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placement, left the Barbados, West Indies, on
March 4, 1918, and never heard of since.
had on board 309.

-June 27. British hospital ship, Llandovery
Castle sunk by submarine off England; 234.
-July 6. River steamer Columbia sunk in Illinois
River at Wesley City: 87.

-July 12. Japanese battleship Kawachi blown up
in Tokayama Bay; 500.

-July 14. French troop ship Djamnah sunk by torpedo in Mediterranean; 442.

-July 19. U. S. Cruiser, San Diego, sunk by mine, off Fire Island, N. Y.; 50.

-Aug. 3. British hospital ship, Warilda, torpedoed off England; 123.

-Sept, 12. British transport, Galway Castle, pedoed in Atlantic; 189.

town, Mass., in collision with Coast Guard de-
stroyer Paulding; 40.

1928-July 7. Chilean transport, Angames, wrecked
in storm in Bay of Arauco; 291.

-Aug. 6. Italian submarine F14 sunk in Adriatic
Sea in collision with destroyer; 31.
-Oct. 3. French submarine, Ondine, in collision
with Greek steamer, off Portugal; 43.
-Nov. 12. British steamer Vestris, N. Y., for
So. America, sunk in gale off Virginia; 110.
-Danish cadet auxiliary sailing ship, Kobenhavn
left Montevideo, Uruguay, in Dec. 1928, bound
for Australia; never heard from; 60.

Pannonia), in Mediterranean; 40.
1929-Jan. 2. Steamship Malakoff (formerly the
crashed on Rocky Cape Erino; 103.
tor--April 22. Japanese steamer, Toyo Kuni Maru,

-Sept. 26. U. S. ship Tampa, torpedoed off Eng-July 9. British submarine, H-47, in collision land; 118.

-Sept. 30. U. S. ship, Ticonderoga, torpedoed in
Atlantic; 213..

-Oct. 6. Otranto, British ship with U. S. troops,
sunk in collison off Scotland; 431.

with sister submarine L-12; 21.

collision with tanker, off Santa Cruz, Calif.; 70. Aug. 30. Coasting steamer, San Juan, sunk in -Oct. 7. Norwegian steamer, Haakon VII, hit rock in storm and sank near Floroe; 44.

-Oct. 10. Irish mail steamer, Leinster, torpedoed-Dec. 21. Chinese steamer, Lee Cheong, sank on in St. George's Channel; 480.

-Oct. 25. Canadian steamship Princess Sophia
sunk on coast of Alaska; 398.

1919-Jan. 1. British steam yacht Iolaire (Eagle),
off Stornoway, Scotland; 30 of 300 saved.
-Jan. 11. Steamer Yuma sunk en route Pedro
d'Macoris to New York; 79.

way from Swabue for Hong Kong: 300. 1930-April 2. Ferry-boat capsized near Tobata; 110. -June 10. Oil tanker Pinthis sunk in Massachusetts Bay in collision with coast steamer, Fairfax: 50.

storm in Black Sea; 50. 1931-Jan. 20. Russian steamer, Javaria, sunk in

-Jan. 17. French steamer Chaouia lost in Straits-Feb. 9. French steamer, Porthos, sunk in snow of Messina; 460.

-Sept. 9-10.

storm off Kobe, Japan; 50.

Spanish steamer, Valbanera, lost-March 11. Chinese steamer exploded in Yangtse
River; 300.

between Havana, Cuba, and Key West, Fla.: 500.
-Nov. 9. American steamship Polar Land van--April 1. Collision of French immigrant steamer,
ished off Nova Scotia; 51.

1920-Jan. 12. French steamship sunk in Bay of Biscay; 500.

1921-Spanish steamer Santa Isabel storm-wrecked near Villagarcia; 214.

-Jan. 20. British submarine K5 failed to return
to port; 55.

-March 18. Steamer Hongkong hit rock near
Swatow, China; 1,000.

1922-Jan. 4. Greek torpedo boat blew up at
Piraeus; 55.

-May 20. British steamer Egypt, in collision off
France; 98.

Aug. 26. French battleship France, 23,000 tons,
hit rock and sank off Quiberon Bay; 3.
-Aug. 26. Japanese cruiser Niitaka sank in storm
off Kamchatka; 300.
-Aug. 29.

Chilian steamer Itata sank in storm

off Coquimbo; 301. 1923-March 10. Greek transport Alexander sank off Piraeus; 150. -April 23.

Portuguese mail steamer Mossamedes went aground at Cape Frio, Africa; 220. The Mallory liner Swiftstar left Gulf --July 13. end of Panama Canal, never heard of; 33. -Aug. 21. Japanese submarine 70 sunk: 88. -Sept. 3. Fleet of seven U. S. destroyers, including the Delphy, S. P. Lee, Chauncey, Fuller, Woodbury, Nicholas, and Young, went on rocks in fog off Honda Point, Cal.; 22. 1924

Jan. 10.

British submarine L-24 sunk off
Portland, England, in collision with British bat-
tleship, Resolute; 48.
-March 11.

Ward Line steamship Santiago
sunk by storm off Cape Hatteras; 25.
-March 19.


Florida, and British aircraft carrier, Glorious, off Malaga, Spain; 40.

-June 9. British submarine, Poseidon, sunk in
collision with steamer, Yuta, off China; 20.
-June 14. French excursion steamer, upset in gale
off St. Nazaire; 450.

-Oct. 24. Russian submarine sunk in Gulf of
Finland: 50.

H42 sunk off

1932-Jan. 26. British submarine, M-2, sunk off
Portland Bill, England; 60.
British submarine
-Feb. 25.
Gibraltar; 26.
-May 16. French passenger motorship. Georges
Philippar, burned and sunk in Arabian Sea; 41.
-July 7. New French submarine, Promethee, off
Cherbourg; 62.

-Sept. 9. Steamboat Observation, carrying work-
men to Riker's Island, blown to bits by explosion
of boiler, in the East River, N. Y. City: 72.
-Dec. 5. Japanese destroyer, Sawarabi, turned up-
side down by gale off Formosa; 105.
1933-Jan. 4.

New 41,000-ton French steamer,
L'Atlantique, burned in English Channel; 17.
-April 4, U. S. Navy dirigible balloon, Akron,
crashed on the Atlantic in a thunder storm, 20
miles southeast of Barnegat Inlet Light, N. J.;
73. There were but 3 survivors.
tse River, burned and sank; 216.
1934-Jan. 21. Chinese steamer, Weitung, on Yang-
-Mch. 12. Japanese torpedo, boat Tomozuru upset
west of Nagasaki; 103.

-Sept. 8. American steamship Morro Castle, Ha-
vana for New York with 318 passengers and crew
of 231, took fire off Asbury Park, N. J.: 134.
1935-Jan. 24. Ward Line steamer Mohawk, in
collision off New Jersey coast with Norwegian
freighter, Talisman; 45.

-July 3. Japanese cruise steamer, Midori Maru,
sunk in collision in the Inland Sea; 104.
Sea, in collision with another warship; 55.
July 25. Russian submarine, B-3, sunk in Baltic
1936-Jan. 12. Freight steamer Iowa sunk in gale
at mouth of Columbia River, Oreg.; 34.
-Nov. 8. German motorship, Isis, sunk in storm
off Land's End, England; 39.

Japanese submarine 43 sunk in Collision off Sasebo, with battleship Tatsuta; 49. -June 12. Explosion on U. S. S. Mississippi, at gun practice off San Pedro, Calif.; 48. 1925-March 12. Japanese steamer Uwajima Maru lost in gale off Takashima; 103. Excursion steamboat Mackinac, -Aug. 18. Narragansett Bay, boiler explosion; 47. U. S. submarine S-51 sunk in col-Sept. 25. lision with City of Rome, off Block Isl., R. I.; 37. -Nov. 11. British submarine, M-1, sunk in col--Dec. 12. Spanish submarine sunk off Malaga lision in English Channel: 69. 1926-April grounded in storm off Horomushiro, Japan; 230. Buryvestnik 28. Passenger steamboat -Aug. smashed into a river pier near Cronstadt, Russia, and sank; 300. -Oct. 16. Troopship blown up in Yangtse River, at Klukiang, China; 1,200.

27. Passenger

by a torpedo; 47.

steamer Chichibu-Dec. 26. Italian steamship. Cesare Battiste, blew
up in harbor of Massaua, Eritrea; 36 killed.
1939-Feb. 2. Japanese submarine 163 sunk in
Bungo Channel; 81.

-Oct. 20. British navy sloop, Valerian, sunk in
storm south of Bermuda; 84.

-Dec. 20. Oil tug, Linseed King, overturned in
Hudson River at New York City; 45.
1927-Aug. 25. Japanese destroyer Warabi sunk
and destroyer Ashi crushed in collisions with
cruisers Jiutsu, and Naka, off Bungo Straits; 129.
-Oct. 25. Italian steamship, Principessa Mafalda
blew up and sank, off Porto Seguro, Brazil; 314.
Dec. 17. U. S. submarine, S-4, sunk off Province-

-May 23. U. S. submarine Squalus, sunk in practice dive off Portsmouth, N. H.; 26: 33 rescued. Open air intake valve blamed. This boat was raised and recommissioned in 1940.

-June 1, British submarine Thetis sunk in test dive in Irish sea off Great Ormes Head, Wales; 99, 4 rescued.

-June 15, French submarine, Phenix, sunk in practice dive, Carn-Ranh Bay, off Indo-China; 63. -Sept. 3. British merchant ship. Athenia, sunk in the Atlantic, on the way to Montreal, 200 miles west of the Hebrides: 93 of the 1,104 passengers lost.

Visibility at Sea

Source: United States Coast Guard

The table following gives the approximate geographic range of visibility for an object which may be seen by an observer whose eye is at sea level; in practice, therefore, it is necessary to add to these a distance of visibility corresponding to the height of the observer's eye above sea level.


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The table following gives the approximate geographic range of visibility for an object which may be seen by an observer whose eye is at lake level; in practice, therefore, it is necessary to add to these a distance of visibility corresponding to the height of the observer's eye above lake level. DISTANCES OF VISIBILITY FOR OBJECTS OF VARIOUS ELEVATIONS ABOVE LAKE LEVEL

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Boston light, 100,000.

The Fire Island, N. Y., Light is 167 ft. high; visible 19 nautical miles. The Shinnecock light has 140,000 candlepower; Electricity is the illuminant now used in most of the larger lighthouses, electric incandescent lamps placed inside the larger sizes of lenses producing beams of as much as 9,000,000 candlepower where such brilliance is required. The flashing characteristics which distinguish many of the lighthouses are produced by revolving the entire lens by electric motors. Lenses which are aggregates of highly polished glass prisms are assembled in a variety of types to produce whatever characteristic will best differentiate a particular light from its neighbors.

The larger light stations are also fitted with fog signals, various types of sounding devices such as diaphones, trumpets, oscillators, sirens, and horns.

A typical fog-signal installation consists of gaso-
line or oil engine driven air compressors, dis-
charging compressed air into a large storage tank.
From the air tank or receiver, the air is allowed
to flow to the sounding device under the accurate
control of a signal timer, which coordinates fog
signal, the light in the tower, and the radio beacon
signals. The fog signals at some stations are
operated by electricity.

houses and all United States lightships are fitted
Many of the more important United States light-
Certain ones also have radio
with radiobeacons.
telegraph or radio telephone communication facili-

Fast Ocean Passages by Ships


Columbus, in 1492, sailed from Spain (Palos) to the Gulf of Mexico in 70 days, Aug. 3 to Oct. 12. The best day's run was 200 miles. His flagship was the Santa Maria. The other vessels were the Pinta and the Nina. From Palos they Went to the Canary Islands, and it was not until Sept. 6 that they left the Island of Gomera. They were not out into the open sea until Sept. 9. His second voyage, in 1493, from Cadiz, Spain, to Dominica, in the West Indies (Sept. 25-Nov. 3) was made in 40 days, but the land-to-land passage was only 21 days; his third, to Trinidad (May 30July 31) in 1497, in 62 days; his fourth and last, to Honduras, in 1502 (May-July) in about 62 days, but the land-to-land time (May 26-June 15) was but 20 days.

The American-built, British-owned ship. James Baines, sailed 21 nautical miles (knots) an hour. for several hours-a record. She sailed from Boston Light to Rock Light, Liverpool, in 12 days, 6 hours.

The Flying Cloud twice made the voyage from New York to San Francisco, around Cape Horn, in 89 days. The "medium" clipper, Andrew Jackson, did it in 89 days.

The British tea-clipper, Thermopylae, sailed in 1854 from Liverpool, England, to Melbourne, Australia, in 63 days, 18 hours, 15 minutes.

The Northern Light, "medium" clipper, sailed from San Francisco to Boston in 76 days, 6 hours. The run north from Cape Horn was made in 38 days.

The clipper Red Jacket, built at Rockland, Me., sailed from N. Y. to Liverpool in 13 days, 1 hour,

BY STEAMSHIPS AND The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was the Rising Sun, in 1818; built in Britain by Lord Cochrane. She voyaged to South America.

The first American ship to use steam in crossing an ocean was the Savannah, 350 tons, built at New York City, which left Savannah, Ga., on May 24, 1819, and reached Liverpool in 26 days, during 18 of which she used her side-paddles. She was a sailing vessel with steam auxiliary.

The Great Western, on her maiden voyage from Bristol, England, to New York, covered the distance in April, 1838, in 15 days. Her best record was 10 days. 10 hours, 15 minutes. The Britannia, first Cunard liner, in July, 1840, came from Liverpool to New York in 14 days, 8 hours.

In May, 1851, the Pacific reduced the Atlantic record to 9 days, 19 hours, 25 minutes.

The Persia, in 1856, did it in 9 days, 1 hour. 45 minutes; the Scotia, in 1866, in 8 days, 2 hours, 48 minutes; the City of Brussels, in 1869, in 7 days, 22 hours, 3 minutes; the Baltic, in 1873, in 7 days, 20 hours, 9 minutes; the City of Berlin, in 1875, in 7 days, 15 hours, 8 minutes: the Arizona, in 1880, in 7 days, 7 hours, 23 minutes; the Alaska, in 1882, in 6 days, 18 hours, 37 minutes; the Etruria, in 1888, in 6 days, 1 hour, 55 minutes; the Majestic, in 1891, in 5 days, 18 hours, 8 minutes; the Lucania, in 1894, in 5 days. 7 hours, 23 minutes; the Lusitania, in 1908, in 4 days 15 hours; the Lusitania, in 1909, in 4 days 11 hours 42 minutes; the Mauretania, in 1910. in 4 days, 10 hours, 41 minutes, at the rate of 26.06 knots an hour.

The foregoing records, since and including 1856, are between New York and Queenstown, averaging 2,780 nautical miles.

The Deutschland, in Sept., 1900, went from Sandy Hook, New York, to Plymouth, England, in 5 days, 7 hours, 38 minutes. The Leviathan, Oct. 4-10, went from New York to Cherbourg in 5 days, 6 hours, 21 minutes, at an average speed of 24.67 knots.

In Aug.. 1933, the Italian Steamship, Rex. crossed the Atlantic, from Gibraltar to Ambrose Light, New York Harbor, 3,181 miles, in 4 days, 13 hours, 58 minutes.

The Europa of the North German Lloyd Line, on her maiden voyage, went, in 1930 (Mch. 20Breakwater, 25), from Cherbourg France. to Ambrose Channel Lightship, New York Harbor (3.157 nautical miles), in 4 days, 17 hours, 6 minutes. In July, 1933, she covered that route (3.149 miles) in 4 days, 16 hours, 48 minutes (average 27.92). In June, 1933, Ambrose to Cherbourg, 3,196 miles, in 4 days, 19 hours, 57 minutes (average 27.56).

The Bremen, of the North German Lloyd Line. on her maiden voyage, went in 1929 (July 18-22)

25 minutes. The packet ship, Yorkshire, in Nov
1846, sailed from Liverpool to New York in 16
The Surprise was one of the first clippers built
outside New York. She was designed by Samuel
Pook, then only 23, and built at East Boston by
Samuel Hall. She was only 1,006 tons register,
but solidly built and fairly sharp in the bows.
Her bowsprit was 30 inches diameter and extended
35 feet from the stem, nearly a fifth of her own
length. Beneath that bowsprit was a gilded
eagle. She carried about 1,800 tons of cargo, and
her complement at first consisted of four mates.
two boatswains, carpenter, sailmaker, steward.
two cooks, thirty able bodied seamen, six ordinary
seamen, and four boys. In one round voyage, from
New York to San Francisco and from Hong Kong
to London with tea, the Surprise earned a net
profit of $50,000 over and above her expenses and
her own cost to build!

The ship Starr King once sailed from 50 degrees south to the Golden Gate in 36 days, a record. She was 8 days more getting into San Francisco, owing to fog. The Golden Fleece took only 122 days from the Equator to within 200 miles of San Francisco. Those 200 miles took her another week.

The Atlantic, in the race for the German Emperor's Cup, in 1905, sailed from Sandy Hook to the Lizard, England, in 12 days, 4 hours, 1 minute and 19 seconds; 3,013 nautical miles, average speed 10.31 knots. The best day's run was 341 nautical miles. In 1928 she crossed from England in 23 days. The Yankee came from Bishop Rock to Boston Light in 1936, in 22 days, 6 hours, 7 minutes.


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from the Breakwater at Cherbourg to the Ambrose Channel Lightship, (approximately 3,164 nautical miles) in 4 days, 17 hours, 42 minutes, at an average speed of 27.83 knots, or nautical miles, an hour. She returned to Plymouth, 3,082 miles, in 4 days. 14 hours, 30 minutes (average 27.91). In July. 1933, Ambrose to Cherbourg, 3,199 miles, in 4 days, 16 hours, 15 minutes (average 28.51). In Nov., 1934, Cherbourg to Ambrose, 3,092 miles, in 4 days, 14 hours, 27 minutes (average 28.00).

The Queen Mary, Cunard White Star liner on her maiden voyage, May-June, 1936, went from Cherbourg to Ambrose, 3.158 miles, in 4 days, 12 hours, 24 minutes (average 29.13). She returned, Ambrose to Cherbourg, 3,198 miles, in 4 days, 15 hours, 15 minutes (average 28.74).

On Aug. 8, 1938, the Queen Mary arrived in New York port, having come from Bishop's Rock, off Southampton, to Ambrose, 2,907 miles in 3 days. 21 hours, 48 minutes (average 30.99). Bishop's Rock is 126 miles nearer to Ambrose than is Cherbourg.

On the return trip, the Queen Mary traveled from Ambrose to Bishop Rock, 2,938 miles, in 3 days, 20 hours, 42 minutes (average 31.69).

The French liner, Normandie, on her maiden trip to New York, May 29-June 3, 1935, went the 2,971 miles in 4 days, 3 hours, 13 minutes, 38 seconds (average 29.94). Returning to Europe she covered the 3,015 miles in 4 days, 3 hours, 25 minutes (average 30.31).

In July-Aug. 1937 the Normandie went 2.906 miles, westbound, Bishop's Rock to Ambrose, in 3 days, 23 hours, 2 minutes (average 30.58).

In Aug., 1937 the Normandie covered the east bound course, 2,936 miles, in 3 days, 22 hours, 7 minutes (average 31.20).

The light cruiser Omaha, of the U. S. Navy, In 1923 (May 8-11), steamed from Diamond Head. Oahu, Hawaii, to the San Francisco Light Vessel, a distance of 2,091 miles, in 3 days 3 hours 40 minutes 40 seconds. The average speed was 27.76 miles an


The U. S. S. Memphis, which brought Capt. (now Col.) Charles A. Lindbergh back to the United States after his airplane flight from New York (Mineola) to Paris (Le Bourget), left Cherbourg, France, at 4:35 p.m. (Zone-1) June 4, 1927. and arrived abeam of Cape Henry Light (Delsware Capes) at 4:00 p.m. (Zone plus 5) June 10, 1927; a distance of 3,320 nautical miles at an average speed of 22.21 knots for the run. Captain H E. Lackey, U. S. N., was in command of the ship. The U. S. warship, Lexington, left her anchorage at San Pedro, Calif., at 1.01 p.m., on June 9. 1928, and arrived at Diamond Head Light, Honolulu at 11.08 a.m., on June 12-2,226 nautical miles in 72 hours, 36 minutes; an average speed of 30.66 nautical miles an hour.

Fastest Trips Around the World

1872. A fictitious journey by Phileas Fogg in Jules Verne's novel, 80 days, Oct. 2 to Dec. 20.

1889. Nellie Bly, 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes. 1890. George Francis Train of New York. 67 days, 12 hours, 3 minutes.

1901. Charles Fitzmorris, Chief of Police of Chicago, 60 days. 13 hours, 29 minutes.

1903. J. W. Willis Sayre, Seattle, Wash. 54 days, 9 hours, 42 minutes. Henry Frederick. 54 days, 7 hours, 2 minutes.

1907. Col. Burnlay-Campbell, 40 days, 19 hours, 30 minutes. 1911. Andre Jaeger-Schmidt, 39'days, 19 hours,

42 minutes, 38 seconds.

1913. John Henry Mears, 35 days, 21 hours, 36

minutes. 1924.

U. S. Army airplanes, 175 days (14 days, 15 hours actual flying time.) 1926. Edward S. Evans and Linton Wells for The World of New York, 28 days, 14 hours, 36 minutes, 5 seconds. Their mileage, by train and motor car, was 4,100; by plane, 6,300; by steamship, 8,000.

1928. John Henry Mears and Capt. C. B. D. Collyer, 23 days, 15 hours, 21 minutes, 3 seconds. They left New York (June 29,) by seaplane and overtook the Olympic off Long Island. From Cherbourg, July 5, they flew across Europe and Asia, reaching Tokio on (July 11.) They travelled by steamer to Vancouver, British Columbia, (July 20,) and flew thence to New York City, arriving July 22.

1929. German dirigible balloon, Graf Zeppelin, left Friedrichshafen, Germany, (July 31,) reached Lakehurst, N. J., Aug. 4,) left Lakehurst, Aug. 8, reached Friedrichshafen, (Aug. 10,) left there Aug. 14 and reached Tokio, Japan, (Aug. 19,) left there (Aug. 23,) and reached Los Angeles, Cal., (Aug. 26,) left there (Aug. 27.) and reached Lakehurst (Aug. 29,) left there (Sept. 1,) and reached Friedrichshafen (Sept. 4.) Approximate distance covered 21,700 miles; time from Friedrichshafen to Friedrichshafen (Aug. 10-Sept. 4) 20 days, 4 hours. 1931. Monoplane Winnie Mae (Wiley Post, pilot; Harold Gatty, navigator) around the northern air circumference of the world (15,474 miles) in 8 days, 15 hours, 51 minutes-June 23 at 4:56 a.m.. to July 1, at 8:45 p.m.

1933. Monoplane, Winnie Mae (Wiley Post, alone), around the northern air circumference of

the world (15,596 miles) in 7 days, 18 hours. 4912 minutes-July 15, at 5:10 a.m., to July 22, at 11.592 p.m.

nett Field (5:20 a.m., June 3,) and flew non-stop James Mattern, a Texas airman, left Floyd Bento Jomfruland, near Oslo (Norway); and thence. via Post's 1931 route, to Moscow, and across Siberia to Khabarovsk, where, on June 13, he left in bad weather for Nome, but had to turn back. On June 14 he started again and got as far as the Anadyr River, in Northeast Siberia (750 miles west of Nome) where he was forced down and his plane cracked up. He was rescued, injured, by fur traders. A Russian plane took him (July 20) to Nome, and thence an American plane landed him at Floyd Bennett Field on July 30.

1936. Three N. Y. City newspaper reporters left that city (Sept. 30,) each for a trip around the world to test the commercial flying routes. All went to Lakehurst, N. J., to board the Zeppelin Hindenburg, which took off at 11:17:27 p.m.

The first to finish the trip was H. R. Ekins of the New York World-Telegram and the other ScrippsHoward newspapers. He returned at 11:14:20 a.m. Monday, Oct. 19, having made the trip approximately 25,654 miles from Lakehurst to Lakehurst in 18 days, 11 hours, 14 min. and 33 sec. The gross elapsed time from The World-Telegram building which he left at 8:17:30 p.m., back to it was 18 days, 14 hours, 56 min., 30 sec. The total flying time was 8 days, 10 hours, 26 min., and the average flying speed 127 m.p.h. Ekins' course was: By the Hindenburg to Frankfort, Germany; by Royal Dutch Airline to Batavia; by Netherlands Indian Airways to Manilla; by Pan American Airways to Alameda, Cal.; by United Airlines to Burbank, Cal., by T. W. A. to Newark, N. J.

1938. Howard Hughes, accompanied by four technical assistants, left New York City, (7:26 p.m., July 10,) and flew around the world via Paris, Moscow, U. S. S. R..; Omsk, U. S. S. R.; Yakutsk. U. S. S. R.: Fairbanks, Alaska; Minneapolis, Minn., and landed in New York City at 2:34.10 p.m., completing the trip of 14,824 miles in 3 days, 19 hours, 8 minutes and 10 seconds.

1939. Mrs. Clara Adams of New York City departed from Port Washington, L. I. N. Y. (June 28) on the flying boat Dixie Clipper of the Pan American line and landed at Newark Airport (July 15), completing the around the world trip by air in 16 days, 19 hours, 4 minutes.

Fast Atlantic Ocean Passages by Air


1928. The Graf Zeppelin left Friedrichshafen, Germany (Oct. 11, at 2 a.m.), and arrived at Lakehurst, N. J. (Oct. 15, at 5:38 p.m.), having flown 6,630 miles in 4 days, 15 hours, 46 minutes. Graf Zeppelin made the trip by the way of Spain.

the Madeiras and Bermuda.


1936. The Hindenburg left Frankfort on the Main, Germany (June 30, at 12:29 a.m.) and reached Lakehurst (July 2 at 3:46 a.m.) making The dirigible the trip in 51 hours, 17 minutes. made the run over the Atlantic Ocean from Lands End, Northern Ireland, to Land Fall, over Labrador, in 22 hours, 50 minutes, after passing over the southern tip of Greenland. The Hindenburg left Lakehurst (Aug. 9, at 10:35 p.m.) and reached Frankfort (Aug. 11 at 5:28 p.m.) in 42 hours, 53



1919 U.S. Navy Seaplane NC4, Commander Albert C. Read and crew, flew from Newfoundland to Lisbon, Portugal, via the Azores (May 16-27). John Alcock and A. W. Brown flew non-stop from Newfoundland to Ireland, (June 14-15) a distance of 1960 miles in 16 hours, 12 minutes.

1925 Commander John Rodgers, U.S.N. and crew, flew from San Francisco Bay to within 100 miles of the Hawaiian Islands in September, drifted nine days and were rescued.

land, Cal. to Australia, 8,000 miles, in three hops. (June-July.)

1931 Wiley Post and Harold Gatty crossed from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, to England, 2,200 miles in 16 hours, 17 minutes (June 23-24.)

1932 Mrs. Amelia Earhart Putnam flew from

Harbor Grace to Ireland 2,0261⁄2 miles in 14 hours,

56 minutes (May 20-21.)

1937 Henry T. Merrill and John S. Lambe flew from Bennett Field, Brooklyn, N. Y. to Croydon Airdrome, London, in 20 hours, 59 minutes (May 9-10.) They left Southport, England, with coronation photographs and reached Brooklyn in 24 hours, 22 minutes, 25 seconds, after a brief landing at (May 13-14.) Mikhail GromSquantum, Mass. off, Andrey Yumasheff and Sergei Danilin, Russian non-stop from Moscow to San aviators, flew

Jacinto, Cal., approximately 6,262 miles, in 62 hours, 2 minutes, via the North Pole route (July 12-14.)

1938 Douglas G. Corrigan flew his nine-year-old $900 plane from Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, N. Y. to Baldonnel Airfield, Dublin, in 28 hours, 13 minutes (July 17-18.) British Imperial Airways seaplane, Mercury, completed non-stop East-toWest flight from Foynes, Ireland to Montreal in 20 hours, 19 minutes. (July 20-21.) Also see 1938 above.

1940 The Yankee Clipper of Pan American Airways flew from LaGuardia Field, New York Munipal Airport, to Lisbon, Portgual (April 1-2, 1940) in 18 hours 35 minutes flying time. The elapsed time was 21 hours 56 minutes. The return tripeast-west, was made in 25 hours 1 minute with an elapsed time of 27 hours 43 minutes. The round trip flying time was 43 hours 36 minutes. The American Clipper flew from Lisbon to New York 12.).(April 15-16, 1940) in 23 hours 23 minutes The Atlantic Clipper of the Pan American Airways flew (Oct. 22) from Bermuda to Lisbon, 3,118 miles, in 18 hours 24 minutes.

1926 Lieutenant Commander Richard Evelyn Byrd, U.S.N., flew from Spitzbergen to the North Pole and return (May 9). Amundsen-EllsworthNobile expedition flew from Spitzbergen over the North Pole to Barrow, Alaska, in a dirigible landing at Teller, Alaska, after having been lost over the Arctic area for seventy-eight hours. (May

1927 Charles A. Lindbergh flew from Mineola, N. Y. to Paris, 3,600 miles, in 33 hours, 30 minutes (May 20-21.) Clarence Chamberlin and Charles Levine flew from Mineola, N. Y. to Eisleben, Germany, 3,911, in 42 hours, 31 minutes (June 4-6.)

1928 Charles Kingsford-Smith flew from Oak

1941-The Atlantic Clipper of the Pan American Airways flew non-stop from Bermuda to Lisbon, in 16 hours 30 minutes (Jan. 21-22).


Great Ocean Steamships and Motorships

Source: Lloyd's Register of Shipping and the U. S. Maritime Commission (Note The length is from the stem to the fore part of the rudder post.)


Queen Elizabeth, Br.

Motor ships. † Lloyd's lists the tonnage as 27,000.

In the above list 23 ships are missing from the World Almanac list of 1941; 19 of them were "lost as the result of the War" to quote from the description of the United States Maritime Commission.

They were (registered tonnage in parentheses): Empress of Britain, Brit. (42,348); Stattendam, Holl. (28,291); Champlain, Fr. (28.124); Hansa, Ger. (21,131); Terje Viken, Brit. (20,638): Oxford. Brit. (20,043); Lombardia. Ital. (20,006): Orama, Brit. (19,840); Monticello, U. S. (19,361); Laurentic. Brit. (18,724).

16,418 549 5 16,381 574 4 16,314 549 5 16,297 552 4 16,287 551 4 15.784 541 6 15,551 570 0 15,543 600 0 15,507 550 3 15,495 550 3 15,434 550 2 15,363 577 1 15,355 561 3 15,346 526 3 15,300 561 3 15,286 549 3 15,276 543 9 15,241 523 5

67 8 40 9 70 2 40 2 70 4 38 8 68 8 36 2 73 3 41 9 67 3/33 3 65 3 23 1 67 3 43 0 67 3 43 0 67 3 32 6 64 1 37 0 72 2 44 1 70 3 42 3 72 2 44 1 69 2 34 8 66 2 41 7 70 2 42 3 15,225 523 5 70.2 42 3 15,209 546 1 67 2 41 S 15,135 570 3 67 3 33 3 15,130 550 7 67 4 44 1 15,105 543 5 65 0 41 4 15,007 540 0 71 9 37 8

Oslofjord, Nor. (18,673); Conte Rosso. Ital. (17.879); Caledonia, Brit. (17,040): Rangitare, Brit. (16,712); Rajputana, Brit. (16,644): Montrose. Brit. (16,402); Lancastria, Brit. (16,243): Anandora Star, Brit. (15.501); Veendam, Holl. (15,450): Liguvia. Ital. (15.354).

The Bremen, Ger. (51,731) was destroyed by fire. The Monticello, U. S. (19.361) and the Mount Vernon, U. S. (18,372) were scrapped.

The Rotterdam, Holl. (24.149), was scrapped. The above list is incomplete, but there were no sources of information available governmental during the war.

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