguro, Brazil; 314. west of the Hebrides: 93 of the 1,104 passengers Dec. 17. U. S. submarine, S-4, sunk off Province- lost.

on

Visibility at Sea

Source: United States Coast Guard The table following gives the approximate geographic range of visibility for an object which may be seen by an observer whose eye is at sea level; in practice, therefore, it is necessary to add to these a distance of visibility corresponding to the height of the observer's eye above sea level.

DISTANCES OF VISIBILITY FOR OBJECTS OF VARIOUS ELEVATIONS ABOVE SEA LEVEL Height, Nautical Height,

Nautical Height, Nautical Height, Nautical
Feet
Miles

Feet
Miles

Feet
Miles

Feet

Miles

అంతరంగా

80

200

45

5
2.5

55
8.5

110
12.0

450

24.3
10
3.6

60
8.9

120
12.6

500

25.6
15
4.4

65
9.2

130
13.1

550

26.8
20
5.1

70
9.6

140
13.6

600

28.0
25
5.7

75
9.9

150
14.1

650

29.1 30 6.3 10.3

16.2

700

30.3
35
6.8

85
10.6

250
18.2

800

32 4
40
7.2

90
10.9

300
19.9

900

34.4 7.7

95
11.2

350
21.5
1,000

36.2
50
8.1

100
11.5

400

22.9 The table following gives the approximate geographic range of visibility for an object which may be seen by an observer whose eye is at lake level in practice, therefore, it is necessary to add to these a distance of visibility corresponding to the height of the observer's eye above lake level.

DISTANCES OF VISIBILITY FOR OBJECTS OF VARIOUS ELEVATIONS ABOVE CAKE LEVEL
Height, in Statute Height, in Statute Height, in Statute Height, in Statute
feet
Miles

feet
Miles

feet
Miles

feet

Miles

65

15.1

200

100

5
2.9

55
9.8

110
13.8

450

28.0
10
4.2

60
10.2

120
14.5

500

29.5
15
5.1

10.6
130

550

31.0
20
5.9

70
11.0

140
15.6

600

32.3
25
6.6

75
11.4

150
16.2

650

33.7
30
7.2

80
11.8

18.7

700

34.9
35
7.8

85
12.2

250
20.9

800

37.3
40
8.3

90
12.5

300
22.9

900

39.6
45
8.9

95
12.9

350
24.7
1,000

41.7
50
9.3

13.2

400

26.4 Roughly speaking, the distance of visibility in The highest light maintained by the U. S. Coast nautical miles is equal to eight-sevenths of the Guard is on top of the island of Lehua, Hawaiian square root of the height of the light above sea Islands. This light is 707 feet above the level of level.

the sea The actual curvature of the surface of the earth The highest light on the Pacific coast of confor the first mile is about 9 inches, and increases tinental United States is at Cape Mendocino, Calif., at first approximately as the square of the distance: 422 feet above the level of the sea. The approximate curvature effect may be found The highest light on the Atlantic coast of conby multiplying the square of the distance in miles tinental United States is at Marcus Hook, Del., 278 by .6, the answer being in feet.

feet above the level of the sea.
CANDLE-POWER OF BRIGHTEST UNITED STATES LIGHTHOUSES
Station
C. P.
Station
C. P.
Station

C. P. Navesink, N. J

9,000,000 30-Mile Point, N. Y 620,000 Montauk Point, N. Y.. 300,000 Hillsboro Inlet, Fla. 5,500,000 Anacapa Isl., Calif.. 600,000 Stratford Pt., Conn.. 290,000 Liston Range, Del 5.000.000 Pauwela Pt. Hawaii 560,000 Fire Island, N. Y.. 280.000 Cape Cod, Mass. 4,000,000 Kauhola. Hawail.

560,000 Cape Arago. Ore.

270.000 White Shoal. Mich. 3,000,000 Cape Elizabeth, Me. 500,000 Craighill Ch'n'l., Md.. 260,000 Molokal, T. H. 2,500,000 Cape San Juan, P. R.. 500,000 North Head, Wash,

260.000 Farallon, Calir. 2,200,000 Point Tuna, P. R

490.000 Piedras Blancas, Calil. 250,000 (ubit's Gap, La. 2.000.000 Piglon Poin (allr.

475.000 Cape Muy,N.J.

250,000 Pully Point, Wash 2,000,000 Deepwater Pt., N. J 450.000 Millin Bar, N. J.

240.000 Cape kumukahl, T. H 1,700,000 Cherry Is., Dei. Riv 450,000 Horseshoe Range, Pa.. 240.000 Dry Tortugas, Fla.. 1,500,000 New Castle Range, Del. 450.000 Chester Range, Pa. 240,000 Santa Barbara, Calli. 1,200,000 St. Augustine, Fla.. 450.000 No. Manitou Sh'l, Mich. 240.000 Point Arguello, Calll.. 1,200,000 Cape Canaveral, Fla... 430,000 | Tinlcum Island, N. J... 240,000 Nawiliwill. Hawaii 1.200,000 Pensacola, Fla.

400,000 Bellevue Range, Del... 240,000 Kilauea. T. H.. 1,100,000 Marquette, Mien

400,000 Beavertail, Rhode Isl.. 240,000 Hereford Inlet, N. J. 1,100,000 Rock of Ages, Mich.. 400.000 Twin River Pt., Wis.. 240,000 Polnt Cabrillo, Calir. 1,100,000 Pt, Arena, Calle

390,000 | Sturgeon Bay Can., Wis 240,000 Jupiter Inlet, Fla.. 1,000,000 || The Graves, Mass. 380,000 Ponce de Leon Inlet, Fla. 220,000 Chapel Hill, N. J. 1,000,000 Sabine Pass, La.

380.000 Two Harbors, Minn.. 220,000 Point Sur, Calif. 1,000,000 Split Rock, Minn.

370,000 Umpqua River, Oreg.. 210.000 Cape St. Elias, Alaska.. 1,000,000 Harrison Crib, IN.

360.000 E. River Range, N. Y. 200.000 Buffalo, N. Y

1,000,000 Staten Island, N. Y. 350.000 Cape Spencer, Alask 200,000 Heceta Head, Ore.. 950,000

Marblehead, Ohio.

330,000 || C'p. Hinchinbrook, Ala. 200,000 Point Vicente. Calli. 900,000 Reedy Island, Del.

330,000 Manhattan Range, 0, 200,000 Barbers P't Hawali 750,000 4-Mile Crib, Ill.

320,000 Point Loma, Calir

200,000 Cape Charles, Va..

740,000 Cape Blanco, Oregon. 320,000 Mt. Desert Rock, Me 200.000 Sankaty Head, Mass 720,000 Cape Flattery, Wash.. 300,000 Fort Gratloi, Mich

200,000 Whitesh P't, Mich.. 670,000 Devils Island, Wis.. 300,000 Moose Peak, Me

200,000 Marcus Hook, Del.. 640,000 North Point, Wis... 300.000 Cape San Blas, Fla.. 200,000

The Fire Island, N. Y., Light is 167 ft. high; visible 19 nautical miles.
The Shinnecock light has 140,000 candlepower; Boston light, 100,000.
Electricity is the illuminant now used in most of

A typical fog-signal installation consists of gasothe larger lighthouses, electric incandescent lamps line or oil engine driven air compressors, displaced inside the larger sizes of lenses producing charging compressed air into a large storage tank, beams of as much as 9,000,000 candlepower where From the air tank or receiver, the air is allowed such brilliance is required. The flashing char- to flow to the sounding device under the accurate acteristics which distinguish many of the light- control of a signal timer, which coordinates fog houses are produced by revolving the entire lens signal, the light in the tower, and the radio beacon by electric motors. Lenses which are aggregates of signals. The fog signals at some stations are highly polished glass prisms are assembled in a operated by electricity. variety of types to produce whatever characteristic

Many of the more important United States lightwill best differentiate a particular light from its

houses and all United States lightships are fitted neighbors.

The larger light stations are also fitted with fog with radiobeacons. Certain ones also have radio signals, various types of sounding devices such as telegraph or radio telephone communication facilidiaphones, trumpets, oscillators, sirens, and horns. ties.

Fast Ocean Passages by Ships

BY SAILING VESSELS Columbus, in 1492, sailed from Spain (Palos) 25 minutes. The packet ship, Yorkshire, in Not to the Gulf of Mexico in 70 days. Aug. 3 to Oct. 1846, sailed from Liverpool to New York in 16

days. 12. The best day's run was 200 miles. His flagship was the Santa Maria. The other vessels

The Surprise was one of the first clippers bullt

outside New York. She was designed by Samuel were the Pinta and the Nina. From Palos they Pook, then only 23, and built at East Boston by went to the Canary Islands, and it was not until Samuel Hall. She was only 1,006 tons register. Sept. 6 that they left the Island of Gomera. They but solidly built and fairly sharp in the bow. were not out into the open sea until Sept. 9. His Her bowsprit was 30 inches diameter and extended second voyage, in 1493. from Cadiz, Spain, to 35 feet from the stem, nearly a fifth of her own! Dominica, in the West Indies (Sept. 25-Nov. 3) length Beneath that bowsprit was gilded was made in 40 days, but the land-to-land passage

eagle. She carried about 1,800 tons of cargo, and was only 21 days; his third, to Trinidad (May 30- her complement at first consisted of four mates. July 31) in 1497, in 62 days; his fourth and last,

two boatswains, carpenter, sailmaker, steward.

two cooks, thirty able bodied seamen, six ordinary to Honduras, in 1502 (May-July) in about 62 days,

seamen, and four boys. In one round voyage, from but the land-to-land time (May 26-June 15) was

New York to San Francisco and from Hong Kong but 20 days.

to London with tea, the Surprise earned a net The American-built, British-owned ship. James profit of $50,000 over and above her expenses and Baines, sailed 21 nautical miles (knots) an hour,

her own cost to build! for several hours-a record. She sailed from Bos

The ship Starr King once salled from 50 de. ton Light to Rock Light, Liverpool, in 12 days, grees south to the Golden Gate in 36 days, & rec6 hours.

ord. She was 8 days more getting into San The Flying Cloud twice made the voyage from Francisco, owing to fog. The Golden Fleece took New York to San Francisco, around Cape Horn, only 1242 days from the Equator to within 200 in 89 days, The "medium" clipper, Andrew miles of San Francisco. Those 200 miles took Jackson, did it in 89 days.

her another week. The British tea-clipper, Thermopylae, sailed in The Atlantic, in the race for the German Em1854 from Liverpool,

England, to Melbourne, peror's Cup, in 1905, sailed from Sandy Hook to Australia, in 63 days, 18 hours, 15 minutes. the Lizard. England, in 12 days, 4 hours, 1 inin

The Northern Light, "medium" clipper, sailed ute and 19 seconds; 3,013 nautical miles, average from San Francisco to Boston in 76 days, 6 hours. speed 10.31 knots. The best day's run was 341 The run north from Cape Horn was made in nautical miles. In 1928 she crossed from En38 days.

gland in 23 days. The Yankee came from Bishop The clipper Red Jacket, built at Rockland, Me.. Rock to Boston Light in 1936, in 22 days, 6 sailed from N. Y. to Liverpool in 13 days, 1 hour, I hours, 7 minutes.

BY STEAMSHIPS AND OTHER POWER VESSELS The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was i from the Breakwater at Cherbourg to the Ambrose the Rising Sun, in 1818; built in Britain by Lord Channel Lightship: (approximately 3,164 nautical Cochrane. She voyaged to South America.

miles) in 4 days, 17 hours, 42 minutes, at an averThe first American ship to use steam in cross: age speed of 27.83 knots, or nautical miles, an hour. ing an ocean was the Savannah, 350 tons, built she returned to Plymouth, 3,082 miles, in 4 days. at New York City, which left Savannah, Ga., on 14 hours, 30 minutes (average 27.91). In July, 1933, May 24, 1819, and reached Liverpool in 26 days. Ambrose to Cherbourg. 3,199 miles, in 4 days, 16 during '18 of which she used her side-paddles. hours, 15 minutes (average 28.51). 'In Nov., 1934, She was a sailing vessel with steam auxiliary. Cherbourg to Ambrose, 3,092 miles, in 4 days, 14

The Great Western, on her maiden voyage from hours, 27 minutes (average 28.00).
Bristol, England, to New York, covered the dis-

The Queen Mary, Cunard White Star liner on her tance in April, 1838, in 15 days. Her best record maiden voyage, May-June, 1936, went from Cherwas 10 days. 10 hours, 15 minutes.

bourg to Ambrose, 3,158 miles, in 4 days, 12 hours. The Britannia, first Cunard liner, in July, 1840, 24 minutes (average 29.13). She returned, Ambrose came from Liverpool to New York' in 14 days, 8 to Cherbourg, 3,198 miles, in 4 days, 15 hours, 15 hours.

minutes (average 28.74). In May, 1851, the Pacific reduced the Atlantic

On Aug. 8, 1938, the Queen Mary arrived in New record to 9 days, 19 hours, 25 minutes.

York port, having come from Bishop's Rock, off The Persia, in 1856, did it in 9 days. 1 hour: Southampton, to Ambrose, 2,907 miles in 3 days 45 minutes; the Scotia, in 1866, in 8 days: 2 21 hours, 48 minutes (average 30.99). Bishop's hours, 48 minutes; the City of Brussels, in 1869 Rock is 126 miles nearer to Ambrose than is Cherin 7 days, 22 hours, 3 minutes; the Baltic, in bourg. 1873, in 7 days, 20 hours, 9 minutes, the City of On the return trip, the Queen Mary traveled Berlin, in 1875, in 7 days, 15 hours, 8 minutes; from Ambrose to Bishop Rock, 2,938 miles, in 3 the Arizona, in 1880, in 7 days, 7 hours, 23 min- days, 20 hours, 42 minutes (average 31.69). utes; the Alaska, in 1882, in 6 days, 18 hours, 37 The French liner, Normandie, on her maiden trip minutes; the Etruria, in 1888, in 6 days, 1 hour, to New York, May 29-June 3, 1935, went the 2.971 55 minutes: the Majestic, in 1891, in 5 days, 18 miles in 4 days, 3 hours, 13 minutes, 38 seconds hours, 8 minutes; the Lucania, in 1894, in 5 days, (average 29.94). Returning to Europe she covered 1 hours, 23 minutes, the Lusitania, in 1908, in 4 the 3,015 miles in 4 days, 3 hours, 25 minutes days 15 hours; the Lusitania, in 1909. in 4 days (average 30.31). 11 hours 42 minutes, the Mauretania, in 1910. in In July-Aug. 1937 the Normandie went 2.906 4 days, 10 hours, 41 minutes, at the rate of 26.06 miles, westbound, Bishop's Rock to Ambrose, in 3 knots an hour.

days, 23 hours, 2 minutes (average 30.58). The foregoing records, since and including In Aug., 1937 the Normandie covered the east 1856. are between New York and Queenstown. bound course, 2,936 miles, in 3 days, 22 hours,

7 averaging 2.780 nautical miles.

minutes (average 31.20). The Deutschland, in Sept., 1900, went from The light cruiser Omaha, of the U. S. Navy, in Sandy Hook, New York, to Plymouth, England, 1923 (May 8-11), steamed from Diamond Head, in 5 days, 7 hours, 38 minutes. The Leviathan. Oahu, Hawaii, to the San Francisco Light Vessel, a Oct. 4-10. went from New York to Cherbourg in distance of 2.091 miles, in 3 days 3 hours 40 minutes 5 days. 6 hours, 21 minutes, at an average speed 40 seconds. The average speed was 27.76 miles an of 24.67 knots.

hour. In Aug. 1933. the Italian Steamship. Rex, The U. S. S. Memphis, which brought Capt. crossed the Atlantic, from Gibraltar to Ambrose (now Col.) Charles A. Lindbergh back to the Light, New York Harbor, 3,181 miles, in 4 days. United States after his airplane fight from New 13 hours, 58 minutes.

York (Mineola) to Paris (Le Bourget), left CherThe Europa of the North German Lloyd Line, bourg, France, at 4:35 p.m. (Zone-1) June 4, 1927. on her maiden voyage, went, in 1930 (Mch. 20- and arrived abeam of Cape Henry Light (Dels25), from Cherbourg Breakwater, France. to ware Capes) at 4:00 p.m. (Zone plus 5) June 10, Ambrose Channel Lightship. New York Harbor 1927; a distance of 3.320 nautical miles at an aver(3,157 nautical miles), in 4 days, 17 hours, 6 min- age speed of 22.21 knots for the run. Captain H utes.

In July, 1933, she covered that route (3,149 E. Lackey, U. S. N., was in command of the ship miles) in 4 days, 16 hours, 48 minutes (average The U. S. warship, Lexington, left her anchor27.92). In June, 1933, Ambrose to Cherbourg. 3.196 age at San Pedro, Calif., at 1.01 p.m., on June 9. miles, in 4 days, 19 hours, 57 minutes (average 1928, and arrived at Diamond Head Light. Hono27.56).

lulu at 11.08 a.m., on June 12-2,226 nautical miles 'The Bremen, of the North German Lloyd Line. in 72 hours. 36 minutes; an average speed of 30.66 on her maiden voyage, went in 1929 (July 18-22) nautical miles an hour.

Fastest Trips Around the World 1872. A fictitious journey by Phileas Fogg in the world (15,596 miles) in 7 days, 18 hours. 4914 Jules Verne's novel, 80 days, Oct. 2 to Dec. 20. minutes--July 15, at 5:10 a.m., to July 22, at 1889. Nellie Bly, 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes.

11.592 p.m. 1890. George Francis Train of New York, 67

James Mattern, & Texas airman, left Floyd Bendays, 12 hours, 3 minutes.

nett Field (5:20 a.m., June 3,) and flew non-stop

to Jomfruland, near Oslo (Norway); and thence. 1901. Charles Fitzmorris, Chief of Police of via Post's 1931 route, to Moscow, and across Chicago, 60 days, 13 hours, 29 minutes.

Siberia to Khabarovsk, where, on June 13, he left 1903. J. W. Willis Sayre, Seattle, Wash. 54 in bad weather for Nome, but had to turn back. days, 9 hours, 42 minutes. Henry Frederick. 54 On June 14 he started again and got as far as the days, 7 hours, 2 minutes.

Anadyr River, in Northeast Siberia (750 miles west 1907. Col. Burnlay-Campbell, 40 days, 19 hours, of Nome) where he was forced down and his plane 30 minutes.

cracked up. He was rescued, injured, by fur trad1911. Andre Jaeger-Schmidt, 39'days, 19 hours.

ers. A Russian plane took him (July 20) to 42 minutes, 38 seconds.

Nome, and thence an American plane landed him 1913. John Henry Mears, 35 days, 21 hours, 36 at Floyd Bennett Field on July 30. minutes,

1936. Three N. Y. City newspaper reporters left 1924. U. S. Army airplanes, 175 days (14 days, that city (Sept. 30,) each for a trip around the 15 hours actual flying time.)

world to test the commercial fying routes. 1926. Edward S. Evans and Linton Wells for went to Lakehurst, N. J.,

to board the Zeppelin The World of New York, 28 days, 14 hours, 36 Hindenburg, which took off at 11:17:27 p.m. minutes, 5 seconds. Their mileage, by train and

The first to finish the trip was H. R. Ekins of the motor car, was 4,100; by plane, 6,300; by steamship, New York World-Telegram and the other Scripps8.000.

Howard newspapers. He returned at 11:14:20 a.m. 1928. John Henry Mears and Capt. C. B. D.

Monday, Oct. 19, having made the trip approxi. Collyer, 23 days, 15 hours, 21 minutes, 3 seconds. mately 25,654 miles from Lakehurst to Lakehurst in They left New York (June 29,) by seaplane and

18 days, 11 hours, 14 min. and 33 sec. The gross overtook the Olympic off Long Island. From Cher - elapsed time from The World - Telegram building bourg, July 5, they flew across Europe and Asia.

which he left at 8:17:30 p.m., back to it was 18 reaching Tokio on (July 11.). They travelled by

days, 14 hours, 56 min., 30 sec. The total flying steamer to Vancouver, British Columbia, (July

time was 8 days, 10 hours, 26 min., and the aver20,) and flew thence to New York City, arriving age flying speed 127 m.p.h. Ekins' course was: July 22.

By the Hindenburg to Frankfort, Germany; by 1929. German dirigible balloon, Graf Zeppelin Royal Dutch Airline to Batavia; by Netherlands left Friedrichshafen, Germany, (July 31.) reached Indian Airways to Manilla; by Pan American AirLakehurst, N. J., Aug. 4,) leit Lakehurst, Aug. 8, ways to Alameda, Cal.; by United Airlines to reached Friedrichshafen, (Aug. 10.) left there Aug. Burbank, Cal., by T. W. A. to Newark, N. J. 14 and reached Tokio, Japan, (Aug. 19,) left there

1938. Howard Hughes, accompanied by four (Aug. 23,) and reached Los Angeles, Cal., (Aug. technical assistants, left New York City, (7:26 26,) left there (Aug. 27,) and reached Lakehurst

p.m., July 10.) and flew around the world via Paris, (Aug. 29,) left there (Sept. 1,) and reached Fried- Moscow, U. S. S. R..; Omsk, U. S. S. R.; Yakutsk, richshafen (Sept. 4.) Approximate distance Cov- U. S. S. R.; Fairbanks, Alaska; Minneapolis, ered 21,700 miles; time from Friedrichshafen to Minn., and landed in New York City at 2:34.10 Friedrichshafen (Aug. 10-Sept. 4) 20 days, 4 hours. p.m., completing the trip of 14,824 mlles in 3

1931. Monoplane Winnie Mae (Wiley Post, pilot; days, 19 hours, 8 minutes and 10 seconds. Harold Gatty, navigator) around the northern air 1939. Mrs. Clara Adams of New York City circumference of the world (15,474 miles) in 8 departed from Port Washington, L. I. N. Y. (June days, 15 hours, 51 minutes June 23 at 4:56 a.m.. 28) on the flying boat Dixie Clipper of the Pan to July 1, at 8:45 p.m.

American line and landed at Newark Airport (July 1933. Monoplane, Winnie Mae (Wiley Post, 15), completing the around world trip by air alone), around the northern air circumference of in 16 days, 19 hours, 4 minutes.

Fast Atlantic Ocean Passages by Air

DIBIGIBLE BALLOONS

land, Cal. to Australia, 8,000 miles, in three hops. 1928. The Graf Zeppelin left Friedrichshafen, (June-July.) Germany (Oct. 11, at 2 a.m.), and arrived at Lake- 1931 Wlley Post and Harold Gatty crossed from hurst, N. J. (Oct. 15, at 5:38 p.m.), having flown Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, to England. 2,200

miles in 16 hours, 17 minutes (June 23-24.) 6.630 miles in 4 days, 15 hours, 46 minutes. The Graf Zeppelin made the trip by the way of Spain. Harbor Grace to Ireland 2,02635 miles in 14 hours,

1932 Mrs. Amelia Earhart Putnam flew from the Madeiras and Bermuda.

56 minutes (May 20-21.) 1936. The Hindenburg left Frankfort on the

1937 Henry T. Merrill and John S. Lambe flew Main, Germany (June 30, at 12:29 a.m.) and from Bennett Field, Brooklyn, N. Y to Croydon reached Lakehurst (July 2 at 3:46 a.m.) making airdrome, London, in 20 hours, 59 minutes (May the trip in 51 hours, 17 minutes. The dirigible 9.10.), They left Southport, England, with coronamade the run over the Atlantic Ocean from Lands tion photographs and reached Brooklyn in 24 hours, End, Northern Ireland, to Land Fall, over Labrador, 22 minutes, 25 seconds, after a brief landing at in 22 hours, 50 minutes, after passing over the Squantum, Mass. (May 13-14.). Mikhail Gromsouthern tip of Greenland. The Hindenburg left off, Andrey Yumasheff and Sergel Danilin, Russian Lakehurst (Aug. 9, at 10:35 p.m.) and reached

aviators,

flew non-stop from Moscow to San Frankfort (Aug. 11 at 5:28 p.m.) in 42 hours, 53 Jacinto, Cal., approximately 6,262 miles. in 62

hours, 2 minutes, via the North Pole route (July minutes.

12-14.) AIRPLANES

1938 Douglas G. Corrigan flew his nine-year-old 1919 U.S. Navy Seaplane NC4, Commander Al- $900 plane from Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, bert C. Read and crew, flew from Newfoundland N. Y to Baldonnel Airfield, Dublin, in 28 hours. to Lisbon, Portugal, via the Azores (May 16-27). 13 minutes (July 17-18.) British Imperial Airways John Alcock and A. W. Brown flew non-stop from seaplane, Mercury, completed non-stop East-toNewfoundland to Ireland, (June 14-15) a distance West flight from Foynes, Ireland to Montreal in of 1960 miles in 16 hours, 12 minutes.

20 hours, 19 minutes. (July 20-21.) Also see 1938 1925 Commander John Rodgers, U.S.N. and above. crew, flew from San Francisco Bay to within 100

1940 The Yankee Clipper of Pan American Airmiles of the Hawaiian Islands in September, drifted ways flew from LaGuardia Field, New

York Muninine days and were rescued.

pal Airport, to Lisbon, Portgual (April 1-2, 1940) 1926 Lieutenant Commander Richard Evelyn in 18 hours 35 minutes flying time. The elapsed Byrd, U.S.N., flew from Spitzbergen to the North time was 21 hours 56 minutes. The return tripPole and return (May 9). Amundsen-Ellsworth- east-west, was made in 25 hours 1 minute with an Nobile expedition fiew from Spitzbergen over the elapsed time of 27 hours 43 minutes. The round North Pole to Barrow, Alaska, in a dirigible land- trip flying time was 43 hours 36 minutes. The ing at Teller, Alaska, after having been lost over American Clipper flew from Lisbon to New York the Arctic area for seventy-eight hours. (May 12.) .(April 15-16, 1940) in 23 hours 23 minutes The

1927 Charles A. Lindbergh flew from Mineola, Atlantic Clipper of the Pan American Airways flew N. Y. to Paris, 3,600 miles, in 33 hours, 30 minutes (Oct. 22) from Bermuda to Lisbon, 3,118 miles, in (May 20-21.) Clarence Chamberlin and Charles Le- 18 hours 24 minutes. vine flew from Mineola, N. Y to Eisleben. Ger- 1941-The Atlantic Clipper of the Pan American many, 3,911, in 42 hours, 31 minutes (June 4-6.) Airways flew non-stop from Bermuda to Lisbon, in

1928 Charles Kingsford-Smith flew from Oak- 16 hours 30 minutes (Jan, 21-22).

Great Ocean Steamships and Motorships

Source: Lloyd's Register of Shipping and the U. S. Maritime Commission
(Note-The length is from the stem to the fore part of the rudder post.)
Reg.
Breal

Reg.

Brea
Name
Ton. L'gth dth Dpth

Name

Ton. L'gth dth Dpth Ft.In. Ft In Ft.In

Ft.In.Ft.In.FL. ID. Queen Elizabeth, Br. 85,000

*Oceania, It.

19,507 589 7 76 7 45 5 Normandie, Fr. 83,423 981 4117 9 57 6*Neptunia, It

19,475 589 7 76 5 45 1 Queen Mary, Br

81,235 975 2 118 6 68 5 *). y Oldenbarnevelt, H 19,429 586 2 74 S 361 Rex. It.

51,062 879 9 97 0 30 7 Tonan Macu No. 2, Jap 19.425 534 81 74 o 56 8 Europa, Ger

49,746 890 2 102 1 48 0 *M V St. Aldegonde, Hol. 19,355 586 2 74 8 36 1 Conte di Savoia, It.

48,502 814 6 96 1) 32 4 Tonan Maru, No. 3, Jap. 19,210 534 8 74 0 56 3 Aquitania, Br.

44,786 868 797 0 49 7 Windsor Castle, Br. 19,141 661 372 5 41 Ile de France, Fr. 43, 450 763 7 92 0 55 9 Arundel Castle, Br.

19,118 661 3 72 51 41 & Nieuw Amsterdam, Holl.. 36,287 713 7 88 350 0|Conte Verde, It.

18.765 570 2 74 21 35 9 Mauretania, Br. 35,739 739 4 89 451 7 Ceramic, Br..

18.713655 11 69 4 48 8 1 America, U. S 35,440 772 71 93 5 30 4|De Grasse. Fr.

18,435 552 1 71 4 42 3 Roma, It 30,816 705 61 82 838 9 Scharnhorst, Ger.

18,184 625 61 74 1

41 0 *Augustus, It 30,418 710 9 82 8 46 5Gneisenau, Ger

18,160 625 61 74 1 41 4 Pasteur, Fr.

30,000 656 2 87 930 5 *Gripsholm, Swed. 18,134 553 0 74 4 37 7 *Stockholm, Swed 28,000 642 8 83 2 35 4 Mariposa, U. 8.

18,017 604 0 79 31 30 5 *Georgic, Br. 27,759 683 6 82 448,6 Monterey. U. S.

18.0171604 0 79 31 30 5 Cap Arcona, Gér. 27,561 643 6 84 641 9 Lurline, U.B..

18,009 604 0 79 3 30 5 *Dominion Monarch, Br. 27,155 657 6 84 8 44 4Kosmos, Nor

17,801 554 1 77 2 49 6 *Capetown Castle, Br 27.000 702 982 5 42 0 *Reina del Pacifico, Br 17,702 551 376 3 37 8 *Britannic, Br.

26,943 683 6 82 4 48 6 Nissid Maru No. 2, Jap.. 17.553 537 0 74 0 48 8 Empress of Japan, Br 26,032 644 0 83 8 44 5. Aramls, Fr.

17,537 543 5 69 6 33 6 Andes, Br. 25,689 643 3 83 5 43 6 Potsdam, Ger

17,528 604 7 74 2 40 7 *Athlone Castle. Br. 25,564 696 082 5 41 4 *Kamakura Maru, Jap 17,526 560 0 74 0 42 5 Stirling Castle, Br.. 25,550 696 0 82 51 41 4 *Aorangi, Br

17,491 580 1 72 2 43 4 *Wilhelm Gustlofi, Ger 25,484650 4 77 4 26 5 * Pretoria Castle, Br. 17,392 570 776 4 39 5 *Saturnia, It.

24,470 630 1 79 8 29 5.Durban Castle, Br 17,388 570 71 76 4 39 5 *Vulcanla, It.. 24,469631 4 79 8 24 4|| Matsonia, U. 8.

17,226 554 0 83 2 30 7 Manhattan, U, S. 24,289 668 4 86 3 33 3*Felix Roussel, Fr.

17,083 575 3 68 31 441 Washington, U. 8. 24,289 668 4 86 3 33 3 Dempo, Holl

17,024 551 01 70 441 6 Conte Grande, It. 23,861 652 2 78 3 27 21 Baloeran, Holl.

17,001 551 0 70 4 41 6 George Washington, U.S. . 23,788 690 1 78 2 50 1 *Tatuta Maru, Jap. 16.975 560 0 72 0 42 5 Strathallan, Br 23,722 639 5 82 31 33 6 * Ayamna Maru, Jap.

16.975 560 0 72 0 42 5 Stratheden, Br 23,722 639 5 82 2 83 6 Kosmos II, Nor.

16,966 553 4 77 2 37 6 Duilio, It.

23,635 635 6 76 3 46 3 Empress of Asia, Br. 16.909 570 1 68 21 42 0 Orcades, Br.

23,456 639 3 82 2 33 6 Empress of Russia, Br. 18,810 570 2 68 2 42 O Strathmore, Br. 23,428 640 3 82 2 33 7 | California, Br.

16,792 553 0 70 4 38 8 Orion, Br 23,371 640 3 82 2 33 7 *Nissin Maru, Jap

16,764 537 0 74 0 48 S Conte Biancamano, It. 23,255 650 9 76 11 27 5 *Muwaukee, Ger

16,754 546 6 72 4 42 2 Queen of Bermuda, Br. 22,575 553 4 76 7 39 0 Ranchi, Br..

16,738 548 5 71 3 34 2 Monarch of Bermuda, Br.. 22,424 553 2 76 7| 39 0 *St. Louis, Ger

16,732 543 8 72 41 42 1 New York, Ger 22,337 645 6 72 4 42 1 *Rangitata, Br

16.737 531 070 2 38 1 Strathmore, Br 22.283 638 780 2 33 1 * Rangitikl, Br.

16,698 531 070 2 38 I Strathaird, Br 22,281 638 7 80 2 33 1 Ranpura, Br.

16,688 548 371 343 2 Alcantara, Br. 22,209 640 5 78 5 40 5 Pretoria, Ger

16,662 547 872 5 31 5 Hamburg, Ger 122,117 645 6 72 442 i Windhuk, Ger.

16,662 547 8 72 51 31 5 Asturias, Br 22,048 640 5 78 5 40 5 Patria, Ger.

16,595 562 3 74 11 36 4 President Coolidge, U. S. 21,936 615 0 81 3 28 2 Narkunda. Br

16.632 581 469 41 44 5 Giulio Cesare, It. 21.900 634 0 76 1 46 3 Rimutaka, Br

16.576 551 6 72 0 38 5 Unitas. Ger... 21.846602 5 80 2 49 1 Westernland, Ger

16,479 574 4 67 8 40 9 Emp. of Australia, Br, 21.833 589 9 75 2 41 5 Montcalm, Br

16,418 549 5 70 240 2 Empress of Canada, Br. 21,517 627 0 77 9 42 2 Pennland, Holl

16,381 574 4 67 8 40 9 America, U. S. 21,329 668 8 74 3 47 8Montclare, Br.

16,314 5495 70 2 40 2 Deutschland, Ger 21,046 645 8 72 2 41 9 Cameronia, Br.

16,297 552 470 41 38 8 Mooltan, Br.

20,952 600 873 4 48 6*Chris. Huygens, Holl. 16,287 551 4 68 8 36 2 Maloja, Br. 20,914 600 8 73 448 6 Canton, Br.

15.784 541 673 3 41 9 Argentina, U. S. 20,614 586 4 80 3 20 5 Almanzora, Br.

15,551 570 0 67 3 33 3 Brazil, US

20.614 586 4 80 3 20 5 President Johnson, U. 8. 15,543 600 0 65 31 23 1 Franconia, Br 20,175 601 3 73 7 40 6| Orduna, Br.

15,507 550 3 67 3 43 0 Duchess of Bedford, Br 120,123 581 91 75 2 41 7 Orbita, Br

15,495 550 367 3 43 0 *Carnarvon Castle, Br. 20,122 661 1 73 5 41 7 Volendam, Holl.

15,434 550 2 67 3 32 6 Duchess of Atholl, Br. 20,119 582 075 2 41 7Massilla, Fr.

15,363 577 1 64 1 37 0 *Warwick Castle, Br 20,107 651 5 75 5 37 4-Amerikaland, Swed. 15,355 561 372 2 44 1 Orontes, Br. 20,097 638 2 75 3 33 1 Chitral, Br

15,346 526 3 70 3 42 3 *Kungsholm, Swed. 20.067 594 9 78 2 37 8 Svealand, Swed

15,300 561 372 2 44 1 Oronsay, Br. 20.043 633 6 75 2 33 0 Berlin, Ger

15,286 549 3 69 2 34 8 Otranto, Br 20.026 632 0 75 2 32 9 Athos II. Fr.

15,276 543 9 66 2 41 7 Duchess of Richmond, Br. 20,022 581 91 75 2 41 7| Comorin, Br.

15,241 523 5 70 2 42 3 Duchess of York, Br. 20.021 581 91 75 2 41 7Cathay, Br.

15,225 523 5 70 242 3 *Oranje, Holl 20.017 613 9 83 5 32 4 Flermonte, It.

15,209 546 11 67 21 41 8 *Winchester Castle, Br 20.012,631 6 75 5 37 5 Atlantis, Br

15,135 570 3 67 3 33 3 Scythia, Br. 19,761 600 773 8 40 7 Akагов. Вг.

15,130 550 7 67 4 44 1 Laconia, Br 19.695 601 3 73 7 40 6 D'Artagnan. Fr.

15,105 543 565 0 41 4 Viceroy of India, Br. 19,627 586 1 72 641 5 Dunnottar Castle, Br. 15,007 540 071 9 37 S Samaria, Br

19,5971601 5 73 7 40 7
*Motor ships. Lloyd's lists the tonnage as 27,000.

[graphic]
[graphic]

In the above list 23 ships are missing from the Oslofjord, Nor. (18.673): Conte Rosso, Ital. (17.World Almanac list of 1941; 19 of them were "lost 879); Caledonia, Brit. (17.040), Rangitare, Brit. as the result of the War" to quote from the (16.712); Rajputana, Brit. (26,644); Montrose.

Brit. (16.402); Lancastria, Brit. (16,243); Anandora description of the United States Maritime Com

Star, Brit. (15.501); Veendam, Holl. (15,450): mission.

Liguvia, Ital. (15.354).
They were (registered tonnage in parentheses):

The Bremen, Ger. (51.731) was destroyed by fire.
Empress of Britain, Brit. (42,348); Stattendam,

The Monticello, U. S. (19.361) and the Mount
Holl. (28.291); Champlain, Fr. (28.124); Hansa.

Vernon, U. S. (18.372) were scrapped.
Ger. (21,131); Terje Viken, Brit. (20,638): Oxford.

The Rotterdam, Holl. (24,149), was scrapped.
Brit. (20,043); Lombardia, Ital. (20.006): Orama,

The above list is incomplete, but there were no Brit. (19.840); Monticello, U.S. (19.361); Laurentic, available governmental sources of information Brit. (18,724).

during the war.

« ZurückWeiter »