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1940 French front was presented to attacks. The Germans completed occupation of Verdun; they also took Dijon, Metz, Dieuze and Sarrebourg. Their bombing of Rennes killed 4,500 persons.
The ex-Cunard cruise vessel, Lancastria, carrying over 5,000 British troops back to England from France, was sunk by German torpedoes with loss of 2,500 lives, off St. Nazaire.
Soviet Russia began military occupation and political reorganization of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. It was charged that the three nations had violated their mutual assistance pacts with the Soviet Government by making a secret pact among themselves. June 21. Negotiations for peace between France and Germany were begun in Compiegne Forest. The Maginot Line was turned over to the German forces under the terms of the armistice. France broke off diplomatic relations with Britain on July 5 and on July 9 the Parliament at Vichy voted itself out of existence.
June 29. President Roosevelt signed a bill of Congress requiring all aliens in the U. S. to submit to registration and fingerprinting. July 9. The Duke of Windsor was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Bahama Islands. His post as liaison officer between the French and British in France ended with the collapse of France. He and the Duchess escaped first to Spain and then to Portugal.
July 17. The Democratic National Convention, in Chicago, renominated President Roosevelt for a third term.
July 30. Earthquakes in the central plateau of Anatolia shook down 14 villages, killing more than 1,000 persons.
July 31. A steel gasoline motor passenger car and a 2-engine 73-car freight train collided head-on near Akron, Ohio, on the Pennsylvania Railroad; 43 persons were killed. Aug. 17. The Duke of Windsor became Gov. Gen. of the Bahamas.
Aug. 20. Leon Trotsky (Leba Bronstein), 63,
Aug. 31. Crash near Lovettsville, Va., of an
quit the next day as leader of the Conserverative Party.
Oct. 8. The New York State Court of Appeals sustained the conviction on lottery charges (Feb. 25, 1939) of James J. Hines, a former Tammany district leader. A conspiracy charge a misdemeanor-was dismissed, but all 12 felony counts, on which Hines was sentenced, to 4 to 8 years, were affirmed. He entered Sing Sing prison Oct. 14.
Oct. 21. The New York World's Fair came to its end.
Oct, 27. Greece was invaded by Italian warplanes, across the Albanian border and were reported over Athens. Greece rejected a three-hour ultimatum from Italy and rallied her forces. Premier Metaxas and King George urged the nation to independence. Oct. 29. The first United States peacetime compulsory military service was inaugurated when Secretary of War Stimson, blindfolded, drew from a glass bowl, in the War Department Auditorium in Washington, the number 158-first of 16,313,240 cards for young men who had registered under the Selective Service and Training Act.
Nov. 4. A United Air Lines plane with ten persons aboard, bound from San Francisco for New York, crashed into Bountiful Peak of the Wasatch Range, at an elevation of 7,000 ft., in a snowstorm 13 miles northeast of Salt Lake City.
Nov. 5. Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected for a third term as President of the United States. No other holder of that office ever was chosen for more than two of the constitutional 4-year periods.
Nov. 7. Built last July, the concrete roadway of the $6,400,000 suspension bridge over the Narrows at Tacoma, Wash., was broken to pieces by a 42-mile-an-hour wind and fell 190 feet into Puget Sound, carrying with it part of the centre 2,800-foot span with its web-girdered stiffening trusses. Two trucks and an auto went down with the span, but the four occupants escaped by crawling up to the towers.
Nov. 10. In Rumania, an arthquake, with its center in the Province of Moldavia, killed 388 persons and damaged many buildings in the city of Bucharest. Hundreds were made homeless in the central area of the country. Nov. 15. The $58,000,000 Manhattan-Queens Midtown Vehicular tunnel, N. Y. City, was opened to traffic. It provides a route between the central shopping districts of Man.hattan to the Midtown Highway in Long Island City and the connecting highway between Queens and Brooklyn.
Nov. 16. In New York City, the Communist party of the United States voted to dissolve all affiliation with the Communist International and all other foreign organizations. Nov. 18. John L. Lewis resigned the presidency of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (C. I. O.) which he founded in 1935. Nov. 20. Hungary joined the Axis; Rumania went in on Nov. 23; Slovakia on Nov. 24. Nov. 27. In the military prison at Jihlava, Rumania, 64 former officials of exiled King Carol were shot to death by members of the Iron Guard, in revenge for the assassination, in November, 1938, of the Iron Guard founder, Cornelius Zelea Codreanu, and 13 of his followers. Among the 64 killed were ex-Premier Gen. George Argeseanu; Nicholas Steranescu, head of the Surete Generale and army intelligence under Carol: Michael Morusoy, one-time head of Carol's secret police; Victor Iamandi, Minister of Justice at the time Codreanu was sentenced to prison; General Ion Bengliu, former chief of gendarmerie: Colonels Vasile Zeclu and Dinulescue, who commanded the squad that executed Codreanu; and Gabriel Marinescu. ex-president of the Bucharest police. ExPremier Nicholas and Virgil Madgearu were slain elsewhere. There were other killings, some estimates being as high as 2,000. Nov. 30.
Lorraine was annexed to the Reich. Dec. 14. Pierre Laval was dismissed by Marshal Petain as Vice Premier.
At the close of 1940 the war was still in full progress. with air raids in Europe and Africa, and submarine attacks on ships and ports of all belligerents.
(For later dates see War Chronology, also General Chronology, in this Almanac.)
Memorable Dates in the United States Southwest
Source: United States Department of the Interior
of New Mexico.
1610-(Traditional exact date not known) Pedro de Peralto, successor to Onate, founded Sante Fe, New Mexico.
1532-33-Traditional date when Europeans first | 1607-Onate resigned his commission as Governor beheld the White Sands of Alamogordo, part of The which now are perpetually protected as White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. Spaniard, Cabezade Vaca, and his slave, Esteban, and two other Spaniards were the Europeans in question. 1539-Fray Marcos de Niza, accompanied by Esteban, the slave, reached the present State of Arizona; crossed the mountain into New Mexico, and beheld from afar one of the Seven Cities of Cibola-the Zuni village of Hawikuh. Its ruins still may be seen, some 60 miles south of Gallup. 1540-(February 23) Coronado left Compostela, in the Mexican state of Jaliseo, on his famous expedition into our present Southwest. 1541 Coronado spent the winter of 1540 and 1541, with his Conquistadores, in camp at village of Tiguex, near present New Mexican town of Bernalillo.
1582-Snake dance-a religious ceremony-first witnessed by a member of the white race, Don Antonio de Espejo, at Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico. 1598-Onate's expedition, first notable one since Coronado's entrada in 1540, entered Southwest. 1605-(Traditional date) Onate left his autograph on Inscription Rock, now part of El Morro, New Mexico.
Outbreak of Pueblo Rebellion, one of the most serious Indian uprisings ever visited upon the Spaniards in the Southwest. 1684-Jesuits, under Father Eusebio Kino, valiant pioneer-priest, explorer, colonizer and first to establish cattle ranches in the Southwest, began his life-work among the Indians in Sonora, Mexico, and Southern Arizona. 1687-Padre Kino founded his first mission "In the Senora de los North" (Arizona)-"Nuestra Dolores"-the headquarters from which during the next 24 years he established and administered his famous chain of missions in the Southwest. Tumacacori National Monument, Arizona, perpetuates his memory. Vargas reconquered 1695-Don Diego de Mexico-"at his own expense." 1711-Death of Padre Kino, marking end of an and colonization epoch in the important Christianization of the Southwest. settlement post, 1752-Tubac, Arizona, established as a military Arizona.
Major Train Wrecks in
1876-Dec. 29-Ashtabula, Ohio, 84.
Dec. 30-Washington, D. C., 53.
1910 Mar. 1-Wellington, Wash., 96.
the United States
Oct. 19-Bucatunna, Miss., 23.
Dec. 20-Louisville, Ky., 41.
July 9-Nashville, Tenn., 115.
1919-Jan. 12-South Byron, N. Y., 21.
6-Sulphur Springs, Mo., 40.
Tornadoes in U. S., Loss of Life, Property Damage
Source: United States Weather Bureau
World Fairs-Dates, Attendance
26 St. Louis.
13 San Francisco.
60 San Francisco. 1939
450 San Francisco. 1940
230 New York.
686 New York.
Tot. 2 yrs..
Of this number, 22,320,456 attended in 1933: 16,306,090 in 1934.
Chief Political Assassinations Since 1865
Source: Various Official Accounts
1865-April 14. Abraham Lincoln, President of the
United States, in Washington; died April 15. 1870-Dec. 28. Prim, Marshal of Spain. 1872-Feb. 8. Earl of Mayo, Gov.-Gen. of India. 1876-June 4. Abdul Aziz, Sultan of Turkey. 1881-March 13. Alexander II, of Russia. -July 2. James A. Garfield, President of the United States, in Washington; died Sept. 19; Guiteau hanged, June 30, 1882.
1893-Oct. 28. Carter H. Harrison, Sr., Mayor of Chicago.
1894-June 24. Marie Francois Sadi-Carnot, President of France.
1895-July 25. Stanislaus Stambouloff, Premier of
1896-May 1. Nasr-ed-Din, Shah of Persia.
-Aug. 25. Juan Idiarte Borda, President of Uru-
1898-Feb. 18. Jose Maria Reyna Barrios, Presi-
-Sept. 10. Empress Elizabeth of Austria.
1900-Jan. 30. William Goebel, Governor of Ken-
-July 29. Humbert, King of Italy.
1901-Sept. 6. William McKinley, President of the
1923-May 10. Vaslov Vorovsky, Soviet Russia's
-June 4. Cardinal Soldevilla y Romera. Arch-
-April 16. 200 were killed by the explosion of
1926-May 25. Gen. Simon Petlura, ex-Pres. of
United States, in Buffalo; died Sept. 14. Leon-July 10. Kevin O'Higgins, Vice-President of the
1903-June 11. Alexander, King of Serbia, and his wife, Queen Draga by army officers, in the palace, Belgrade.
1904-June 16, Bobrikoff, Gov. Gen. of Finland. 1905-Feb. 17. Sergius, Grand Duke of Russia. -Dec. 30. Ex-Governor Frank Steunenberg, Idaho. 1908-Feb. 1. Carlos, King of Portugal, and Louis Philippe, Crown Prince.
1909-Oct. 26. Prince Ito, of Japan.
1911-Sept. 14. Peter Stolypin, Premier of Russia. -Nov. 19. Ramon Caceres, President of the Dominican Republic.
1912 Nov. 12. Jose Canalejas, Prime Minister of Spain.
1913-Jan. 23. Nazim Pasha, Turkish Minister of
23. Francisco I. Madero, President
-July 31. Jean L. Jaures, French Socialist leader.
-July 16. Czar of Russia and family, in Ekaterinburg: at Perm, July 12, the Czar's brother, Grand Duke Michael Alexander.
-July 31. German Field Marshal von Eichhorn, in the Ukraine.
-Oct. 21. Count Karl Sturgkh, Austrian Premier,
-Nov. Count Stephen Tisza, ex-Pres. Hung. Privy
-Dec. 14. Sidonio Paes, President of Portugal.
-Feb. 21. Kurk Eisner, Bavarian Premier, in
1920 May 20. Gen. Venustiano Carranza, Presi-
-Oct. 19. Portuguese Premier Antonio Granjo,
-Nov. 4. Ta Kashi Hara, Japanese Premier, in
1922-June 22. Field Marshal Sir Henry H. Wilson,
Irish Free State, near Dublin.
1928-May 20. Gen. Luis Mens, ex-President of
-July 17. Ex-President and President-elect. Gen.
-Nov. 14. Premier Hamaguchi, Tokio.
May 16. Ki Inukai, 77, Japanese Premier, Tokio. 1933-On Feb. 15, in Miami, Fla., Joseph Zangara, anarchist, born in Italy, shot at President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt, but a woman seized his arm, and the bullet fatally wounded Mayor Anton J. Cermak, of Chicago, who died March 6. Several others nearby were shot. Zangara pleaded guilty, was found sane, and was electrocuted on March 20, 1933.
Luis M. Sanchez Cerro, president of Peru, shot to death in Lima by Abelardo Hurtado de Mendoza, who was killed by guards. -June 6. Assis Khan, 56, elder brother of King Nadir of Afghanistan, shot to death in Berlin by an Afghan student
-Nov. 8. Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan, killed
-Dec. 29. Ion G. Duca, Premier of Roumania, in
1934-July 25, in Vienna, Engelbert Dollfuss,
-Oct. 9, in Marseilles, King Alexander I of Yugo-
-Dec. 1, Sergei Mironovich Kirov, of the Com-
1935--Sept. 8. U. S. Senator Huey P. Long, shot
1940-Aug. 20, Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein), 63,
The Record of Polar Explorations
Source: National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C., Gilbert Grosvenor, LL.D. (President) ARCTIC EXPLORATION (*Represents new records)
90° 76-79° 58 8.
Rr-Adm. R. E. Byrd, U.S.N. by airplane
In January and February, 1840, Charles Wilkes, commander of America's first naval exploring expedition, sighted the Antarctic continent and then followed its coastline for a distance of more than
1,500 miles. Though not the earliest to glimpse land in the South Polar region, he was the first definitely to announce the existence of an Antarctic continent, according to Daniel C. Haskell, bibliographer of the New York Public Library, whose account of the expedition appears in a bulletin of that institution.
The Squadron" says Haskell sailed from Norfolk, Va., Aug. 18, 1838, and headed first for the Madeira and Cape Verde Islands, then recrossed the Atlantic to Rio de Janeiro, worked its way down the east coast of South America, around
Soviet Arctic-The ice-breaker, Sedoff, ice bound since October 23, 1937, reported on Aug. 29, 1939, that it had drifted to latitude 86° 39' North and longitude 47° 55', the farthest north ever reached by boat. This is about 250 miles from the North Pole. Under the leadership of Capt. K. S. Badigan, the crew of the Sedoff has made scientific observations concerning meteorology, oceanography, etc. The Sedoff was extricated by an ice breaker on Jan. 13, 1940.
Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, U.S.N., returned to Antarctica early in 1939, by direction of the government and discovered and charted 900 miles of unknown coastline, by the combined use of his ship, the Bear, and an airplane. He found that the magnetic South Pole had shifted to the west. The coastline he explored consisted of a plateau about 3,000 feet high extending for perhaps 1,100 miles. He left 33 men at West Base, near Little
Cape Horn, and up the west coast, arriving at Callao, Peru, in the early summer of 1839.
"The great achievement of the voyage was, of course, the expedition into the Antarctic in the Wales, the last wek in December, Wilkes spent winter of 1839-40. Leaving Sydney, New South the months of January and February, 1840, following the coastline of Antarctica until he had convinced himself that what he had discovered was in fact the Antarctic continent. The squadron reached New York in June, 1842, having been gone 3 years and 10 months and sailed a distance of 87,780 miles.
The land which Palmer saw in 1820 is now supposed to have been the Antarctic Continent. The late Dr. Frederick A. Cook claimed to have discovered the North Pole on April 21, 1908.
America, and 26 at East Base, 1,200 miles away, in Palmer Land. They continued charting of the coast.
Ellsworth Antarctic-In his ship the Wyatt Earp. which he had used for three previous Antarctic expeditions, Lincoln Ellsworth sailed from Capetown, October 29, 1938, and three months later reached the edge of the Antarctic Continent at Princess Elizabeth Land. On January 11, 1939, Ellsworth claimed 77,000 square miles of Antarctic Territory for the United States as a result of a flight over an area which he named this "American Highland."
German Antarctic-A German Antarctic Expedition, led by Capt. Ritscher, on March 9, 1939, claimed for the Reich 231,660 square miles of territory in Crown Princess Maerta Land, which had previously been claimed by Norway.
Notable Marine Disasters Since 1833
(Figures show lives lost. For lack of space, only more serious disasters, mainly in American waters or in American commerce, are noted)
1833-May 11. Ship Lady of the Lake, England to Quebec, hit by iceberg: 215. -Aug. 30. Ship Amphitrite, bound for Australia with British women convicts, wrecked off Boulogne, France: 128.
1836-Nov. 21. American ship Bristol, England to New York, wrecked off Far Rockaway, N. Y.; 77. 1837-Jan. 2. American bark Mexico, England to New York, wrecked on Hempstead Beach, near Point Lockout, N. Y.; 62.
-Feb. 16. British ship Jane and Margaret, England to New York, lost near Isle of Man; 200. -May 9. Steamer Sherrod burned on Mississippi River; 175.
-Oct. 9. Steamboat Home, New York to Charleston, wrecked off Ocracoke; 100. -Oct. 29. Steamboat Monmouth sunk in collision on Mississippi River; 234.
1838-April 25. Steamboat Moselle blown up on Ohio River, near Cincinnati, Ohio; 100. -June 14. Steamboat Pulaski, Savannah to Baltimofe, blew up off North Carolina; 140. -June 16. Steamboat Washington burned on Lake Erie; 50.
-Nov. 25. Steamboat Gen. Brown, blew up on Mississippi River, at Helena, Ark.: 60. 1840 Jan. 13. Steamboat Lexington, New York to Stonington, burned off Eaton's Neck, L.I.: 140. --Aug. 9. Brig Florence, Rotterdam to New York, foundered off Newfoundland; 60.
1841-Feb. 19. Ship Governor Fenner, England to New York, sunk in collision off Holyhead, England; 122.
-March 11. Steamer President, New York to Liverpool, with 136 persons on board: never heard from. -April 19. American ship William Browne, England to Philadelphia, sunk by iceberg: 70. -Aug. 9. Steamer Erie burned on Lake Erie: 175. 1844-Feb. 28. Steamers De Soto and Buckeye collide on Mississippi, Buckeye sinks; 60. -Oct. 23. Steamer Lucy Walker explodes three boilers at New Albany, Ind.; 50.
1846-Feb. 12. Steamer Tweed lost off Yucatan; 60. 1847-April 28. Emigrant ship Exmouth, Londonderry to Quebec: 200.
-Nov. 19. Steamers Talisman and Tempest in collision on Ohio River; 100.
grounded on Long Beach, N. Y.; 311.
-May 10. Troopship Lady Nugent, from Madras. foundered in a storm; 400.
Sept. 27. Steamer Arctic, from Liverpool, sunk in collision in fog, 40 miles off Cape Race, N. F.: 350.
Sept. 29. U. S. sloop of war, Albany, sailed from Aspinwall (now Colon), Panama, for New York. never heard from; 193.
-Nov. 13. American-owned immigrant ship, New Era, from Bremen for New York, wrecked on No. Jersey coast, 15 miles below Sandy Hook; over 300.
-Nov. 13-16. Eleven British Army transpor wrecked, 6 disabled: steamship Prince sunk in storm, Black Sea; 500.
1855-May 1. Emigrant ship John wrecked of Falmouth; 200.
1856-Jan. 30. Chilian warship Cazador wrecked 314.
-Sept. 23. Steamer Pacific, Collins Line, vanished at sea; 288.
Sept. 24. Steamer Niagara, burned on Lake Michigan; 60.
-Nov. 2. Steamer Lyonnals sunk off Nantucket in collision; 260.
1857-Feb. 26. Steamer Tempest, Anchor Line 150 on board; never heard from.
May 31. Steamer Louisiana, burned near Galveston, Tex.; 55.
-June 26. Steamer Montreal, Quebec to Montreal. burned; 250.
-Aug. 20. Ship Dunbar wrecked near Sydney. Australia; 120,
-Sept. 12. Steamer Central America, Havana to New York, sunk; 400.
1858-June 13. Steamboat Pennsylvania exploded on Mississippi River, near Memphis; 160. -Sept. 13. Steamer Austria, Hamburg to New York, burned in midocean; 471.
1859-April 27. American ship Pomona, Liverpool to New York, wrecked; 400.
-Oct. 25. Steamer Royal Charter wrecked on the Anglesea coast; 446.
1860-Feb. 19. Steamer Ondine, sunk in collision with Heroine, at Biddefork; 60.
Feb. 19. American ship. Luna wrecked off Barfleur; 100.
19. Steamer Hungaria wrecked near Cape Sable, N. S.; 205.
-Nov. 21. Immigrant (Holland) Steamer Phoenix-Feb. burned on Lake Michigan; 240.
-Dec. 20. British steam frigate Avenger, wrecked off north coast of Africa; 200.
1848 Aug. 24. American emigrant ship Ocean Monarch, from Liverpool, burned off Carnarvonshire, North Wales; 200.
1849-Nov. 15. Steamer Louisiana explodes at New Orleans; 60.
-Nov. 16. Emigrant ship Caleb Grimshaw burned: at sea; 60.
1850-March 30. Steamer Royal Adelaide wrecked
off Margate; 400.
--June 17. Steamer Griffith burned on Lake Erie: 300.
- Nov. 12.
Emigrant ship Edmund, Limerick to New York, wrecked off coast of Ireland; 100. 1852-Jan. 24. Steamer Amazon burned off Scilly Islands; 100.
-Feb. 26. Troopship Birkenhead, Queenstown to Cape of Good Hope, wrecked; 454.
-July 27. Steamboat Henry Clay, burned on Hudson River; 70.
-Aug. 20. Steamer Atlantic sunk by collision on Lake Erie; 250.
1853-Feb. 15. Steamship Queen Victoria, wrecked near Dublin; 67.
-Feb. 16. The Independence burned off coast Lower California; 140.
-May 3. Immigrant ship William and Mary, sunk at Bahamas; 170.
-Sept. 29. Emigrant ship Annie Jane wrecked off coast of Scotland; 348.
-Dec. 24. Steamer San Francisco, bound for
-Jan. 28. Steamer Georgia, burned at New
-March. Steamer City of Glasgow, Liverpool to
-April, 16. Ship Powhatan, Havre to New York,
1860- June 24. Steamer Ben W. Lewis, blew up at Cairo, Ill.; 50.
-Sept. 8. Steamer Lady Elgin sunk by collision on Lake Michigan; 300.
1863-Feb. 7. British steamer Orpheus wrecked off coast of New Zealand; 190.
-April 27. Steamer Anglo-Saxon wrecked in fog off Cape Race, N. F.; 237. 1864-Nov. 4. British steamship Racehorse, wrecked off Chefoo, China; 99.
1865-April 27. Steamboat Sultana with exchanged Union prisoners of war aboard, destroyed on Mississippi River, 7 miles above Memphis, by boiler explosion; 1,450.
-Aug. 24. Emigrant ship Eagle Speed foundered near Calcutta; 265.
1866 Jan. 11. Steamer London foundered in Bay of Biscay; 220.
-Jan. 30. Steamer Missouri, boilers exploded on Ohio River; 100.
-Jan. 30. Steamer Miami, boilers exploded on Mississippi River; 150.
-May. Steamer Gen. Grant, wrecked off New Zealand; 87.
-Oct. 3. Steamer Evening Star, New York to New Orleans, foundered; 250.
1867-Oct. 29. Royal mail steamers Rhone and Wye and about fifty vessels driven ashore and wrecked at St. Thomas, West Indies, by a hurricane; 1,000.
1868-March 18. Steamboat Magnolia, blew up on Ohio River; 80.
-April 9. Steamer Sea Bird burned on Lake Michigan; 100.
April 17. Anchor liner United Kingdom, vanished at sea; 80.
-Dec. 4. Steamboats United States and America. burned on Ohio River, near Warsaw, Ill.; 72. 1869 Oct. 27. Steamer Stonewall burned below Cairo, Ill.; 200.
1870 Jan. 24. American ship Oneida sunk in collision off Yokohama; 115.
-Jan. 28, Inman Line steamer City of Boston, New York (Jan. 28) to Liverpool, vanished at sea; 177.
-Sept. 7. British warship, Captain, foundered off