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landed once in the mountains to refuel. in N. Y. City, Nov. 4, and died Nov. 6. U. S. President-elect Herbert Hoover, wife and party. made a tour of Latin America. They left San Pedro, Calif., on the battleship Maryland, on Nov. 19, there on Dec. 18; in Rio de Janeiro, on Dec. 21, reaching Norfolk and Washington on Jan. 6, 1929. 1929 The Jones Law, an amendment making more drastic the National Prohibition Act, passed by the Senate 65 to 18, on Feb. 19: by the House, 283 to 90 on Feb. 28. and approved by President Coolidge on March 2. The Papal State, extinct since 1870, was recreated under the name of the State of Vatican City, under the terms signed at Rome, Feb. 11. They went into effect May 7.
In Mexico a revolution under Gen. J. G.
Settlement of the dispute between Chile and
The Graf Zeppelin dirigible balloon, with 20 passengers, left Friedrichshafen, Germany, on Aug. 14, and went east around the world, over Russia, and Asia, at Tokio (Aug. 19) over the Pacific at Los Angeles (Aug. 26); at Lakehurst, N. J. (Aug. 29)). She had left Lakehurst on Aug. 8. She left there on Sept. 1, and landed at Friedrichshafen on Sept. 4.
A mutiny, on Oct: 3, of convicts at the Colo-
Albert B. Fall, former Secretary of the In-
The Atlantic coast, from N. Y. City north-
Commander Richard E. Byrd started from his base, Little America, in the Antarctic, at 3.29 (10.29 p.m. New York time), Nov 28, on a 1,600-mile flight to the South Pole and back, with Bert Balchen as pilot, Harold I. June as radio operator, and Capt. Ashley C. McKinly as photographer, in the tri-motored airplane he took to the Antarctic. The party got back on Nov. 29, at 5.10 p.m. (N. Y. time), and reported that they reached the Pole on Nov. 29, about 8.55 a.m. (N. Y. time) dropped a U. S. flag there (it was 16° below zero); circled over the polar plateau, and, on the return journey.
landed once in the mountains to refuel.
Fire, April 21, killed 320 convicts in the
The Bolivian government was overthrown,
The last French soldiers of the army of oc-
Joseph F. Crater, a justice of the State Supreme Court, N. Y. City, vanished on-the night of Aug. 6.
A hurricane, on Sept. 3, struck the City
The British dirigible balloon, R-101, on Oct.
In Belgium, in the Valley of the Meuse, be-
The Panama Republic's government, headed
The Peruvian Government was upset by
Great Britain, on Sept. 21, suspended the
1932 Joseph Kahahawai, a Hawaiian, on trial in
counsel to the legislative committee in its
Earthquakes on Dec. 26, killed 70,000 persons
1933 The U. S. Marines withdrew from Nicaragua
1932 In Shanghai, Chinese gangsters, on Jan. 15, 1932
Board of Pardons refused to commute th
Congress, Mch. 2, passed a joint resolution
Revolution, June 4, in Chili.
In Siam, a bloodless revolution changed the
Zachary S. Reynolds, 20, a son of R. J
The Lausanne Reparations Conference ad-
The British Imperial Economic Conference
An epidemic of "bank holidays" in the
The movement to collect hoarded gold from the people commenced early in March. Congress on the 9th, in special session granting the President dictatorial power A presidential over all forms of money.
ban on gold exports began on April 19. On
Earthquakes in Southern California on Mch.
The World Economic Conference opened, in
The Century of Progress Exposition opened in
The U. S. Congress, on June 13, passed the
In Rome, July 15, a 10-yr. peace pact was
An army revolt in Cuba caused President
Machado, Aug. 12, to resign and flee. Carlos 1934 Cespedes became Provisional President. Aug. 13; but another army revolt, Sept. 5, put Ramon Grau San Martin in the presidency. He resigned on Jan. 15, 1934, and the Junta put in Carlos Hevia, who was succeeded on Jan. 18 by Col. Carlos Mendieta. After conferences at the White House with Maxim M. Litvinoff, USSR Commissar of Foreign Affairs, President Roosevelt, on Nov. 16. declared renewal of normal diplomatic relations between the United States and Soviet Russia. The first ambassador, Alexander Troyanovsky, presented his credentials on Jan. 7, 1934, at the White House.
1934 Clyde Barrow, 28, on Jan. 16, with a machine
On Jan. 16, Edward G. Bremer, 37, was kid-
Jan. 31, The U. S. Government reduced the
Feb. 19, U. S. cancelled all air mail contracts.
In Austria, Feb. 12-15, an abortive Social
Feb. 17, Albert I, 58, King of the Belgians,
Mch. 6, Dr. Alice L. Wynekoop, 63, was con-
Mch. 22, U. S. Congress granted Philippine
April 27, at Buenos Aires, the Argentine,
May 10, drought and dust storms in the U. S. mid-West are destroying winter wheat. Longshoremen and other dock laborers began strikes on the U. S. Pacific and Atlantic coasts, marked by violence and fatalities. A general strike of union workers started on July 16, in San Francisco, but quickly fizzled; the dock strikes practically ended by arbitration on July 29. May 29, The Treaty of Relations between the United States of America and the Republic of Cuba was signed, abrogating the Treaty of Relations concluded between the United States and Cuba on May 22, 1903. It was ratified May 31, by the U. S. Senate and was put into force on June 9. May 31, The U. S. Grand Fleet of 81 warships
and 35.000 officers and men entered New York Harbor for the first time in four years.
June 14, Germany proclaimed a transfer moratorium, and suspended cash payments on her foreign debts.
June 15, The U. S. Senate ratified the Geneva
(June 17, 1925) convention for the supervision of international trade in arms, ammunition and implements of war, including aircraft and airships.
June 28, The U. S. Treasury banned silver exports. June 30, In Germany, a plot by Nazi leaders and Storm Troop commanders to overthrow the regime of Chancellor Adolf Hitler was discovered. There were many arrests, executions and suicides. Ex-Chancellor Gen. Kurt van Schleicher, 51, was shot to death resisting arrest. His wife also was killed.
July 1, President Roosevelt went on board the U. S. cruiser Houston, off Annapolis, Md., and started for Hampton Roads, and Hawaii; landed in Portland, Oregon, on August 3; and then started back East through the drought afflicted plains states. July 17. Strike of Minneapolis truck drivers; ended Aug. 21.
July 25, Nazis in Vienna, Austria, seized the building used by the Cabinet, shot Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, 41, to death. The police and loyal troops soon recaptured the Chancellory, with some loss of life. Aug. 1, In Port Au Prince, the United States relinquished control of Haiti.
Aug. 19, The German people approved the consolidation of the offices of President and Chancellor in a single Leader-Chancellor, Adolf Hitler, which followed the death of President von Hindenburg, Aug. 2. Aug. 21, a band of robbers took $427,950 from a Rubel armed car on Bay 19th St., Brooklyn.
Sept. 1, Strike orders applying to 1,000,000 employees in the cotton, silk and wool divisions, went into effect at 11:30 P. M., issued by the United Textile Workers of America: The trouble was greatest in Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina in the South, and in Maine and Rhode Island. The National Guard and mobs clashed in several states and over 20 persons were killed. President Roosevelt's personal appeal ended the strike on Sept. 22, pending further arbitration.
Sept. 21, Hurricane winds have swept across Honshiu, the central island of Japan. Fatalities totaled 4,232; damage over $90,000,000.
Oct. 5, In Spain, a revolutionary general strike was called by Communist and Socialist leaders in protest against the inclusion by Premier Alejandro Lerroux of three Catholic Popular Actionists in his new cabinet. In the province of Catalonia an independent free state was proclaimed. Sanguinary disorders occurred at Madrid, Barcelona and other cities and industrial centres. All of Spain was put under martial law. President Luis Companys and other Catalan rebels were captured after loyal troops had shelled the public buildings at Barcelona. Warships were sent to the coast cities. Churches and convents were burned by anti-Catholics.
Oct. 9, King Alexander I (45) of Yugo Slavia and Foreign Minister Jean Louis Barthou (72) of France, were assassinated in Marseilles, where the King had landed from a warship, and was on the way to a diplomatic conference at Paris. The slayer, Velichko Kerin, alias Peter Kaleman, alias Valada G. Chernozemsky, born in Bulgaria, was sabred and beaten and stamped to death, but not before he had shot Gen. Alfonse J. Georges and several spectators. Oct. 10, In Louisville, Ky., Mrs. Berry V. Stoll (Alice Speed) 26, wife of an oil operator, was beaten and taken from her home by a kidnapper who left a demand for $50,000. On Oct. 16, she was found by agents of the U. S. Dept. of Justice, near Scottsburg, Ind. The kidnaper, Thomas H. Robinson Jr. was caught in California, May 11, 1936 and on May 13 sentenced to imprisonment for life.
Oct. 22, Charles (Pretty Boy) Floyd, 30, was shot to death by U. S. officers near East Liverpool, Ohio.
Nov. 24, In Chicago, the $100,000,000 Insull mail fraud trial ended in a verdict of not guilty for Samuel Insull and his 16 co-defendants, all former associates in the utilities and financial field. Included among them were Harold L. Stuart, Charles B. Stuart, Stanley Field, Clarence W. Sills, and Edward J. Doyle.
Nov. 27, With a machine gun, George (Baby
Face) Nelson (Lester M. Gillis) shot death U. S. Dept. of Justice Agent Herman E. Hollis, and mortally wounded his associate Samuel P. Cowley, near Chicago. The next day, Nelson's dead body was found in Niles Center, wrapped in blanket. Dec. 9, First clash between Ethiopian and Italian soldiers at or near Wai Wai, on the disputed frontier of Italian Somaliland; Dec. 15, Italy refused arbitration as to the frontier and demanded reparations and an apology; 1935-Jan. 10, fighting resumed. Italy mobilized 70,000 troops; a committee i of conciliation was agreed to: May 13, Ethiopia protested to the League of Nations; Oct. 3, Italian forces invaded Ethiopía, Adowa bombed; Oct. 4, Adigrat occupied; Oct. 6, Adowa occupied; Oct. 14, Aksum, the Holy City, taken; Nov. 6, Makale and Gorahia occupied; 1936-March 29, Harar destroyed; April 13, Italian forces on North Shore of Lake Tana (Tsana); April 15, Dessie taken; May 1, Emperor Haile Selassie and family fled from Addis Ababa to Jibuti, whence they went on a British cruiser to Palestine; May 5, Premier Benito Mussolini, in Rome, announced the war over, Ethiopia annexed, and King Victor Emmanuel had become Emperor of Ethiopia; so decreed, May 9.
1935 The Saar Territory, taken from Germany by the Versailles World War Treaty, voted, Jan. 13, to return to German ownership. on March 1.
Feb. 12, The $4,000,000 U. S. navy dirigible,
Mch. 12, The brief revolution in Greece ended,
April 5, The $4,880,000,000 works relief bill
May 6, The U. S. Supreme Court upset the
May 18, Near Moscow, the airplane Maxim Gorky, the world's largest land crashed, killing 48, every soul aboard. The pilot of another plane, which collided with the Gorky in midair was killed. June 14, Bolivia-Paraguay war in the Chaco ceased, by truce, officially over, Oct. 28. Aug. 9. President Roosevelt signed the Social Security bill.
Aug. 15, Will Rogers, 56, comedian, and Wiley Post, 36, aviator, were instantly killed when Post's rebuilt airplane fell 60 feet in a fog 15 miles from Point Barrow, Alaska. Aug. 29-The Queen of the Belgians, 29, (Princess Astrid of Sweden) was killed by skull fracture when an automobile in which she and the King were riding, left the road skirting Lake Lucerne, in Switzerland, near the city of Lucerne, hit two trees and careened into the water.
Sept. 2, Storms killed 300 along the Florida Keys, including 200 war vets on relief at construction camps.
Sept. 15-Jews in Germany lost citizenship with political rights.
Oct. 21, Storm killed 2,000 in Haiti. Oct. 23, Arthur (Dutch Schultz) Flegenheimer, 33, and 3 companions-Otto Berand Abe Frank, Bernard Rosenkrantz, were fatally shot in a tavern in Newark, N. J. Nov. 14, A proclamation certifying the freedom of the Philippine Islands and the election of officials chosen by ballot in the islands on Sept. 17 was signed by President Roosevelt a few minutes after noon. Manila, occurred the inaugural ceremonies for President Manuel Quezon. Nov. 18, Economic sanctions against Italy went into effect, supported by 52 nationmembers of the League of Nations, and by one non-member, Egypt. The sanctions ended on July 15, 1936.
Nov. 29, Federal dole (direct relief) ended in
the U. S. It had cost $3,694,000,000 since May, 1933.
Dec. 30, Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, wife and child, arrived in Liverpool and took up residence in Wales.
1936 Jan. 1, The U. S. Federal Act creating Jobinsurance went into effect.
Jan. 6, The U. S. Supreme Court. 6 to 3 (Stone, Brandeis, Cardozo), in an opinion read by Justice Roberts, upset the Agricultural Adjustment Act, declaring it to be an invasion of rights of the States to regulate their local activities. It specifically banned the use of processing taxes to regulate crop production. The minority termed the decísion a tortured construction of the Constitution." On Jan. 13, the Court ordered $200,000,000 of impounded processing taxes returned to the suing processors, and, on Jan. 20, peremptorily ordered the taxes returned at once.
Jan. 20, King George V, 70, died at his farm.
Feb. 16, In Spain the Socialists and anarchists
Mch. 2, The U. S. renounced its guarantee of
Mch 7, German troops began to reoccupy the demilitarized Rhineland zone.
Floods continued in Pennsylvania, Maryland,
Mch. 25. The U. S., Britain and France
June 4, In France the first Socialist govern-
June 27, The Great Lakes Exposition opened
July 13, In Madrid, Jose Calvo Sotelo, 47, a
was resuming her pre-war neutrality.
Dec. 12, In China, Gen. Chiang Kai-shek
Dec. 21. The Cuban House of Representa-
Dec. 27. Charles Mattson, 10, was kidnapped from his home in Tacoma, Wash., was held awhile for ransom, then was murdered. The body was found, near Everett, Wash., Jan. 11, 1937.
Dec. 30. In Flint, Mich., backed by the John L. Lewis Committee for Industrial Organization, (C.I.O.). the United Automobile Workers of America started its campaign to include the nation's automobile industry within its ranks. It struck at the center of General Motors operations and halted activities in three of its unit plants. 1937 Jan. 1. In Spain, the Insurgent shelling of Madrid, was continued at intervals; Feb. 8, Insurgents took Malaga. The Insurgent headquarters were (military) at Burgos. and (diplomatic) at Salamanca; Bilbao, on June 19; Santander, on Aug. 25; Gijon, on Oct. 21. Warships of Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany, on Mch. 13, began to police the coasts of Spain under the 27nation neutrality agreement. Gen. Franco, on April 19, set up a one-party State, dissolving the Fascist and Carlist organizations. The Insurgent battleship, Espana, was sunk, April 30, by airplanes, off Santander; May 17, new Loyalist Government formed under Premier Juan Negrin; many were killed in an Anarchist uprising in Barcelona; Oct. 28, Loyalists shifted government to Barcelona; Nov. 28, Insurgents proclaimed blockade of all Loyalist ports. Jan. 4. The U. S. Supreme Court unanimously upset the conviction and jail sentence of Dirk de Jonge. Oregon Communist, accused of violating the State's Criminal Syndicalism Law. The Court asserted that the right of peacable assembly was as fundamental as the constitutional guarantees of freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Jan. 20. In Washington, on the main portico of the Capitol, his head bared to rain, Franklin Delano Roosevelt took for the second time the oath as President of the United States. Jan. 22. Floods in the valleys of the Mississippi, Alleghany and Ohio Rivers and their branches began to bring death, homelessness, privation, property destruction and traffic tie-ups at Pittsburgh, Portsmouth, O., Huntington, W. Va., Louisville, Cincinnati, and many other places. The flood damage was more severe in Louisville, Paducah, Ky., Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. In Kentucky over 225 persons were drowned; in Illinois, 15; in Missouri, 17; in Tennessee, 10; in Arkansas, 28; and small numbers in Ohio,
West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Mississippi. Over 500,000 homes and vast areas of farm lands were flooded. Including deaths indirectly due, the total was estimated at 900. Över 35 rescue workers were drowned by sinking, on Jan. 30, of a steel barge in the Mississippi near New Madrid, Mo.
In Moscow, a treason trial, Jan. 23-30. resulted in execution of 13 of 17 defendants, Karl Radek (Sobelsohn) got off with a 10-yr. sentence to prison.
In China, Feb. 3, a military revolt in Sian, capital of Shensi Province, brought the assassination of Gen. Wang I-Cheh, chief of the forces of the Central government of the Republic. In April, Prince Chichibue, oldest brother of Emperor Hirohito of Japan made with his wife, a good-will visit to the United States, England, and the Continent. In May, the army-supported Japanese Cabinet of Hayashi resigned. Early in July the fighting in China, west of Peiping, was renewed by the Japanese. Tungchow was attacked on July 27; the Japanese on July 29, bombed Tientsin, destroying Nankai University; on Aug. 9, they took formal possession of Peiping; on Aug. 11, they landed marines at Shanghai and shelled Nankow. Thereafter there was almost continuous fighting in Shanghai, where on Aug. 14, Chinese misdirected bombs killed several hundred civilians, and on Aug. 22, an artillery shell fell in the International Settlement, destroying a department store and killing 400 persons. The Japanese blockade of the East Coast of China began on Aug. 25, covering 800 miles and was extended in Sept. to cover 2,700 miles. The Dollar Line ship. President Hoover, and other vessels on the Yangtze, were hit by stray Chinese or Japanese shells. Nanking, Canton, and many other places in the eastern provinces of China were attacked by Japanese planes. On Oct. 23, Suiyuan Province declared independence from China. On Nov. 8, the Chinese abandoned Shanghai as an administrative point, and the Japanese took control. Premier Chiang Kai-Shek moved his headquarters to Hankow. On Dec. 12. Japanese shells sank the U. S. gunboat Panay, with loss of 2 lives; and several American oil carriers, (the captain of one died) on the Yangtze River above Nanking. Several British craft were hit by the shells. A number of lives were lost. For these and other "accidental" bombings, the Japanese apologized and assumed financial responsibility. The United States and Britain had made strong protests. On Dec. 14th, the pro-Japanese administration in Peiping announced it had restored the city's old name, Peking. During the year many lepers were executed by the Chinese government.
Jan. 30. Chancellor Hitler told the Reichstag that Germany annuls and repudiates the admission implied in her signature of the Versailles Treaty fixing upon her responsibility for the World War, and, from this time onward the German railways and the German Reichsbank are free from the obligations imposed upon them by that treaty and are restored to the complete sovereignty of the Reich. He issued a decree forbidding Germans to accept any Nobel prize in the future and establishing rival prizes for Germans only.
Feb. 11. The General Motors Corporation signed a strike settlement with its employees, with increase of 5 cents an hour in wages. In some of the Michigan strikes court injunctions were defied. Most of the big steel mills signed up. May 30, the police were attacked by Republic Steel Corp.'s strikers in South Chicago, they said, and in the combat 16 workers were shot and killed. In June a short strike cut off the electric currents in Michigan's Saginaw Valley. There were several marine workers' strikes on the East, South and West coasts.
Mch. 2. Quakes shook Ohio, Michigan, Indiana. West Virginia and Kentucky. Mch. 18. An explosion of natural gas, which had been piped-in for heating purposes, destroyed the Consolidated Public School in New London, Texas, ten minutes before the teachers and children were to have left for the day. The dead numbered 293. Mch. 26. In Flemington, N. J., the perjury