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1933 Machado, Aug. 12, to resign and flee. Carlos 1934 (June 17, 1925) convention for the superCespedes became Provisional President,
vision of international trade in arms, amAug. 13; but another army revolt, Sept. 5,
munition and implements of war, including put Ramon Grau San Martin in the presi
aircraft and airships. dency. He resigned on Jan. 15, 1934, and June 28, The U. S. Treasury banned silver the Junta put in Carlos Hevia, who was
exports. succeeded on Jan. 18 by Col. Carlos Men- June 30, In Germany, a plot by Nazi leaders dieta.
and Storm Troop commanders to overAfter conferences at the White House with
throw the regime of Chancellor Adolf HitMaxim M. Litvinoff, USSR Commissar of
ler was discovered. There were many arForeign Affairs, President Roosevelt, on
rests, executions and suicides. Ex-ChanNov. 16. declared renewal of normal diplo
cellor Gen. Kurt van Schleicher, 51, was matic relations between the United States
shot to death resisting arrest. His wife also and Soviet Russia. The first ambassador,
was killed. Alexander Troyanovsky, presented his cre
July 1, President Roosevelt went on board the dentials on Jan. 7, 1934, at the White
U. S. cruiser Houston, off Annapolis, Md., House.
and started for Hampton Roads, and Ha1934 Clyde Barrow, 28, on Jan. 16, with a machine
waii; landed in Portland, Oregon, on gun, wounded two guards at the Eastham
August 3; and then started back East (Tex.) State Prison Farm, and liberated
through the drought afflicted plains states. Raymond Hamilton and four other con. July 17. strike of Minneapolis truck drivers; victs. On May 23, Barrow and his girl
ended Aug. 21. chum, Bonnie Parker, 23, were shot to July 25, Nazis in Vienna, Austria, seized the death near Arcadia, La., by officers of the
building used by the Cabinet, shot Chan
cellor Engelbert Dollfuss, 41, to death. The On Jan. 16, Edward G. Bremer, 37, was kid
police and loyal troops soon recaptured the napped for $200,000 in St. Paul, Minn.
Chancellory, with some loss of life.
relinquished control of Haiti. On Jan. 25, at Tucson, Ariz., police captured Aug. 19, The German people approved the
John Dillinger, Charles Makley. Russell consolidation of the offices of President and
Chancellor in a single Leader-Chancellor, $36.000 in money, and they were returned
Adolf Hitler, which followed the death of to jail, Dillinger to Crown Point,
President von Hindenburg, ug. 2. the others to Lima, O. Dillinger and a Aug. 21, a band of robbers took $427,950 from Negro felon, Herbert Youngblood, escaped
a Rubel armed car on Bay 19th St., Brookfrom the Crown Point Prison on March 3.
lyn. Dillinger was shot to death on July 22, Sept. 1. Strike orders applying to 1,000,000 outside a movie house, Lincoln Ave., Chi
employees in the cotton, silk and wool cago, by U. S. Dept. of Justice agents.
divisions, went into effect at 11:30 P. M., Youngblood was shot to death, Mch. 16, at
issued by the United Textile Workers of Port Huron, Mich.
America. The trouble was greatest in Jan. 31, The U. S. Government reduced the
Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina dollar's gold weight from 25.8 grains to
in the South, and in Maine and Rhode 15.5/21 grains 9/10 fine, making its gold
Island. The National Guard and mobs value 59.06+ per cent of the par fixed by
clashed in several states and over 20 persons the 1900 Act.
were killed. President Roosevelt's personal Feb. 19, U. S. cancelled all air mail contracts.
appeal ended the strike on Sept. 22, pendThe Army carried the air mail for 312
ing further arbitration. months, losing a dozen officers in plane Sept. 21, Hurricane winds have swept across accidents,
Honshiu, the central island of Japan. FaIn Austria, Feb. 12-15, an abortive Social
talities totaled 4,232; damage over $90,Democrat uprising in Vienna, Linz and
000,000. other places cost 100 lives, with 300 Oct. 5, In Spain, a revolutionary general wounded
strike was called by Communist and SoFeb. 17, Albert I, 58, King of the Belgians,
cialist leaders in protest against the innoted mountain climber, was killed by fall
clusion by Premier Alejandro Lerroux of ing from a cliff overlooking the River
three Catholic Popular Actionists in his Meuse, east of Namur.
new cabinet. In the province of Catalonia Mch. 6, Dr. Alice L. Wynekoop, 63, was con
an independent free state was proclaimed. victed, in Chicago. of the murder of her
Sanguinary disorders occurred at Madrid, son's wife, Mrs. Rheta Gardner Wynekoop,
Barcelona and other cities and industrial 22, Nov, 21, 1933, and was sentenced. Mch.
centres. All of Spain was put under martial 24, to a 25-yr, prison term.
law. President Luis Companys' and other Mch. 22, U. S. Congress granted Philippine
Catalan rebels were captured after loyal independence, later ratified by the Philip
troops had shelled the public buildings at pine Legislature, effective in 1945 or soon
Barcelona. Warships were sent to the coast thereafter.
cities. Churches and convents were burned April 27, at Buenos Aires, the Argentine,
by anti-Catholics. anti-war pact, previously agreed on at the Oct. 9, King Alexander I (45) of Yugo Slavia Pan-American conference in Montevideo,
and Foreign Minister Jean Louis Barthou was signed by the United States, Bolivia,
(72) of France, were assassinated in MarColombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El
seilles, where the King had landed from a Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
warship, and was on the way to a diploNicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. It was
matic conference at Paris. The slayer, signed on Oct. 10, 1933, by Argentina,
Velichko Kerin, alias Peter Kaleman, alias Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay
Valada G. Chernozemsky, born in Bulgaria, Uruguay, in Rio.
was sabred and beaten and stamped to May 10, drought and dust storms in the U. S.
death, but not before he had shot Gen. mid-West are destroying winter wheat.
Alfonse J. Georges and several spectators. Longshoremen and other dock laborers began Oct. 10, In Louisville, Ky., Mrs. Berry V. strikes on the U. S. Pacific and Atlantic
Stoll (Alice Speed) 26, wife of an oil coasts, marked by violence and fatalities,
operator, was beaten and taken from her A general strike of union workers was
home by a kidnapper who left a demand started on July 16, in San Francisco, but
for $50,000. On Oct. 16, she was found by quickly fizzled; the dock strikes practically
agents of the U. $. Dept. of Justice, near ended by arbitration on July 29.
Scottsburg, Ind. The kidnaper, Thomas H. May 29, The Treaty of Relations between the
Robinson Jr. was caught in California, May United States of America and the Republic
11, 1936 and on May 13 sentenced to imof Cuba was signed, abrogating the Treaty
prisonment for life. of Relations concluded between the United Oct. 22, Charles (Pretty Boy) Floyd, 30, was States and Cuba on May 22, 1903. It was
shot to death by U, s. officers near East ratified May 31, by the U. S. Senate and
Liverpool, Ohio. was put into force on June 9.
Nov. 24, in Chicago, the $100,000,000 Insull May 31, The U. S. Grand Fleet of 81 warships
mail fraud trial ended in a verdict of not and 35,000 officers and men entered New
guilty for Samuel Insull and his 16 co-deYork Harbor for the first time in four
lendants, all former associates in the utiliyears.
ties and financial field. Included among June 14, Germany proclaimed a transfer mor
them were Harold L. Stuart, Charles B. atorium, and suspended cash payments on
Stuart, Stanley Field, Clarence W. Sills, her foreign debts.
and Edward J. Doyle. June 15, The U. S. Senate ratified the Geneva Nov, 27, With a machine gun, George (Baby 1934 Face) Nelson (Lester M. Gillis) soi 1935 the U. S. It had cost $3,694,000,000 since death U. S. Dept. of Justice Agent Herman
May, 1933. E. Hollis, and mortally wounded his as- Dec. 30, Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, wife and sociate Samuel P. Cowley, near Chicago.
child, arrived in Liverpool and took up The next day. Nelson's dead body was
residence in Wales. found in Niles Center, wrapped in 1936 Jan. 1, The U. S. Federal Act creating jobblanket.
insurance went into eflect. Dec. 9, First clash between Ethiopian and Jan. 6, The U. S. Supreme Court. 6 to 3 Italian soldiers at or near Wai Wai, on the
(Stone, Brandeis, Cardozo), in an opinion disputed frontier of Italian Somaliland:
read by Justice Roberts, upset the AgriculDec. 15, Italy refused arbitration as to the
tural Adjustment Act, declaring it to be an frontier and demanded reparations and an
invasion of rights of the States to regulate apology; 1935--Jan. 10, fighting resumed,
their local activities. It specifically banned Italy mobilized 70,000 troops; a committee i
the use of processing taxes to regulate crop of conciliation was agreed to: May 13.
production. The minority termed the deciEthiopia protested to the League of Na
sion a “tortured construction of the Contions; Oct. 3, Italian forces invaded Ethi
stitution." On Jan. 13, the Court ordered opia, Adowa bombed: Oct. 4. Adigrat oc
$200,000,000 of impounded processing taxes cupied; Oct. 6, Adowa occupied; Oct. 14,
returned to the suing processors, and, on Aksum, the Holy City, taken; Nov. 6,
Jan. 20, peremptorily ordered the taxes Makale and Gorahia occupied; 1936-March
returned at once. 29, Harar destroyed; April 13, Italian forces Jan. 20, King George V, 70, died at his farm, on North Shore of Lake Tana (Tsana);
Sandringham, England, and was succeeded April 15, Dessie taken; May 1, Emperor
by his eldest son, Prince of Wales, 42, who Haile Selassie and family tied from Addis
took title as Edward VIII. He abdicated Ababa to Jibuti, whence they went on a
on Dec. 11, 1936, and was succeeded by his British cruiser to Palestine; May 5, Premier
brother next in age, the married Duke of Benito Mussolini, in Rome, announced the
York, who became George VI. The exwar over, Ethiopia annexed, and King Vic
ruler resumed his family name as David tor Emmanuel had become Emperor of
Windsor, but soon was created Duke of Ethiopia; so decreed, May 9.
Windsor. He gave up the throne he said 1935 The Saar Territory, taken from Germany by
because he could not marry the "woman I the Versailles World War Treaty. voted,
love" Mrs. Wallis Warfield, of Baltimore, Jan. 13, to return to German ownership,
Maryland, who, on Oct. 27. had gotten a on Marchi
divorce at Ipswich, England, from Ernest Feb. 12. The $4,000,000 U. S. navy dirigible,
A. Simpson, an insurance agent. The decree balloon, Macon, sank in the Pacific several
became absolute on May 3, 1937. On June 3. miles off Point Sur, Calif.: 2 lost.
1937, at Monts, France, the couple were Feb. 18, The U. S. Supreme Court. 5 to 4,
married. held that Congress was within its power in Feb. 16, In Spain the Socialists and anarchists abrogating the gold clause in private con
won the department elections. There were tracts, but had gone too far in doing so in
general jail deliveries. Soon thereafter regovernment obligations.
bellion began, in Morocco, and spread to Mch. 12, The brief revolution in Greece ended,
Spain, under Gen. Francisco Franco. when ex-Premier Elentherios Venizelos fled Feb. 17, In Paraguay a revolution deposed with his wife, from Canea to the Italian
President Eusebio Ayala. island of Rhodes. Venizelos, 71, died, Mch, Mch. 2. The U. S. renounced its guarantee of 18, in exile, at Paris.
the independence of Panama. April 5, The $4,880,000,000 works relief bill - Mch 7, German troops began to reoccupy the was passed by both branches of Congress.
demilitarized Rhineland zone. The House approved by 317 to 70. The Floods continued in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Senate adopted it 66 to 13. The bill was
and West Virginia. signed by the President on April 8.
Mch. 25. The U. S., Britain and France April 11-14, Stresa Conference for peace rati
signed in London, a naval arms limitation fied by Britain, France, and Italy. the
treaty to go in effect on Jan. 1, 1937 and participants.
to stay in force until Dec. 31. 1942. May 6, The U. S. Supreme Court upset the April 7, In Spain the Parliament deposed Railroad Pension Act.
President N. A. Zamora. May 18, Near Moscow, the airplane Maxim June 4, In France the first Socialist governGorky, the world's largest land plane.
ment took office, under Leon Blum. crashed, killing 48, every soul a board. The - June 17, In Canada their New Deal Acts were pilot of another plane, which collided with
declared invalid. the Gorky in midair was killed.
June 27, The Great Lakes Exposition opened June 14, Bolivia-Paraguay war in the Chaco
in Cleveland, O. ceased, by truce, oflicially over, Oct. 28. July 13, In Madrid, Jose Calvo Sotelo, 47, & Aug. 9. President Roosevelt signed the Social
monarchist leader in the Cortes (ParliaSecurity bill,
ment) was removed from his home by Aug. 15, Will Rogers, 56, comedian, and Wiley
Assault Guards for questioning as to the Post, 36, aviator, were instantly killed when
assassination of Lieut. Jose Castillo of their Post's rebuilt airplane fell 60 feet in a fog
organization, Sotelo next appeared in the 15 miles from Point Barrow, Alaska.
East Cemetery as a corpse. Death was due Aug 29- The Queen of the Belgians, 29,
to builet and bayonet wounds. (Princess Astrid of Sweden) was killed by July 17, Revolt against Spain's Republican skull fracture when an automobile in which
Government begins in Morocco and spreads she and the King were riding, left the road
to Spain, included much of army and airskirting Lake Lucerne, in Switzerland, near
force and half of navy: July 18, Jose Giral the city of Lucerne, hit two trees and
became Loyalist premier; July 19, Loyalists careened into the water.
defeated Insurgents in Madrid. Insurgents Sept. 2, Storms killed 300 along the Florida
control cities of Cadiz, Huelva, Seville, Keys, including 200 war vets on relief at
Cordoba, and Grenada; July 24, Insurgents construction camps.
set up own government and, Aug. 16 take Sept. 15-Jews in Germany lost citizenship
Badajoz; Aug. 27 begin aerial bombing of with political rights.
Madrid; Sept. 4 they take Irun, Sept. 12 Oct. 21, Storm killed 2,000 in Haiti.
they take San Sebastian, and Toledo Sept. Oct. 23 Arthur (Dutch Schultz) Flegen
28; Oct. 1, Cen. Francisco Franco proheimer, 33, and 3 companions Otto Ber
claimed head uf Nationalist (Insurgent) man, Abe Frank, and Bernard Rosen
Government; Oct. 21, siege of Madrid by krantz, were fatally shot in a tavern in
Insurgents begun; Nov. 6 Loyalist governNewark, N. J.
ment moves from Madrid to Valencia. Nov. 14, A proclamation certifying the free- Aug. 23, Convicted at Moscow of plotting to dom of the Philippine Islands and the elec.
kill Joseph Stalin and other Soviet leaders tion of officials chosen by ballot in the
the following were sentenced to death: islands on Sept. Was signed by President
Gregory Zinoviefl. Leon Kameneil, T. Roosevelt a few minutes after noon. In
Smirnoff, A. Evdokirnoff, T. Bakaefi, S. Manila, occurred the inaugural ceremonies
Mirachkovsky, V. Olberg, K. Bermanfor President Manuel Quezon.
Yure, Fritz David, Moses Lurrie, N. Yurie, Nov. 18, Economic sanctions against Italy
T. Reingold, R. Pickel, V. Tervoganian, P. went into effect. supported by 52 nation.
Dreitzler. E Holzmann. They were shot members of the League of Nations, and by
on Aug 25, it was announced. one non-member, Egypt. The sanctions Oct. 14, in Brussels, King Leopold, in a state. ended on July 15, 1936.
ment to a Cabinet council, announced BelNov. 29, Federal dole (direct relief) ended in
gium had severed her military alliances and 1937
1936 was resuming her pre-war neutrality.
Oct. 30, Waterfront activity in all American
ports of the Pacific Coast came to a halt as
Eastern and Gulf Ports.
rules for the conduct of submarines was
first are placed in "a place of safety." Dec. 1. In Buenos Aires, President Roosevelt
in a speech at the opening of the InterAmerican Conference for the Maintenance of Peace called upon the nations of the New World to unite to help the Old
World avert War. The conference, on Dec. 16, adopted the collective security convention, the nonintervention protocol, and the resolution calling upon republics that have not already done SO to ratify existing peace treaties. On Dec. 19, the body adopted a neutrality convention that obligates all the American countries to take a common joint attitude as neutrals in case of an outbreak of hostilities among any two of them. The gathering ended on Dec. 23, as the Foreign Ministers of Paraguay and Bolivia pledged that their countries would settle the Chaco
dispute by pacific means. Dec. 12, In China, Gen. Chiang Kai-shek
was kidnapped at Sian by Gen. Chang
tives impeached President Miguel M. Gom-
to legislation. Dec. 27. Charles Mattson, 10, was kidnapped
from his home in Tacoma, Wash., was held awhile for ransom, then was murdered. The body was found, near Everett, Wash., Jan.
11, 1937. Dec. 30. In Flint, Mich., backed by the John
L. Lewis Committee for Industrial Organization, (C.I.O.), the United Automobile Workers of America started its campaign to include the n's automobile industry within its ranks. It struck at the center of General Motors operations and
halted activities in three of its unit plants. 1937 Jan. 1. In Spain, the Insurgent shelling of
Madrid, was continued at intervals; Feb. 8, Insurgents took Malaga The Insurgent headquarters were (military) at Burgos, and (diplomatic) at Salamanca; Bilbao, on June 19; Santander, on Aug. 25; Gijon, on Oct. 21. Warships of Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany, on Mch. 13, began to police the coasts of Spain under the 27nation neutrality agreement. Gen. Franco, on April 19, set up a one-party State, dissolving the Fascist and Carlist organizations. The Insurgent battleship, Espana, was sunk, April 30, by airplanes, off Santander; May 17, new Loyalist Government formed under Premier Juan Negrin; many were killed in an Anarchist uprising in Barcelona; Oct. 28, Loyalists shifted government to Barcelona, Nov. 28. Insurgents
proclaimed blockade of all Loyalist ports. Jan. 4. The U. S. Supreme Court unanimous
ly upset the conviction and jail sentence of Dirk de Jonge, Oregon Communist, accused of violating the State's Criminal Syndicalism Law. The Court asserted that the right of peacable assembly was as fundamental as the constitutional guarantees of
freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Jan. 20. In Washington, on the main por
tico of the Capitol, his head bared to rain, Franklin Delano Roosevelt took for the second time the oath as President of
the United States. Jan. 22. Floods in the valleys of the Missis
sippi, Alleghany and Ohio Rivers and their branches began to bring death, homelessness, privation, property destruction and traffic tie-ups at Pittsburgh, Portsmouth, O., Huntington, W. Va., Louisville, Cincinnati. and many other places. The food damage was more severe in Louisville, Paducah, Ky.. Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. In Kentucky over 225 persons were drowned; in Illinois, 15; in Missouri, 17; in Tennessee, 10 in Arkansas, 28; and small numbers in Ohio,
West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Mississippi. Over 500,000 homes and vast areas or farm lands were flooded. Including deaths indirectly due, the total was estimated at 900. Over 35 rescue workers were drowned by sinking, on Jan. 30, of a steel barge in the Mississippi near New Madrid,
Mo. In Moscow, a treason trial, Jan. 23-30, re
sulted in execution of 13 of 17 defendants, Karl Radek (Sobelsohn) got off with a
10-yr. sentence to prison. In China, Feb. 3, a military revolt in Sian,
capital of Shensi Province, brought the assassination of Gen. Wang I-Cheh, chief of the forces of the Central government of the Republic. In April, Prince Chichibue, oldest brother of Emperor Hirohito of Japan made with his wife, a good-will visit to the United States, England, and the Continent. In May, the army-supported Japanese Cabinet of Hayashi resigned. Early in July the fighting in China, west of Peiping. was renewed by the Japanese. Tungchow was attacked on July 27; the Japanese on July 29, bombed Tientsin, destroying Nankai University; on Aug. 9, they took formal possession of Peiping: on Aug. 11, they landed marines at Shanghai and shelled Nankow. Thereafter there was almost continuous fighting in Shanghai, where on Aug. 14. Chinese misdirected bombs killed several hundred civilians, and on Aug. 22, an artillery shell fell in the International Settlement, destroying a department store and killing 400 persons The Japanese blockade of the East Coast of China began on Aug. 25, covering 800 miles and was extended in Sept. to cover 2,700 miles. The Dollar Line ship. President Hoover, and other vessels on the Yangtze, were hit by stray Chinese or Japanese shells. Nanking, Canton, and many other places in the eastern provinces of China were attacked by Japanese planes. On Oct. 23, Suiyuan Province declared independence from China. On Nov. 8, the Chinese abandoned Shanghai as an administrative point, and the Japanese took control. Premier Chiang Kai-Shek moved his headquarters to Hankow. On Dec. 12. Japanese shells sank the U. S. gunboat Panay, with loss of 2 lives; and several American carriers, (the captain of one died) on the Yangtze River above Nanking Several British craft were hit by the shells. A number of lives were lost. For these and other "accidental bombings, the Japanese apologized and assumed financial responsibility. The United States and Britain had made strong protests. On Dec. 14th, the pro-Japanese administration in Peiping announced it had restored the city's old name, Peking. During the year many lepers were executed by
the Chinese government. Jan. 30. Chancellor Hitler told the Reichstag
that Germany annuls and repudiates the admission implied in her signature of the Versailles Treaty fixing upon her responsibility for the World War, and, from this time onward the German railways and the German Reichsbank are free from the obligations imposed upon them by that treaty and are restored to the complete sovereignty of the Reich. He issued a decree forbidding Germans to accept any Nobel prize in the future and establishing
rival prizes for Germans only. Feb. 11. The General Motors Corporation
signed a strike settlement with its employees, with increase of 5 cents an hour in wages. In some of the Michigan strikes court injunctions were defied. Most of the bię steel mills signed up. May 30, the police were attacked by Republic Steel Corp.'s strikers in South Chicago, they said, and in the combat 16 workers were shot and killed. In June a short strike cut off the electric currents in Michigan's Saginaw Valley. There were several marine workers' strikes on the East, South and
West coasts. Mch. 2. Quakes shook Ohio, Michigan, Indi
ana. West Virginia and Kentucky. Mch. 18. An explosion of natural gas, which had been piped-in for heating purposes, destroyed the Consolidated Public School in New London, Texas, ten minutes before the teachers and children were to have left
for the day. The dead numbered 293. Mch. 26. In Flemington, N. J., the perjury • later.
1937 indictment against Benjamin Heier, re
sulting from testimony he gave for the defense at the trial of Bruno Richard Haupt
mann. April 8. The Committee for Industrial Organization closed the General Motors Corporation plant in Oshawa and drew from Mitchell F. Hepburn, Premier of Ontario, formal notice that methods which had *brought the United States almost into a state of anarchy" would not be tolerated
in Ontario. May 6. The dirigible balloon, Hindenburg.
on its first 1937 trip from Germany was
were crowned in Westminster Abbey, Lon-
the North Pole and established a permanent
The plane was piloted by M. V. Vodopyanoff. With him
was Professor Otto J. Schmidt, head of the Northern
of 1937 was opened by President Albert Le
brun, accompanied by Premier Leon Blum, May 28. The official London Gazette announced that the King had granted letters patent to the Duke of Windsor "to hold and enjoy for himself only the title, style or attribute of Royal Highness, so however that his wife and descendants, if any, shall
not hold said title, style, or attribute." June 3. In Monts, France, the Duke of
Windsor married Mrs. Wallis Warfield at the Chateau de Cande. The French civil ceremony was performed by the Mayor of Monts. This was followed by the marriage service of the Church of England, by the Rev. R. Jardine, vicar of St. Paul's, Dar
lington, England. In assembly, in Philadelphia, the Presby.
terian Church of America, 65 to 24, rejected an overture calling upon its members to recognize and practice "total abstinence" from intoxicants as the "only
true principle of temperance. June 12. The Pan-American Exposition
opened in Dallas, Tex. A $75,000 jeweled
and the United States.
occupants. Aug. 3. Wreckage of a Pan American-Grace
Airways flying boat, due from Cali, Сс mbia, with 11 passenger and a crew of 3, was found by a navy plane 20 miles at sea from Cristobal. Among the passengers were Rex Martin and G. O. Caldwell of the Bureau of Air Commerce, and T. J. Wakely jr., of the Nat'l. City Bk.
branch in Santiago, Chile. - Aug 12. President Roosevelt nominated
Senator Hugo Black of Alabama, to be As
1937 sociate Justice of the Supreme Court, filling
the vacancy caused by the retirement of Justice Van Devanter. The nomination was approved 13 to 4 (King, D., Burke, D., Austin, R., Steiwer, R.) by the Senate judiciary Committee; it was confirmed by
the Senate, 63 to 16, on Aug. 17. Aug, 12. A Russian airplane under command
of Sigismund Levanevsky, left the MosCow flying field at 10:13 A.M., bound for Alaska, and the U. S. After passing over the Pole it radioed that one of its engines was dead, due to a damaged oil pipe. Sir Hubert Wilkins and other aviators flew over the Arctic regions for days in vain search for the missing plane and its occupants. In Moscow, on Feb. 27, 1939, Mikhall M. Voznesensky, ex-radio operator at the Rudolf Island station, was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment for disrupting radio communications by a sit-down strike at the time Levanevsky and companions were on their flight and during the period
of relief expeditions. Aug. 22. Near Cody, Wyo., 14 men were
burned to death and 50 injured when fire fighters were trapped by flames in the Shoshone National Forest. The flames trapped Earl Davis, U. S. Bureau of Public Roads foreman, nine other bureau em
ployees and about 40 CCC members. Sept. 19. More than 125,000 Mormon church
members of the Salt Lake City region ate but one meal in order that the financial equivalent to the other meals might go to
needy brothers and sisters. Oct. 1. In a radio address broadcast from a
friend's house in Chevy Chase, Md.. exSenator Hugo L. Black of Ala. (recently appointed by President Roosevelt to be an associate justice of the Supreme Court) declared that he joined the Ku Klux Klan **about 15 years ago". "later resigned" and never rejoined." He dropped the Klan he asserted "before becoming a Sen
He denied bias against Negroes, Jews or Roman Catholics, or against any
race or creed. Oct. 12. In Beirut, Syria, J. Theodore Mar
riner, 45, the U.S. Consul General. was shot dead by an Armenian, Mejardich Karayan, who has a family living in the United States, and who told police his molive had been revenge for a vice consul's refusal to grant him a visa. He was ex
ecuted. Oct. 14. In Bartow, Fla., the jury by court
order, acquitted the Tampa policemen (C. A. Brown, Jr., C. W. Carlisle, John Bridges, Arlie Gilliam, kleagle of the Orlando Klan; F. W. Switzer and Sam E. Crosby), who were on trial for second-degree murder following the fatal flogging of Joseph Shoemaker when he refused a Ku Klux Klan warning to leave town. The judge ruled that the State had not proved "the actual or constructive presence of any of the men
at the scene of the crime. Oct. 17. A 21-passenger United Air Lines
plane, west-bound, which left Cheyenne, Wyo., with 19 persons aboard, at 6:25 P.M. and was due in Salt Lake City at 8:42 P.M. crashed at 10,000 ft. altitude, into Chalk Mt., in the Uinta Range, south of Knight, Wyo. It was 15 miles south of its regular course, in a rain-snow storm All were
killed. Oct. 30. In California, the State Supreme Court, 5 to 1, rejected Thomas J. Mooney's
plea for a writ of habeas corpus. Nov. 3. A resolution condemning the im
pending visit of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor to the United States with the announced purpose of studying labor conditions was adopted unanimously by the Baltimore Federation of Labor, a unit of the A. F. of L. The stated objection was labor hostility to Charles E. Bedaux, laborefficiency expert, sponsor of
the tour, author of a' production-speed-up system, Nov. 10. In Brazil, at Rio de Janeiro. Presi
dent Getulio Vargas's Cabinet approved and put into immediate effect a new Consti
tution. Nov. 16. An airplane from Cologne bound for
London hit in a fog, at 2:30 P.M., a factory chimney in descending near Ostend, Bel. gium: 8 passengers and 3 of the crew were killed. The passengers killed included Dowager and Grand Duchess Eleanore of Hesse bei Rhein, widow of the Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig, who died Oct. 9; Grand 1937 Duke George, 31, her son; Grand Duchess
Cecilia, 26; Grand Duke George's wife,
Brussels, adjourned indefinitely.
land, bound from Edinburgh for Glasgow,
in a snow storm, 35 passengers were killed. Dec. 11. Italy gave notice of withdrawal
from the League of Nations. The non-Russian commission of inquiry on
Leon Trotsky announced in N. Y. City that it had found him guiltless of the conspiracy, sabotage and other charges against
him by the Stalin regime. In Soviet Russia, the Congress, first under
the new constitution, was chosen by secret
popular vote. Dec. 20, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled, 7 to
2, that the government has no right to di
vulge intercepted phone messages. Dec. 21. The Lincoln Vehicular Tunnel under
the Hudson River between N. Y. City and Weehawken, N. J., was opened (one tube)
to traffic. Dec. 23. The Cuban Amnesty bill was signed,
proceedings against ex-President Machado
U. S. Court in N. Y. City.
State became the State of Eire (Ireland).
Columbus good-will flight to South America died when their plane crashed in the
mountains near Cali, Colombia. Dec. 30. The yacht Aafje was towed to Los
Angeles after her owner, Dwight Faulding. and her navigator, Jack Morgan, had been
slain and cast overboard. 1938 Jan, 5. AU. S. bombing plane vanished off
San Pedro, Calif., with 7 Navy men aboard; cadet fier S. P. Hawkins was lost in the
search. Jan. 9. An Argentine plane crashed in Uru
guay: 9 persons died, including a son of
ex-President Justo of Argentina. Jan. 10. A plane from Seattle, Wash., for
Chicago fell in the mountains of Montana,
northwest of Bozeman; 9lives were lost. Jan. 11. The hydroplane, Samoan Clipper,
from American Samoa for Auckland, New
daily bombing of Barcelona; Feb. 1, Loyalist
falls on Jan. 26, 1939. Jan. 12. The first session of the U. S. S. R.'s
"Red Parliament'', the supreme Soviet, elected under the new constitution, opened
Kremlin Great alace. Joseph Stalin was among the delegates. Jan. 13. A commission of the Church of
England has reported that the creation narrative in Genesis is mythological with
a symbolic rather than a historic value. Jan. 18. Ecuador decreed explusion of alien
Jews, except those in agriculture.
in a fire at the College of the Sacred Heart. Feb. 1. Collision of U. S. Navy bombing
planes killed 11 persons off San Pedro,
resigned from the British Cabinet. He was
ished parliamentary government and re-
for; 5,313 against.
Levine, vanished from his home in New
1938 ashore, May 29, on Long Island Sound near
fornia caused 81 deaths, of which 31 were
in the Los Angeles area. Mar. 13. In Austria, after the resignation of
Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg and President Wilhelm Miklas, the new Chancellor, Arthur Seyss - Inquart, proclaimed the political and geographic union of Germany and Austria. This was ratified by a popular vote, excluding Jews, in Austria on April 10. Meantime, Chancellor Adolf Hitler, at the head of German troops, which began to cross the frontier on March 11, had taken DOSsession of Austria. The Italian Grand Council, headed by Premier Benito Mussolini.
Pletnev (25 yrs.)
were convicted and shot, including ex-
prosecutor S. Yeskarayeff. Mar. 18. Mexico nationalized the petroleum
E Morgan as Chairman of the Tennessee
public of China set up at Nanking. Apr. 5. The 1938 N, Y. State Constitutional
Convention opened in Albany. Apr. 11. Richard Whitney, 49, ex-president of the N. Y. Stock Exchange, and head of the collapsed bond brokerage firm of Richard Whitney & Co., Broad St., N. Y. City, was sentenced to 5 to 10 years in State Prison, on each of two indictments, to which he had pleaded guilty, which charged him with having misused $105,000 of the trust fund established by his father-in-law, the late George R. Sheldon, and with the theft of $109.000 from the fund of the N. Y. Yacht Club, of which he was treasurer. The sentences run concurrently. He entered
Sing Sing prison on April 12. Apr. 25. Britain (The United Kingdom) and Eire (Ireland) signed an accord under which Britain gives up naval control (Admiralty property and rights) of the ports of Cobh (Queenstown), Bere Haven, and Lough Swilly; and Eire agrees to pay £10,000,000 by Nov, 20, 1938, in final setilement of Britain's claim to land annuities, default of which since 1932 led to the tariff war that has hurt Irish agriculture These tariffs are now thereby abolished: Eire agrees to continue until 1987 annual payments covering damage to property during the land troubles, as provided in the Anglo-Irish agreement of 1925. The Dail Eireann approved, on April 29. the pact. May 4. The steamship (motorship) Lafayette,
was destroyed by fire at Havre, France.
port, where he built and operated ships
line. June 19. In a train wreck, due to a bridge
collapse in a flooded creek in Montana,
east of Miles City, 47 persons were killed. July 17. Douglas G. Corrigan, of Los Angeles,
fiew from Brooklyn across the Atlantic to
Dublin, without permit or passport.
a former bank clerk, ended an 11-hour stay
the Hotel Gotham, in N. Y. City. July 29. The hydroplane Hawaii Clipper, with
15 aboard, for Manila, vanished when about 565 miles from there; 15 persons were lost.