Abbildungen der Seite

Fire destroyed a large part of Salem, Mass.;

15,000 homeless; $12,000,000 loss, June 25. 1915 British naval victory. North Sea, off Dogger

Bank, Jan. 24; German official submarine "blockade' of Great Britain began, Feb. 18: British "Orders in Council" to prevent commodities reaching or leaving Germany, March 1; Second Battle of Ypres, April 22-28 (first poison gas attack of war): April 30; on May 1, a German submarine fired on and hit with a torpedo a ship called the Gulflight, which was Americanowned and was flying the American flag. Two members of the crew, both Americans, died as a result of this attack; Italy renounces treaty of Triple Alliance, May 4; steamship Lusitania sunk by German submarine off Head of Kinsale, Ireland, May 7; 1,195 lives lost, of which 124 were Americans. The submarine was the U-20, commanded by Capt. Schweiger. The identity of the ship was not known to those on the submarine, it was stated at Berlin, in May, 1935, by Capt. Karl Scherb, the officer who first sighted the British liner. Only one torpedo was fired, he said; steamship Arabic sunk, Aug. 19; Allied forces land at Salonica, Oct. 5; Nurse Cavell shot at Brus

sels, Oct. 12. 1915 Earthquake killed 29,978 in central Italy, Jan

13. Panama-Pacific International Exposition

opened (San Francisco). Feb. 20; the Pan ma-California Exposition was held in San

Diego. 1916 Germans attacked, Verdun, Feb. 21-28; rebel

rising in Dublin, April 24 (Patrick H. Pearse and others were executed, May 3; Sir Roger Casement was hanged, Aug. 3); the German submarine, Deutschland' arrived at Norfolk, Va., July 9 (on her second trip she reached New London, Conn. Nov. 1); naval battle off Jutland, May 31; Third Battle of Ypres, June 2; sinking of British warship Hampshire, with Lord Kitchener aboard (12 sailors saved), by German mine in Orkneys, Scotland, June 5; Battle of Somme, July 1-10; Second Battle of Somme, July 14-Aug. 5; Capt. Fryatt executed, July 27; David Lloyd George became British Premier, Dec. 6; Wilson's

peace note published, Dec. 20. Gregory Rasputin, the "Mad Monk. killed

in Petrograd (Leningrad), in Dec. He exercised, it was alleged, mesmeric influence

over the Czar and Czarina, one or both. Columbus, New Mexica, raided by Pancho

Villa (Doroteo Arango), March 9; Pershing
entered Mexico to punish Villa, March 15
fight at Parral, Mexico, April 12; agree-
ment, May 2; Protocol of withdrawal signed.
Nov. 24. Villa was ambushed and killed on

July 18, 1923, at Parral, in Durango.
A bomb hidden in a sachel, on the line of the

Preparedness Day parade in San Francisco
killed 10, wounded 40, July 22, at 2:06 p.m.
The explosion occurred on the west side of
Steuart St., a few feet from the corner of
Market St. James Rolph, Jr., was Mayor
and was & marcher in the parade. The
unions had refused to take part. Thomas
J. Mooney, 33, an iron moulder and a
labor organizer, Mrs. Mooney, Warren K.
Billings, a shoe worker; Israel Weinberg,
and Edward D. Nolan were arrested and
indicted for the murder of one of the vic-
tims. Billings was sentenced to life im-
prisonment; Mooney was sentenced to
death; Mrs. Mooney and Weinberg were
acquitted; Nolan was set free without a
trial, President Woodrow Wilson inter-
ceded for Mooney and on Nov. 28, 1918,
the latter's sentence - was commuted to life
imprisonment, after the California Su-
preme Court had refused a new trial. In
1932 (April 21). Gov. Rolph refused to
pardon Mooney. Thereafter, several times
there were vain appeals to the California
Supreme Court and the U. S. Supreme
Court, to give Mooney a new trial. The
assertion was that he had been convicted
on perjured testimony. Mooney was par-
doned unconditionally on Jan. 7, 1939, by
the new Governor of California, Culbert L.
Olson, who, in his campaign, had an-
nounced his intention to that effect. Bil.
ling'ş sentence was commuted Oct. 16, 1939.

and he was set free. Black Tom dock explosion and fire, Jersey

City, July 30; 2 killed, $22,000,000 loss. 1917 Germany began unrestricted submarine war

fare, Feb. 1; United States broke off diplo

1917 matic relations with Germany, Feb. 3;

United States declared a state of war ex. isted with Germany, April 6; Russian Czar abdicated, March 15. President Wilson signed Selective Military Conscription Bill, May 18; registration (ages 21-30) June 5: First American troops landed in Prance, June 26; Russia proclaimed & republic, Sept. 15; first American killed in battle in World War by airplane bomb (1st Lieut. W. T. Fitzsimmons, M.R.C.) after U. s. entry. Sept. 4; Mata Hari, Dutch dancer and spy, shot in France by firing squad, Oct. 15; first shot by American troops, in France, Oct. 27; first American casualties in France, Nov. 3: Bolshevists under Lenin seized supreme power in Russia, Nov, 7 (Gen. Ludendorff in his memoirs says that the German government had sent Lenin from Switzerland, after the Russian Revolution, across Germany and Sweden to Russia to propagate Bolshevism); Battle of Cambrai, Nov. 20-Dec. 4; United States declared a state of war existed with Austria, Dec. 7; Jerusalem captured, Dec. 9; U. S. Gov't took

over control of railroads, Dec. 28. Halifax disaster, Dec. 6; explosion of a muni

tion ship in harbor in collision caused fire that laid in ruins one-third of the city: killed 1,226, with 400 others missing: de

stroyed 3,000 houses. The 18th (Prohibition) Amendment to the

Constitution was submitted to the States by Congress on Dec. 18. The first State (Mississippi) ratified it on Jan. 8, 1918, and on Jan. 16. 1919, the 36th State Nebraska) ratified it, whereupon, by proclamation of the Secretary of State, Jan. 29, 1919, it became effective one year from that date. Jan, 16, 1920. By Feb. 25, 1919, the Legislatures of 45 States had ratified it: the 46th State, New Jersey, ratified it on March 9, 1922. It was not ratified by Connecticut and Rhode Island. The Volstead (Prohibition Enforcement) Act was passed by Congress in Oct. 1919, and went in effect Jan. 17, 1920. President P. D. Roosevelt. on Mch. 22, 1933, signed a bill passed by the new Congress, amending the Volstead Prohibition Enforcement Act, to legalize 3.2 per cent. beer and wine. The Act went into effect on April 7, 1933. The adoption of the 21st Amendment (repealing the 18th Amendment) by 37 States was proclaimed

in force Dec. 5, 1933. 1918 President Wilson made 14 Points of Peace

speech in Congress, Jan. 8;. peace signed at Brest-Litovsk between the Bolsheviks on the one side, and Germany, AustriaHungary, Bulgaria and Turkey on the other, March 3 (by it Russia gave up the Baltic provinces, Lithuania and Finland): peace signed between Germany and Finland, March 7; Battle of the Somme, March 21, to April 6; Paris bombarded by long range guns at distance of 75 miles, March 23, British naval forces raid Zeebrugge and Ostend, April 22; pro-German plot discovered in Ireland. Sinn Fein leaders arrested, May 17: Battle of the Aisne. May 27-June 5; Fifth All Russian Congress of Soviets adopted a written constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republics, July 10, and put in operation with

out a popular vote or referendum. Czar Nicholas of Russia, the Empress Alex

andra; the daughters, Olga, Tatiana, Marie (Anastasia?); the son, Alexis; Prince Dolgorolkofi, Dr. Bodkin, a lady-in-waiting and a nurse were shot by Bolshevik orders at Ekaterinburg. July 16; at Perm. also, July 12, the Bolshevists assassinated the Czar's brother, Grand Duke Michael, and at Alapalievsky, north of Ekaterinburg. they killed the Grand Dukes Sergius Mikhalllovitch, Igo Constantinovich and Ivan Constantinovich. An alleged survivor of the massacre, the Grand Duchess Anastasia, youngest daughter of the Czar, was brought to the U. S., in 1930, by the Princess Xenia of Greece. She called herself Mme.

Anastasia Nikolaevna Tschaikowsky. German retreat across the Marne begins,

July 19: Battle of St. Mihiel, Sept. 12-16; United States troops take St. Mihiel. Sept. 13; Battle of Meuse-Argonne, Sept. 20 to Nov. 11; Franco-American attack in Argonne, Sept. 26; British attack breaks Hin. denburg line, Sept. 27; Bulgaria signs armistice and surrenders. Sept. 29; Ferdinand of Bulgaria abdicates, Oct. 5: United States troops capture si. Etienne, Oct. G.


1918 Three French soldiers, Corporals Rene

strike, Oct. 31. Beaufils and Jean Duroca, and Machine 1920 The League of Nations came automatically Gunner Pierre Seyler, were the last lives

into existence under the Versailles (World lost in France in the World War. They

War) Peace Treaty when representatives of fell at Dom-le-Mesnil, on the Meuse, one

13 nations met at Geneva on Jan. 10 and minute before the bugles sounded "Cease

began the organization. The first Assembly firing" at 11 A. M., Nov. 11, 1918.

met in November, that year, when delegates Allies capture Cambrat, le Cateau and Ron

from 42 countries admitted 6 others. croy, Oct. 9: Allies occupy Ostend, Bruges Frederick A. Parmenter, shoe factory Payand Lille. Oct. 17; Germans in third peace

master at South Braintree, Mass., was note accept President Wilson's terms and

robbed of $15,000 and shot to death. Nicola recall submarines to their bases, Oct. 20:

Sacco and Bartolomeo Venzetti, anarchists British and Italians cross the Plave, Oct.

from Italy, were convicted, July 14, 1921, 27; armistice granted to Turkey, Oct. 30;

of the murder of Parmenter and were Hungarian Republic proclaimed in Buda- executed Aug. 23, 1927. pest, and Republic of German Austria in International Court of Justice adopted by Vienna, Nov. 1; Austria accepts truce

League of Nations, Aug. 2. terms, Nov. 4; United States troops reach The Nineteenth Amendment, giving suffrage Sedan, Nov. 7; revolution in Kiel and to women, was proclaimed in effect. Aug. Hamburg, Nov. 1: Bavaria proclaimed a republic, Nov. 8; the Kaiser abdicates, Nov. Wall St., N. Y., bomb explosion, killed 30; 9; he flees to Holland, Nov. 10; armistice injured' 100; did $2,000,000 damage. Sept. in World War signed in Marshal Foch's

16. railway coach, near_Rethondes, in the for- 1921 President Harding signed joint resolution est of Compiegne, France, 3 miles east of

(passed by House, June 30, by Senate July the town of Compiegne, and 21 miles

15 of Congress declaring peace with Gernorthwest of Senlis, Nov. 11; German fleet

many and Austria, July 2. The treaty was surrenders to British, Nov. 21; United

signed Aug. 25, in Berlin, by United States Státes troops enter Mainz, Dec. 6: Ameri

and German representatives; was ratified can troops crossed Rhine, Dec. 13.

Sept. 17 by the German National Council: Malbone St., Tunnel rail wreck (Brighton

ratified by the United States Senate (66 line, Brooklyn); 97 killed, 100 hurt, Noy. 2.

to 20) on Oct. 18. 1919 Peace Conference opened informally in Paris, Arkansas River floods and rain swept away Jan. 12; formally inaugurated in Versall

665 houses in Pueblo, Col., property loss les, Jan. 18;. treaty signed at Versailles,

over $20,000,000; 106 dead, June 3-4. June 28; by the Treaty Plenipotentiaries of Collapse and explosion of dirigible balloon, Germany and the Allied Powers: Presi

ZR-2 over Hull, England; 62, including 17 dent Wilson gave the treaty to the Senate,

U. S. Naval men, were killed, Aug, 24.
July 10; ratified by the German National Explosion of a new gas plant in Oppau, on
Assembly, July 10; by the British Par.

the Rhine, Germany, killed hundreds and liament, July 25; and by King George,

destroyed property worth millions, Sept. 21. July 31; by the King of Italy, Oct. 7: by Gerald Chapman and George ("Dutch") France, Oct. 13, and by Japan, Oct. 27:

Anderson, on Oct. 24, held up a mail wadefeated in the United States Senate, Nov.

gon at Broadway and Leonard St., N. Y. 19.

City, and stole 4 sacks of registered mail, The German National Assembly, at Weimar on

containing $1,454,129, of which $100,000 Aug. 11. promulgated the constitution,

was cash and negotiable securities. They which, in Article 48, provided that the

escaped, but were caught and convicted, President's control of the army was subject

and on Aug. 23, 1922, were sentenced to 25 to the responsibility of the Chancellor. How

years in the Federal prison at Atlanta, Ga. ever, in the event of civil disorder the Chan

Chapman escaped, on Mch. 27, 1923: Ancello could act on his own initiative,"11

derson on Dec. 30, 1923. The latter was necessary, with the help of the armed

killed in the midwest Oct. 31, 1925. Chapforces." It was also provided that the

man was hanged in the Conn. State Prison, Chancellor could suspend a number of the

Wethersfield, on April 6, 1926. He had articles of the Constitution which guaran

been convicted of killing a policeman in teed the liberties of the citizens, freedom of speech, writing and public meeting. This

a store robbery at New Britain. Hitler was able to do upon the burning of

Limitation of Armaments Conference met in the Reichstag; and his dictatorship there

Washington, Nov. 11, 1921-Feb. 6. 1922. after was founded on Article 48.

Its terms expired Dec. 31, 1936. The Communist International, or Comintern,

1922 Roof of Knickerbocker (movie) Theatre colwas organized in March, in Russia. Kari

lapsed in Washington, D. C., 98 died from Marx, in Germany in 1862, had formed the

injuries, Jan. 28. International Working Men's Association,

Dirigible balloon Roma (built in Italy for which existed until 1874. The Second

the United States) exploded, by contact International dated from 1889.

with electric wires, descending at HampIn Amritsar, religious metropolis of the Sikhs,

ton, Va.; 34 died of injuries, Feb. 21. in Punjab Province, British India, April 11,

The Portuguese aviators, Admiral Cago a mass meeting of protest against the arrest

Coutinho and Commander Saccadura Caof agitators refused to disperse and was fired

bral, left Lisbon, Portugal, March 22, arupon by British soldiers under Gen. Dyer;

riving at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

April 19, at least 400 persons were killed and over

with stops at Cape Verde and Natal, coy1,000 wounded.

ering 4,293 nautical miles. This was the

first airplane crossing of the South AtThree U. Ş. Navy, seaplanes left Trepassy,

lantic. Newfoundland, May 16; one, the N-C 4.

Fourteen republics of Russia combined, in reached the Azores, May 17; Lisbon, May

convention in Moscow, as the Union of 27; Plymouth. England, May 31: Harry

Soviet Socialist Republics, Dec. 20. InC.' Hawkes and MacKenzie Grieve fell in

cluded were the White Russian, the Ukrainmid-ocean


an attempted flight, May 18, from Newfoundland

ian, and the Trans-Caucasian Soviet Reto Ireland, but were rescued; John Alcock and A. W.

publics. Brown made, June 14-15, a non-stop air

1923 French and Belgian troops began occupation flight from Newfoundland to Ireland: a

of the Ruhr, Jan, 11. British dirigible balloon, R-34, left Scot

On May, 17, 76 persons, 41 of them children,

were burned or crushed to death at the land, July 2, and descended in Mineola.

Cleveland Rural Graded School in CamL. I., July 6. It left for England. July 10, and arrived there July 13. The U. s. trans

den, S. C. continental air flight, New York to San

Earthquake, followed by fires and tidal waves, Francisco and return, Oct. 8-18, was won

destroyed part of Tokio and Yokohama by Lieut. W. B. Maynard and Lieut. Alex.

99,331 were killed, Sept. 1.

The revolt in Bavaria, organized by Gen. Pearson.

Ludendorff and Adolf Hitler, ended on The Wartime Prohibition Law, designed as a

Mar. 9. when the Beer Putschists marched measure to conserve grain during the war,

in Munich, Ludendorff was captured but was enacted in November, 1918, and be

later was paroled. Hitler was wounded, came effective June 30, 1919.

several others died, in the fighting. Hitler Mayaguez Theater fire, June 20, San Juan, was captured Nov. 12 and imprisoned. P. R.; 150 died.

1924 Nikolai Lenin (M. Vladmir Ilich Ulianov. Steel workers strike all over U. S., beginning

Lenin) 54, head of the Soviet Russian Sept. 22: railway strike in England began

government, died on Jan. 21, of apoplexy, in Sept. 27; soft coal miners in V. S. began

Gorka, 20 miles S. E. of Moscow. He had

1924 been seriously ill since May, 1933). For some

time he had been progressively paralyzed. The death certificate of Dr. Otfried Foerster, of Breslau, named the trouble as arterio-sclerosis. Lenin's father had died comparatively young from the same cause. Allies and Germany, in Agreement of London,

accepted Dawes Reparation Plan,, Aug. 16; French troops began evacuation of Ruhr Aug. 18; the Agreement was formally signed Aug. 30, at London by Germany and the powers concerned, and Owen D. Young of the United States assumed duties Agent

General of Reparation Payments. N. F. Leopold. Jr., 19, and Richard Loeb, 19, kidnapped for ransom and killed Robert Franks. 13, in Chicago, May 22; they pleaded guilty, July 21, and were sentenced to prison for life. Loeb was killed

by a fellow convict, Jan. 28, 1936. The Prince of Wales began his American

tour in N. Y., Aug. 29; and left there for

England. Oct. 25. The ZR-3, dirigible (Los Angeles), left Friedrichshafen, Germany, Oct. 12, 12:35 A. M.: arriving in New York, Oct. 15, 8:3:40 A, M.;

reached Lakehurst, N. J., 9:55 A. M. On Christmas Day, in the Babb Switch

School, Hobart, Okla., 35 parents and school children perished in a fire

that started when a candle ignited a holiday

tree. 1925 A storm in Missouri, Southern Illinois and

Indiana killed over 830 persons, injured

3,800; property loss $10,000,000. 200 were killed by the explosion of bombs in

the Cathedral of Sveti Kral, in Sofia, at the funeral of Gen. Georghieff, who was as

sassinated April 14. Earthquakes in Japan killed 381, and caused

$50,000,000 property loss, May 23. Earthquakes partly destroyed the city of

Santa Barbara, Calif., June 29. John T. Scopes, in court' in Dayton, Tenn., was found guilty of having taught evolution in the local High School and was fined $100 and costs, July 24. William J. Bryan, chief counsel for the prosecution, died in Dayton on July 26. Clarence Darrow, chief defense

counsel, died March 13, 1938. The 2 Nine Power Treaties of the Washing

ton Arms Conference were ratified in Washington by the U. S., France, Japan, Italy, Great Britain, China, Portugal, Belgium

and Holland, Aug. 5. The U. S. Navy rigid dirigible airship Shen

andoah (which had left Lakehurst, N. J., on Sept. 2, bound for St. Paul) was torn to pieces at 5 A. M., Sept. 3, by a thunder squall while passing over Ava, Ohio; 14 of the crew were killed, including Lieut.

Com. Zachary Lansdowne, Sept. 3. Germany ratified the Locarno treaties, Nov.

27. They were ratified by Great Britain. Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Poland. and Czechosloyakia, in London, Dec. 1

They went into effect on Sept. 14, 1926. 1926 The anthracite strike, which began Sept. 1,

1926, was secretly settled, in Philadelphia,

Feb. 12; work resumed Feb. 18.
A general British strike, due to coal miners'

strike and lockout, and involving 2,500,000 workers, began May 3; called off May 12. but the coal miners stayed out for months. The Sesquicentennial Exposition, in Phila

delphia, opened, May 31. It closed Nov. 30. 21 were killed, 80 buildings wrecked, and $85,

000,000 of property and ammunition de stroyed by explosions and fires when lightning struck the navy munitions reservations

at Lake Denmark, N. J., July 10.
The Assembly of the League of Nations, in

Geneva, Sept. 8, unanimously admitted
Germany to the League and to a permanent
Council seat and increased the non-perma-

nent members of the Council from 6 to 9. A tropical hurricane from the ocean swept

the east coast of Florida, and into Alabama and Mississippi, Sept. 18, killing 372; 6,281 were hurt. 17,884 families temporarily made homeless, 5,000 homes were destroyed. The greatest damage was in Miami and its suburbs. Fort Lauderdale, Hollywood, Dania and Hialeah, where the dead num. bered 250. 110 bodies were found at Moore Haven, In the Bahamas, at Turks' and Caicos Islands 17 were killed; over 10 died

at Bimini. A hurricane killed over 600 in Havana and

other places in Cuba, Oct. 20. On the Isle of Pines, 40 were killed,

1927.600 U. S. marines and several war vessels

were ordered to Nicaragua, Jan. 6. to protect American interests. The marines were

withdrawn early in 1933. Civil war in China caused over 400 British

troops to be landed in Shanghai, Jan. 27; 1,200 U. S. marines got there on March 5 and Japan, France, Spain, Portugal and Holland put over 15,000 soldiers ashore. At Nanking, March 23, Cantonese troops shelled the burning Standard Oil plant, and killed several foreigners, including Dr. J. E. Williams of Shawnee, O., Vice Presi

dent of Nanking University. The U. S. Supreme Court voided the Doheny

oil reserve leases Feb. 28. President Coo-
lidge cancelled the Naval Reserve oil leases,

March 17.
Albert Snyder, art editor of "Motor Boating,"

was killed, March 20, in his home, Queens
Village, L. I., N. Y. His wife, Ruth Brown
Snyder, and her lover, Henry Judd Gray.
married, a corset salesman, of E. Orange,
N. J., confessed, and were convicted, May 9,
of murder. They were executed in Sing
Sing, Jan. 12, 1928.
Floods in the Mississippi River and its lower

branches began early in April and for six weeks inundated 20,000 square miles in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky. The property loss was put at $270,000,000; over 4,000,000 acres of crops were destroyed, also 25,000 horses, 50,000 cattle, 148,000 hogs, 1,300 sheep, and 1,300,000 poultry; 600,000 persons were made for a time homeless, and several hundred were drowned. Tornadoes killed 22 in Illinois, April 19, and 250 on May 9 in Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana. Missouri, Texas and Wyoming Capt. Charles A. Lindbergh, alone in his

monoplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, hopped ofr, May 10, at San Diego, Calif. He reached St. Louis May 11; left there May 12 and landed the same day at Mineola, N. Y. He left there on May 20, reached Paris May 21. flew to Brussels, May 28: Brussels to London, May 29; England back to Paris, June 3; Paris to Cherbourg, June 4, where he boarded the U.S. Navy Cruiser, Memphis, on the deck of which was the boxedup Spirit of St. Louis. The ship arrived on June 10 at the Virginia Capes; Lindbergh was welcomed June 11, by President Coolidge, in Washington, in New York

, and Gov. A. E. Smith; he returned to Washington and on June 16 flew his Spirit of St. Louis to Mineola, N. Y., and was welcomed in Brooklyn. On June 17 he flew to St. Louis. Later (Dec., 1927-Feb., 1928) he flew from Washington, non-stop, to Mexico City, thence to Panama and South America, and to St. Louis. In 1931-32, he and his wife flew to Ottawa, thence to Alaska, Japan, and China. In 1933 (July-Dec.) the couple toured in their plane Greenland, western Europe, upper South America and

the West Indies. A tornado at St. Louis killed 87, Injured

1,500, and destroyed 1,000 houses, Sept. 29. Rains and floods, beginning Nov. 2, and last

ing several days, devastated the river valleys of New England, particularly in Vermont, and the Canadian Province of Quebec. Over 120 persons were killed in

Vermont. 1928 Pan-American Conference in Havana, Cuba;

opened by President Coolidge, Jan. 16;
adjourned Feb. 20.
Trotsky, Kameneff, Zinovieff, Rakovsky, and
Radek exiled by the Soviets from White

Russia, Jan. 16.
The St. Francis water-supply dam, 40 miles

north of Los Angeles, collapsed; 450 lives

lost, 700 houses swept away. A hurricane swept over the West Indies and

Florida, Sept. 12-17, killing 60 on the Leeward Isles, 660 on Guadeloupe,

200 on Puerto Rico, and 1500 to 2500 in Florida. Damage, $85,000,000 in Puerto Rico, $25,000,000

in Florida. $7,000,000 elsewhere. Soviet Russia inaugurated the Five-Year Plan of agricultural and industrial develop

ment, Oct. 1. The balloon, Graf Zeppelin, under Capt. Hugo Eckener, with crew of 38 and 20 Dassengers, left Friedrichshafen, Germany, on Oct. 11, and on Oct. 15, reached N. Y. City and anchored at Lakehurst. N. She left there Oct. 29, and reached Friedrichshafen on Oct. 31.

1929 landed once in the mountains to refuel. 1929 landed once in the mountains to refuel. in N. Y. City. Nov. 4. and died Nov. 6.

Following a strike, on Dec. 4, at the CusU. S. President-elect Herbert Hoover, wife

toms Office, U. S. Marines declared marand party. made a tour of Latin America.

tial law in Port-au-Prince, and in Cape They left San Pedro, Calif., on the battle

Hatien, Haiti; 500 more marines were ship Maryland, on Nov. 19, there on Dec.

sent to Haiti; on Dec. 6, marines killed 18; in Rio de Janeiro, on Dec. 21, reaching

5 and wounded 20 in a force of 1,500 peasNorfolk and Washington on Jan. 6. 1929.

ants advancing on Aux Cayes. 1929 The Jones Law, an amendment making more Long-term armed felons in the State Prison drastic the National Prohibition Act, was

at Auburn, N. Y., captured Warden Edgar passed by the Senate 65 to 18, on Feb. 19:

8. Jennings and several guards on Dec. by the House, 283 to 90 on Feb. 28, and

11. Six convicts were shot to death. George approved by President Coolidge on March 2.

A. Durnford, chief keeper, was killed. The Papal state, extinct since 1870. was re- 1930 Floods and rains in the valley of the River created under the name of the State of

Tarn in Southern France, Mch. 5. killed Vatican City, under the terms signed at

over 400, and destroyed 4,000 homes. and Rome, Feb. 11. They went into effect

also other structures, mostly at Montauban May 7.

and at Moissac. In Mexico a revolution under Gen. J. G. Fire, April 21, killed 320 convicts in the Escobar began in March. Roman Catholic

Ohio State Penitentiary, Columbus. leaders denied complicity. The rebellion The London Naval Reduction Treaty was ended in May; 4,000 killed, 11,000 wounded.

signed there, April 22. The Senate ratified Fire, explosion and chemical fumes from X

the treaty on July 21, and the President ray Alms (nitrogen-dioxide) killed 124 at

signed it on July 22. It was proclaimed the Cleveland, O.. Clinic Hospital of Dr.

by President Hoover in effect on Jan. 1, George W. Crile, May 15.

1931. Its terms expired on Dec. 31, 1936. Settlement of the dispute between Chile and The Allied Reparation Commission estabPeru over the provinces of Tacna and Arica

lished under the Treaty of Versailles to colwas announced by President Hoover award

lect the war indemnity from Germany, ing Tacna to Peru and Arica to Chile. The

ended its labors at a meeting at Paris, May treaty was signed in Lima, June 3.

17, simultaneously with the conclusion of Convicts revolted in Clinton State Prison,

the Dawes plan regime and the official comDannemora, N. Y., July 22; three guards

mencement of the Young plan. killed; part of prison plant burned.

The Bolivian government was overthrown, President Hoover, on July 24, proclaimed

June 22, by rebels; the Peruvian Govt., the Kellogg - Briand Anti-War Treaty in

Aug. 22-27; the Argentine Govt., Sept. 6; effect (at 1:22 P. M.) under which 62 lead

the Brazil Govt., Oct. 24. ing powers pledge themselves to renounce -The last French soldiers of the army of ocwar as an instrument of national policy. . cupation at the Kehl bridgehead of the At the State Prison at Auburn, N. Y.. on

Rhine were withdrawn, June 28, to StrasJuly 28, the convicts rioted, seized the

bourg, and Baden WAS entirely freed. prison arsenal and distributed arms.

Evacuation of the Rhineland was completed Guards, state troopers and


on June 30. drove the prisoners to cover with machine

Joseph F. Crater, a justice of the State Suguns, rifles and tear bombs. The damage

preme Court, N. Y. City, vanished on the to property was $450,000. Two prisoners

night of Aug. 6. were killed.

A hurricane, on Sept. 3, struck the City The Graf Zeppelin_dirigible balloon, with 20

of Santo Domingo and nearby country: passengers, left Friedrichshafen, Germany. 2,000 were killed, 6,000 injured, with dam. on Aug. 14, and went east around the

ages estimated at $40,000,000. world, over Russia, and Asia, at Tokio The British dirigible balloon, R-101, on Oct. (Aug. 19) over the Pacific at Los Angeles

5. hit a wooded hill, and burned up, near (Aug. 26); at Lakehurst, N. J. (Aug. 29)).

Allone, France, on the way from Croydon to She had left Lakehurst on Aug. 8. She left

India; 47 killed. there on Sept. 1, and landed at Friedrichs- In Belgium, in the Valley of the Meuse, behafen on Sept. 4.

tween Liege and Huyann, dense fog. on - A mutiny, on Oct: 3, of convicts at the Colo

Dec. 5, killed 75 persons and many cattle. rado State Penitentiary, at Canon City, The Bank of United States, at N. Y. City. lasted until Oct. 4, when the four leaders of

was closed, Dec. 11, by the State authe revolt killed themselves and the rest

thorities. surrendered. Seven guards and five felons 1931 The Panama Republic's government, headed were killed. The chapel, mess hall, and

by F. H. Arosemena, was overthrown; 10 two cell-houses were burned.

were killed, Jan. 2. Albert B. Fall, former Secretary of the In

Constitutional guarantees were restored. Feb. terior, was found guilty in the Supreme

8, in Spain. They had been suspended by Court of the District of Columbia of ac

Premier Rivera on Sept. 23, 1923; the nacepting a bribe of $100.000 from Edward

tional election was held on April 12King L. Doheny in the leasing of the Elks Hills

Alfonso fled from Madrid on April 14; and naval oil reserve during the Harding Ad

a republic was proclaimed; a new Parliaministration. He was sentenced, on Nov.

ment was elected on June 28, and Alcaló 1, to $100,000 fine and a year in prison,

Zamora was chosen president. which he entered J 20, 1931.

The Peruvian vernment Was upset by Late in October the prices of stocks began to

revolution, on Mch. 1; that of Chili, on go downwards, and this movement at New

July 24; Paraguay, Oct. 26; Salvador, Dec. 3. York and elsewhere continued through the Earthquakes killed 1,000 in Managua, Nicarrest of the year, with occasional brief ral

agua, Mch, 31, and destroyed many buildlies. Declines in stock values up to the

ings. end of 1929 reached $15,000,000,000: It was The King and Queen of Siam and party artestified in 1932 before a U. S. Senate Com

rived in Victoria, B. c., on April 16: on mittee that the 1929-1931 stock losses af.

April 22 they settled in Scarborough, near fected 25,000,000 persons, and totaled $50,

N. Y. City, and the King had a cataract 000.000.000.

removed from his eye, on May 10: they The Atlantic coast, from N. Y. City north

left on July 28 for Canada and Siam. ward to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia President Hoover, on June 20, proposed a lwas shaken, on Nov. 18, by an earthquake.

year moratorium on intergovernmental A tidal wave swept the south coast of the

debts, to begin July 1. This took effect. Burin Peninsula, Newfoundland, drowning A tidal wave, on Sept. 10, killed 1.200 perover 40 persons.

sons in Belize, British Honduras, and Commander Richard E. Byrd started from

destroyed buildings. his base, Little America, in the Antarctic, Great Britain, on Sept. 21, suspended the at 3.29 (10.29 D.m. New York time). Nov

gold standard for 6 months. She was tol28, on a 1,600-mile flight to the South Pole

lowed by Denmark, on Sept. 28, and Finand back, with Bert Balchen as pilot, Har.

land on Oct. 12; Japan, Dec. 13. old I. June as radio operator, and Capt. Jack (Legs) Diamond, was assassinated in Ashley C. McKinly as photographer, in the Albany, N. Y., Dec. 8, a day after his actri-motored airplane he took to the Ant

quittal of kidnapping, arctic. The party got back on Nov. 29, at 5.10 1932 Joseph Kahahawal, a Hawaiian, on trial in p.m. (N. Y time), and reported that they

Honolulu on a charge of attacking the wife reached the Pole on Nov. 29, about 8.55 a.m.

of Lieut. Thos, H. Massie, a naval officer (N. Y. time) dropped & V. S. flag there

on the U. 8. N. receiving ship, Alton, was (it was 16° below zero); circled over the

kidnapped and slain, Jan. 8, after the jury polar plateau, and, on the return journey,

had disagreed.

1932 In Shanghai, Chinese gangsters, on Jan. 15,

slew a Buddhist priest from Japan, Hideo Minakami. This was the first of a series of troubles which led, on Jan. 27, to the

landing of Japanese marines, and warfare. The Spanish Parliament, Jan. 19, by decree

dissolved the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). The Jesuits were, by decree of the Franco government, in January, 1940. readmitted

to Spain, and their property was restored. Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., 19 months

old (born at Englewood, N. J., June 22, 1930), was kidnapped, between 8 and 10 p. 2., Mch. 1, from the new Lindbergh home near Hopewell, N. J., in the Sourland Mountain region, northwest of Princeton. The body, reduced almost to a skeleton, was found on May 12, in a thicket near a roadway, less than 5 miles from the babe's home, and between Hopewell and Princeton. The discovery was made by a negro teamster who had stopped his wagon and had stepped into the woods on an errand. Meantime, John F. Condon, for Col. Lindbergh, had paid $50,000 in Bronx Borough to an alleged agent of the kidnapers, and Gaston B. Means, Washington, had collected $100.000 from Mrs. Evelyn Walsh McLean,

on the promise to restore Lindbergh baby. Means was sent to prison. On Sept. 10, 1934, Bruno Richard Hauptmann, 35, married, father of a baby boy, çarpenter, paroled German convict who had entered the United States unlawfully, at N. Y. City. in 1923, was arrested near his home in the Wakefield section of the Bronx, after he had passed a ransom bank. note at a gasoline filling station; over $14,000 of the ransom money was found hidden in his garage. He was indicted in the Bronx on Sept. 26, on an extortion charge; on Oct. 8, he was indicted in Hunterdon County, N. J., on a burglary-murder charge; on Jan. 3, 1935, he was put to trial in Flemington and was identified by Col. Lindbergh, by Condon and others; a


have come from his attic; he denied his guilt under oath and testified he got the ransom money from the late Isador Fisch The jury, on which several women served convicted Hauptman on Feb. 13. anc Supreme Court Justice T. W. Trenchard sentenced him to die in the week of Mch 2. An appeal was taken to the State Couri of Errors and Appeals, which sustained the conviction, The U. S. Supreme Court refused to interfere. Governor Harold G Hoffman gave Hauptmann a month's reprieve, characterizing the trial in Fleming. ton as unfair, and adding that such crime suggested an accomplice. The State Board of Pardons refused to commute th: sentence. He was executed on April 3

1936. Congress, Mch. 2, passed a joint resolution

proposing to the States an amendment to the Federal Constitution, under which con. gress would meet each year on Jan. 3, ang the terms of the President and Vice-President would begin on Jan. 20. It wa:

adopted by the States. Ivar Kreuger, 52, unmarried, Swedish "match

king," shot himself to death, Mch. 12, in

Paris. Revolution, June 4, in Chili. In Siam, a bloodless revolution changed the

government from an absolute into a lim.

ited monarchy, June 24. Zachary S. Reynolds, 20, a son of RJ

Reynolds, cigarette manufacturer, wa found shot to death, July 6, in his home.

Winston-Salem, N. C. The Lausanne Reparations Conference ad

journed, July 9, after agreeing that Germany can settle in full for $714,000,000. A treaty was signed in Washington between Canada and the United States, July 18, for the proposed development of the St. Law. rence waterway into an ocean lane and

power project. The British Imperial Economic Conference

opened in Ottawa, Can., July 21. It finally agreed on tariffs to mutualize the trade

of the Empire. James J. Walker, resigned, Sept. 1, as Mayor

of N. Y. City, and went to Europe. That ended the charges on which he was being tried before Gov. Roosevelt on removal proceedings, initiated by Samuel Seabury,

1932 counsel to the legislative committee in its

inquiry into the city government. Walker

had been & witness before that committee. After passing over the Virgin Islands, where

15 persons were killed, a hurricane ripped across Puerto Rico, Sept. 27, killing 245, injuring 3,329; destroying 36,249 buildings, damaging 30,046; and leaving over 41,000 families in need of food; property loss,

$30,000,000. Earthquakes on Dec. 26, killed 70.000 persons

in the Kaoti district of the northwest Pror

ince of Kansu, China. 1933 The U. S. Marines withdrew from Nicaragua

on Jan. 2, and on Feb. 2. Gen. Sandino

ended his rebellion. An epidemic of "bank holidays" in the

United States began on Feb. 14, in Michigan, when Goy. W. A. Comstock ordered all banks in that State closed for 8 days. All banks in the United States were closed by proclamation of President Roosevelt beginning on March 6. The Stock and Commodity Exchanges in New York City and elsewhere also closed, beginning March 6. and reopened mostly on March 15. The banks reopened, such as were fit, gradually.

from March 9, onward. The movement to collect hoarded gold from

the people commenced early in March, Congress on the 9th, in special session granting the President dictatorial power over all forms of money. A presidential ban on gold exports began on April 19. On June 5 the President signed an Act of Congress outlawing

the gold-payment clause in all monies, and other public and private contracts. In October the Government commenced to buy domestic and foreign gold above the market price, for the purpose of raising commodity prices. Minnesota, on Feb. 24, banned mortgage

foreclosures on farms and homes. The movement spread to other States. "The Minnesota action was sustained by the

U. S. Supreme Court in a 5-to-4 decision. The German Reichstag (Parliament) Build

ing, in Berlin, was destroyed on Feb. 27 by fire. The Supreme Court found Marinus van der Lubbe, a young Dutch Communist, guilty, and he was beheaded on Jan. 10.

1934, in Leipzig, in Saxony. Eartbquakes in Southern California on Mch.

10, at Long Beach and near by, killed 130

persons and caused $50,000,000 damage. The U. S. Navy dirigible balloon, Akron, was

beaten down in a storm, on April 4, off Barnegat, N. J.; 73 persons were drowned. including Rear Admiral W. A. Moffett, the Aviation Chief. The World Economic Conference opened, in

London, June 12, but came to naught. Spain, by Parliamentary edict, on May 17,

disestablished the church. The Century of Progress Exposition opened in

Chicago, on May 27, and closed at midnight of Nor. 12; it reopened in 1934 on May 26 and closed on Oct. 31; attendance (1933) 22,320,456; (1934) 16,306,090-total, 38,626,

546. The U. S. Congress, on June 13, passed the National Industrial Recovery Act (signed June 16) which, with the Agricultural Ad. justment Act (signed May 12) gave the President control of agriculture and industry. The N. R. A. was killed by the U. S. Supreme Court on May 27, 1935, and

the A. A. A. processing taxes on Jan. 6, 1936. - In Germany, on June 22, the Hitler Govern

ment began to proscribe all political parties
except the National Socialist German
Labor Party (Nazis), beginning with the
Social Democratic Party. At the same time
the campaign was under way to reduce by
law the percentage of Jews in government
life, in industry, and in the professions.
Kidnapping, in Albany, July 7, of John J.
O'Connell, Jr., was followed by that of
Charles F. Urschel (July 23, Oklahoma
City); Jake the Barber, Chicago; and
others. At San Jose, Calll., Nov. 9. 'Brook
L. Hart, a young merchant, was seized.
bound, beaten, and flung into San Fran-
cisco Bay, following a demand for ransom.
A mob on Nov. 26, after the body was
found, broke into the jail, and dragged
forth and hanged Thomas H. Thurmond
and John Holmes.
In Rome, July 15, a 10-yr. peace pact was
signed by Italy, France, Germany and

Great Britain.
An army revolt In Cuba caused President

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