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1812 at that time included Holland, Belgium, First steamboat, the Virginia, ascended the Hamburg. Bremen, the Rhineland. Italian
Mississippi River as far as Fort Snelling Piedmont, and Spanish Catalonia. His Im
(April 27-May 10; 729 miles). perial Guard contained Dutch grenadiers 1824 Lafayette, who had been an aide to Gen. and Portuguese light horse. There were Washington in the American Revolution. many Poles with the Little Corporal, under
returned to this country and visited each Marshal Poniatowski. The Rheinbunders
of the 24 states; went back in 1825 to were led by Marshal Wrede.
France. 1813 fight between the U. S. warship, Chesapeake, 1825 Trade unions allowed in England. and the British warship, Shannon, in Massa
Erie Canal opened, first boat left Buffalo chusetts Bay, 30 miles from Boston, June
Oct. 26, and reached N. Y. City, Nov. 4. 1. After an engagement of 15 minutes the 1827 Slavery abolished in N. Y. State, by the Chesapeake surrendered though her com
Legislature, July 4. mander, James Lawrence, had cried “don't The steamship Curacoa, first European-built give up the ship" as he was carried below
oceanic vessel to use steam power alone, in deck, fatally wounded. He lost 146 men
April, crossed the Atlantic, from Antwerp killed and wounded.
to Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. The Royal Perry's victory on Lake Erie, Sept. 10: Buf
William, launched in Montreal, April 29, falo, N. Y., burned by Indians, Dec. 29.
1831, left there Aug. 18, 1833, and crossed to The Shawnee Indian chief, Tecumseh, was
Europe in 25 days, using no power but commissioned a Brigadier General in the
steam. British Army at the outbreak of the war of 1828 First passenger railroad in United States (the 1812. He was killed on Oct. 15, 1813, in
Baltimore and Ohio) was begun July 4; the battle with the Americans under Gen.
first 14 miles opened to (horse-drawn, railWilliam Henry Harrison ("Tippecanoe'')
car) traffic on May 24, 1830. on the Thames River in Ontario, Canada. 1830 Revolution in France. Charles X abdicated, Russia, Prussia and Austria united against
Aug. 2, and was succeeded by the Duke of Napoleon; he was beaten at Leipzig, Oct.
Orleans as Louis Philippe I. There were 16-19; Wellington drove the French from
revolutions, too, in Germany (Brunswick Spain.
and Saxony), and Belgium, Holland be1814 Allies entered Paris, March 31; Napoleon
came an independent country. abdicated, April 11 Louis XVIII, restored Mormon church organized by Joseph Smith, to throne, May 3; Congress of Vienna
in Fayette, Seneca County, N. Y., April 6. opened, Nov. 3.
He and his brother, Hyrum, were killed by British burned the White House, Washington,
a mob in Carthage, ill., June 27, 1844. Aug. 24; Battle of Lake Champlain, (Platts- First railway abroad opened, between Liverburg) Macdonough's and Macomb's victory,
pool and Manchester, England, Sept. 15. Sept. 11; treaty of peace between United 1831 First train drawn in U. S. by steam locomoStates and Britain signed in Ghent, Bel
tive, Albany to Schenectady, N. Y., Aug. 9 gium, Dec. 24.
1832 The South Carolina Legislature (it had de 1815 Gen. Jackson defeated the British at New
nounced in 1827 the U. S. protective tarii Orleans, Jan. 8. This was the news that
law as an invasion of state rights) called was received of the signing of the peace
9 state convention, which in Nov. 1832, treaty, which was ratified by Congress on
passed an ordinance of nullification oi ne Feb 17, 1815.
tariff, voiding it in that state, and declarNapoleon returned from Elba to France
ing that if the federal government atMarch 1; the Hundred Days," March 20,
tempted to enforce the law the state would June 22: Napoleon defeated at Waterloo,
consider itself no longer a member of the June 18; sent to St. Helena, landed Oct. 16
Union. Congress in Feb. 1833, passed a and died there May 5, 1821.
compromise tariffact; whereupon South Holy Alliance, so-called, formed by Russia,
Carolina in State Convention repealed the Austria and Prussia; signed at Paris, Sept.
nullification ordinance. 26; promulgated, at Frankfort, on Feb. 2, 1833 The British Parliament, Aug. 28, outlawed 1816, and acceded to in 1818 by the rulers
slavery in the Empire as of Aug. 1, 1834. of England and France. One of the results
About 700,000 were liberated at a cost of was the Monroe Doctrine.
£20,000,000. Slavery had been unlawful in 1817 Rush-Bagot treaty signed, April 28-29, limit
the British Isles since June 22, 1772, by a ing naval armaments of the United States
decision of the Court of Kings Bench. and Canada on the Great Lakes.
1835 Fire in New York City, Dec. 16-17, began in a 1819 First American steamboat crossed the At
store at Pearl and Merchant (Hanover) lantic. This was the Savannah, which was
Sts., spread up to Garden St. (Exchange built at N. Y. City by Francis Ficket and
Pl.), ravaging 17 blocks (52 acres). deengined by Stephen Vail. She was launched
stroying 674 buildings, including the Stock Aug. 22,1818, left Mch. 28, 1819, for Savan
Exchange, Merchants Exchange, Post Ofnah; arrived there April 12; left May 22
fice, and the South Dutch Church; loss, for Liverpool; arrived there June 20. The
$20,000,000. steamer went thence to Stockholm and St. Texas, which for a time had been joined with Petersburgh; left last named Oct. 10: ar
Coahuila as a Mexican State, proclaimed rived at Savannah, Nov. 30. Her captain
its independence, Nov. 13: Garrison of was Moses Rogers of Georgetown, N. C.
Texans at the Alamo plaza, San Antonio The Savannah, divested of the engine sank
besieged 11 days, then butchered and the off the Long Island, N. Y., coast. The en
bodies burned by Mexican troops. Mch. 6, gine was for a time in a London museum.
1836 (among the victims were Davy The Savannah used steam, but only as
Crockett); constitution adopted for the auxiliary power. The log of her 1819 At
Republic of Texas, Mch. 17, 1836; battle of lantic voyage is owned by the U. S. Nation
San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, in which 800 al Museum, in Washington.
under Gen. Sam Houston defeated 3.000 1820 Congress, on Mch. 3, passed Henry Clay's
Mexicans under Gen, Santa Anna, who Missouri Compromise bill, by which slavery
signed two treaties recognizing the indewas allowed in that State, but not else
pendence of Texas with borders reaching where west of the Mississippi River north
to the Rio Grande River. of 36° 30' Latitude (the southern boundary Business panic, hard times in U. S., also in of Missouri). In 1854 Congress repealed the
1857; 1873-7; 1893-4; 1907-8; 1921; 1929. Missouri Compromise bill, and authorized 1837 First metal vessels built in the United States the people of Kansas and Nebraska to
were the Chatham and the Lamar. condecide for themselves for or against slavery.
structed in Savannah, Ga., in 1837 and 1838 The Kansas-Nebraska bill, backed by
of iron imported from England. The first Stephen A. Douglas, opened the Territories
vessel built in the U. S. of iron made in to slavery by setting up the principle of
the Valley Forge, "squatter sovereignty." (See 1857.)
launched in Pittsburgh, in 1839. 1822 Revolution in Portugal; separation of Brazil 1838 Fire destroyed 1,158 buildings in Charleston, which proclaimed independence on Sept. 7;
S. C., April 27. Dom Pedro was crowned emperor on Dec. The Great Western, 236 ft. long, 450 horse1; he abdicated in 1831; succeeded by his
power, 1340 gross tons, left Bristol, Engson; a republic proclaimed in 1888: em
land, on April 8, and arrived in N. Ý. City peror banished in 1889 and died in Paris
on April 23. The Sirius, 178 ft. long, 703 in 1891.
tons, left Liverpool on Mch. 28, and 1823 Monroe Doctrine declared, Dec. 2, under
Queenstown on April 4, and reached N. Y. which no European power, it was an
City on April 22. She had used steam only. nounced, could seize territory or set up a
The British Queen arrived in New York government on the American continent.
on July 28, 1839; the President got there
on Aug. 17, 1840.
1857 years, cost over 100.000 lives, and was suc1839 Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands ceeded by famines, in one of which, in 1866, were separated by treaties signed by those
in Bengal, 1,500,000 person perished. two countries and by Great Britain, France, The Dred Scott decision of the U. S. Supreme Austria, Prussia, and Russia (at London,
Court. (5 to 2), Mch. 6, denied the legality April 19). To the treaties was annexed a
of the socalled Missouri Compromise, and document declaring, Belgium an independ
denied that a negro (in this case the slave, ent and "perpetually neutral" state.
Dred Scott) was a citizen. Roger B. Taney, 1840 Penny postage begun in England Jan. 10; on
of Maryland, was the Chief Justice. May 6, that year, the first postage stamp Mountain Meadow Massacre, 120 emigrants was issued. In the United States, the ad
killed by Indians led by Mormons in Utah, hesive stamp came into use in 1847.
Sept. 16. 1841 Upper and Lower Canada united, Feb. 10. 1858 East India Company dissolved, Aug. 2; gov1812 Dorr's Rebellion in Rhode Island, due to an
ernment of India transfered to the British election contest for the governorship.
Crown. Thomas W. Dorr was inaugurated by the 1859 John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, Va.. suffragists, and Samuel W. King, by the
Oct. 16; his band killed 5, Brown was landholders. Dorr's adherents tried to seize
hanged at Charlestown, W. Va., Dec. 2. the arsenal at Providence. King declared
His purpose was to incite a slave revolt in martial law. Dorr was convicted of treason
Virginia and sentenced in 1844 to life imprisonment, First petroleum well opened, Titusville, Pa., but was released in 1847.
by Edward L. Drake, Aug. 27. Croton. Aqueduct opened, June 22.
1860 Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) visited 1813 First telegraph line in Ú. S., Washington to
the U. S. Baltimore.
First Pouy-express between Sacramento. 1845 U. S. Naval Academy in Annapolis opened,
Calif., and St. Joseph, Mo., 1,980 miles Oct. 10.
apart, started from each place at 5 p.m., 1846 War was declared by the United States
April 3; there were 80 riders, and 420 against Mexico on May 13, and by Mexico
horses, and they were changed every_10 against the United States on May 23.
miles. There were 190 relay stations. The Peace was ratified by the U. S. Senate in
service ended in October, 1861, when the Feb., 1848, and by the Mexican Senate on
telegraph line was completed. May 24, 1848. By the 1848 pact the Rio South Carolina seceded from the Union, Dec. Grande was fixed as the boundary: Irish
20. A state convention as far back as 1852 potato famine.
had declared the right of the state to 1848 Louis Philippe dethroned in France; second
secede. Republic set up, Feb. 26. In Austria, Fer- |-1861 Emancipation of the Russian serfs. by Czar dinand I abdicated, Dec. 2, in favor of his
Alexander II, he was assassinated, Mch. 13, nephew, Franz Josef; in Hungary, freedom
1881. Slavery had been unlawful in Russia • was declared under Kossuth; revolts in
since 1942; in the hereditary states of the Ireland, Lombardy, Venice, Denmark, and
German Emperor, since 1781; in Denmark Schleswig-Holstein.
since 1766; in Prussia, since 1702. Gold discovered in California, Jan. 24.
Southern Confederacy formed, Feb. 4; elected 1849 Astor Place riots in N. Y. City against Mac
Jefferson Davis President. Feb. 9: inauguready, English actor, 34 killed, May 10. The
rated, Feb. 18, in Montgomery, Ala. (and outbreak was in retaliation for the treat.
again in Richmond, Va., Feb. 22, 1862). ment of Edwin Forrest, American actor, in
Fort Sumter fired on, April 12,_after disLondon, in 1845.
cretionary power wired to Gen. Beauregard The Roman National Assembly, Feb. 8. di
on April 11, from Montgomery; the fort vested the Pope of all temporal power and
surrendered on April 14; Lincoln called proclaimed a republic; French troops cap
for volunteers, April 15; Queen Victoria's tured the city. and restored the keys to
proclamation of neutrality, May 13: Battle him, July 4; his temporal power was re
of Bull Run, July 21; McClellan given comestablished, 'July 15. It was in this year mand of Union Army, Nov. 1; Mason and that Pope Pius IX proposed that the doc
Slidell affair, Nov. 8. trine of the immaculate conception of the 1862 Grant captured Forts Henry and Donelson. Blessed Virgin Mary be adopted as ar
Feb. 6 and 16; the Confederate ironclad. article of Catholic belief. In 1854 (Dec. 8,
Virginia (rebuilt from the 40-gun steam it was announced in a Papal Bull as so
frigate, Merrimac) destroyed. Mch. 8. at adopted.
Hampton Roads, the Union frigates Cum1850 Jenny Lind's first concert in U. S., at Castle
berland and Congress; on Mch. 9 the Garden, N. Y., Sept. 11; Lola Montez
Virginia fought the Union tronelad, Mondanced there in 1852, at the centenary of
itor, built by John Ericsson; Farragut the stage in N. Y. City.
captured New Orleans, April 25; McClelFugitive slave law and Henry Clay's other
lan's Peninsula Campaign, March-August; "compromise'' resolutions passed by Con
Battle of Antietam, Sept. 17; Fredericksgress, last one in Sept.
burg, Dec. 13. 1851 Gold discovered in Australia, Feb. 12.
Preliminary proclamation, Sept. 22, by PresiFire destroyed 2,500 buildings in San Fran
dent Lincoln announcing that on Jan. 1, cisco, May 3-5; also 500 buildings there
1863, slaves would be declared free in terriJune 22.
tory then in rebellion. Slavery in the DisN. Y. Central Railroad, N. Y. City to Albany,
trict of Columbia was abolished by Congress opened Oct. 8.
on April 16. First International Exhibition, London (Crys- International Exposition in London, opened tal Palace).
May 1. 1853 World's Fair opened in Crystal Palace, N. Y. 1863 Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, Jan. City, July 14. The building was destroyed
1. In this proclamation he declared iree by fire Oct. 5, 1858. There was that year a
forever the slaves in Ark., Tex., La., (cerWorld's Fair in Dublin.
tain parishes excepted); Miss., Ala., Fla., — Know Nothing secret political movement be
Ga., S. Car., N. Car., and Va. (W. Va. and gun, at N. Y. City, opposed to Roman
other portions excepted). About 3,120,000 Catholics; broke up in 1860.
slaves were thus freed; 830,000 slaves in Commodore Matthew c. Perry, U. S. N., met
the excepted parts were not freed under the Lord of Toda on Kurihama Beach,
the proclamation. July 14, and gave him President Fillmore's Lincoln's address at Gettysburg, Nov. 19: letter to the Emperor, which resulted, on
it was impromptu, from notes; later he Mch. 8, 1854, in a treaty of peace and amity
wrote out the address, from his notes, and that gave American ships (whaling, the
made several copies, or versions. It appears China trade, etc.) access to Japanese ports,
elsewhere in the Almanac. (See, Lincoln, and opened commercial relations between
index.) the United States and Japan.
Hooker defeated at Chancellorsville, May 2-4; 1855 Internationa Fair in Paris.
Lee defeated at Gettysburg, July 1-3; Grant First Atlantic cable was laid between Cape
captures Vicksburg, July 4; Battles of Breton, N. S., and Newfoundland. The
Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20; Lookout Mouncable was completed to Ireland in 1857 and tain, Nov. 24; Missionary Ridge, Nov. 25. the first messages were sent between N. Y. Draft riots in N. Y. City, July 13-16; 1,000. City and Europe on Aug. 5, 1858.
killed, including Negroes, who were hung by Sebastopol falls; Crimean War (England and
mobs; property damage, $2,000,000. It was France against Russia) ends, Sept. 8.
asserted that the Republican officials in 1857 The great mutiny in India; broke out May 10.
charge of the draft had stuffed the lists It spread all over the country, lasted several
with names of Democrats.
1864 Grant made Commander-in-Chief, March 12: | 1870 Lateran palaces and the Villa of Castel Battles of the Wilderness, May 5-6; of Spot
Gandolfo and a yearly allowance of 3,225,sylvania, May 8-21; Cedar Creek, Oct. 19:
000 lire, or then about $645,000, for their Sherman's March to Atlanta, May-July; he
upkeep. The money was not claimed. captured Savannah, Dec. 21; U.S.S. Kear- 1871 The German Empire re-established, Jan. 18; sarge sank the raider Alabama, June 19.
Paris captured, Jan. 28; treaty of Frank1865 The 1st Artillery fired last shot of Civil War,
fort ended Franco-Prussian War, May 10. and Confederate Gen. Lee surrendered at The great fire in Chicago, Oct. 8-11; 18,000 Appomattox, April 9.
bldgs. destroyed; est. loss $196,000,000. Lincoln shot by J. Wilkes Booth, in Washing
The flames started in Mrs. O'Leary's barn, ton, April 14; died, April 15; Booth was
at 137 de Koven St., either from sponshot to death in the pursuit, on April 26,
taneous combustion of hay, or from a kick in or at the door of a barn, which, it is of a cow, upsetting & lantern. said, had been set on fire by one of the Pestigo fire, in Wisconsin, after 3 months pursuers, near Port Royal, Va. Those
drought, one of the greatest forest conflahanged for complicity were Mrs. Mary E.
grations in U. S. history. Six counties were Surratt, David E. Herold, George A. At
burned over over 1,000 lives were lost, zerodt and Lewis Payne (Powell). on July
thousands crippled, 3,000 beggared. 7; Michael O'Laughlin, Samuel Arnold, 1872 Col. Jas. Fisk Jr., "King of Wall Street," shot and Dr. Samuel A. Mudd were sentenced
at N. Y. by Edw. S. Stokes, Jan. 6: he died to life imprisonment; Edward Spangler, to
two days later; Stokes got 4 years in prison. 6 years in prison. Arnold, Mudd and Spang
Jesse Pomeroy, at 13, began his crime career ler were pardoned in 1869. John H. Sur
by tying and torturing children in Boston ratt, son of Mrs. Mary E., fled to Europe
suburbs; in 1874 he mutilated and killed a but was brought back, and tried in 1867.
boy of 4 and a girl of 9; in 1876 he was The jury disagreed. He was reindicted, but
sentenced to be hanged; sentence commuted never tried. Stories or rumors crop out
to life in prison, at Bridgewater, Mass., from year to year that Booth escaped from
where he died, Sept. 29, 1932. . the Garrett barn and died free, his pur- The great fire in Boston, Nov. 9; 776 buildings suers having shot another of the one or
destroyed two men who, according to the rumors 1873 Panic in N. y. began with bank failures on were hiding with Booth. The government
Sept. 20; Stock Exchange closed on that order was to get Booth alive, if possible.
day and reopened on Sept. 30. The barn was fired and Booth was shot International Fair at Vienna. in disobedience of orders. Booth's body, 1874 Charley Ross, 4, kidnapped from home in identified by a number of persons, was
Germantown, Pa., then a suburb of Philaburied under the floor of the prison, in
delphia, July 1. A Superior Court jury in Washington; several years later the body
Phoenix, Ariz., decided, May 8, 1939, that was dug up and given to relatives who
Gustav Blair, a carpenter of that place, is, interred it in a cemetery in Baltimore.
in reality, Charley (Charles Brewster) Ross, Slavery abolished in the U. S. by adoption,
and is entitled to use the name. He testified by over three-fourths of the states, of the
that the Ross family had refused to rec13th amendment to the Constitution, pro
ognize him. claimed as in effect, Dec 18.
"Boss" W. M. Tweed at N. Y., convicted of 1866 Fenians invaded Canada, near Buffalo, N. Y.,
fraud, Nov. 19, and sentenced 12 years in May 31; they were repulsed, and reentered the United States, June 2; about 1,000
prison; in June, 1875, the court released Fenians from the U.S. attacked St. Arm
him from Blackwells Island prison on a
technicality; he was committed to Ludlow and, Quebec Province, and were routed. June 9.
St. Jail in a civil suit; escaped, Dec. 4, Ku Klux Klan movement begun in the
1875, and went to Cuba, then to Spain, South against negro voters, "carpet bag
brought back to N. Y. City in Nov., 1876;
he died in Ludlow St. Jail, April 12, 1878. gers' from the north; nominally disbanded in 1869, but night-raids continued
The Tichborne claimant, indicted as Thomas for several years. The movement was re
Castro, otherwise Arthur Orton, convicted
in London of perjury in swearing he was vived in 1920, and spread to the north, east and west, at first against negro voters,
Sir Roger Tichborne, was sentenced, Feb.
28, to 14 years in prison; released in 1884. later mainly against Roman Catholics In politics.
1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia; opened Second Atlantic cable laid; completed, July
on May 19; closed on Nov. 10. 27, 1867. First (1857-8) had been outlasted.
Battle of Little Big Horn in Montana, in Fire destroyed 2,500 buildings in Quebec,
Sioux Indian war; massacre of Gen. Geo. Canada, Oct. 13.
A. Custer and 276 soldiers of the 7th 1867 Alaska purchased from Russia, March 30.
Cavalry, by redskins under Sitting Bull, The Dominion of Canada established, July 1.
June 25. 1867-68 Abolition of the Shogunate and restoration of
Wild Bill Hickok killed a man named McCall, the Mikado in Japan; feudalism abolished
at the Pony Express stable, Rock Creek, in 1871; Constitution promulgated in 1889.
Kan.,, in June; McCall's brother, Jack 1868 President Andrew Johnson impeached, tried
walked up behind Hickok, on Aug. 5, at and acquitted, March-May.
Deadwood, S. D., and shot him dead. A Earthquake in Peru and Ecuador, 25,000
vigilance committee acquitted McCall, but killed, Aug. 13-15.
the U. S. Court at Yankton, s. D., found 1869 Financial "Black Friday' in New York, Sept.
him guilty of murder and he was hanged. 24; caused by gold corner.
Brooklyn Theatre fire, Dec. 5; 289 lives lost. Golden spike driven at Ogden, Utah, May 10,
A passenger train fell from a bridge into the marking the junction of Central Pacific and
ravine, Ashtabula, Ohio; 84 killed, 60 inUnion Pacific and the completion of the
jured, Dec. 29.
1877 Russia declared war on Turkey, April 24; first transcontinental railway.
peace treaty signed in Mch., 1878. Suez Canal opened, Nov. 17.
Fire swept over 600 acres of City of St. John, 1870 Franco-Prussian War begun, July 19; ended
N. B., June 20; 100 lives lost. at Sedan, on the River Meuse, Sept. 1,
Eleven Molly Maguires were hanged in when Napoleon 111 (Louis Napoleon Bona
Pennsylvania (3 at Mauch Chunk, June 21: parte) surrendered to King William of
5 at Pottsville June 21; 3 at Bloomsburg, Prussia France proclaimed a Republic,
Aug. 9) for murders in coal region. The Sept. 4.
order terrorized the region (1870-1880). Doctrine of papal infallibility adopted by the Strike on B. and O., Penn., and other railEcumenical Council in Rome, July 18, by
ways,, troops; riots; many killed; began vote of 547 to 2. There were 764 prelates
July 1. at the council. The only American objector | 1878 Congress in Berlin June 13-July 13, deals was Bishop Fitzgerald, of Little Rock, Ark.
with the Turkish question Bulgaria, MonThe troops of Victor Emmanuel II, under
tenegro, Serbia and Roumania made inGen. Cadorna, took possession of Rome, on
dependent Sept. 20, in the name of the Kingdom of International Exposition in Paris. Italy; Rome and the rest of the Papal State 1881 Alexander II, Czar of Russia, assassinated in then were annexed by & plebiscite, taken
St. Petersburg, March 13by Nihilists. on Oct. 2. On May 13, 1871, the Italian President Garfield shot at Washington, July Parliament, which had meanwhile trans
2; died in Elberon, N. J., Sept. 19. ferred the national capital from Turin to Ring Theater, Vienna, burned, Dec. 8; 850 Rome, passed the Law of Guerantees, al
perished lowing to the Pope and his successors for- 1882 Panama Canal begun by the French, Jan. 20; ever the possession of the Vatican, the
the U. S. bought, in 1904 for $40,000,000
1882 the uncompleted water-way from the de 23, by Alexander Berkman, anarchist, who, Lesseps successors, and the canal was fin
after a term in prison, married Emma ished and opened to traffic on Aug. 15, 1914.
Goldman. Prof. Robert Koch announced, in Berlin, dis- 1893 America's first gasoline buggy had its pulling covery of the tuberculosis germ; Mch. 24.
test by Charles E. Duryea, April 19, in 1883 Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria and
Springfield, Mass. World's Fair (Columbian Italy. (Renewed in 1887, 1891 and 1896.)
Exposition) in Chicago, opened May 1; seyBrooklyn Bridge opened, May 24; panic on it,
eral of the buildings were destroyed by May 30; twelve trampled to death.
fire on Jan. 8, 1894. Benito Mussolini born, July 29, in Predappio, Tornadoes kill 3,000 in Charleston, Savannah, near Forli, Italy.
and on coast of Louisiana, Aug. 28, Oct. 2. - Earthquakes and eruptions of the volcano, 1894 Chinese-Japanese War began, July 25: Battle Krakatoa, on the Island of Java, followed
of Yalu, Sept. 17; treaty of Shimonosekl, by most of the 45 other volcanoes; 36,000
April 17, 1895, gave Japan Llaotung Peninlives lost Aug. 25-28.
sula, Formosa and the Pescadores. 1884 At Cincinnati, O., after several slayers had Lexow State Senate inquiry as to police corbeen convicted of manslaughter instead of
ruption in N. Y. City; committee, headed murder, mobs stormed and burned the
by Clarence Lexow, began examination of court house; in several days of rioting, be
witnesses on May 21; last session, Dec. 29; ginning on Mch. 28, over 5 were killed, 138 report to Legislature on Jan. 18. 1895. wounded
John Y. McKane, Gravesend (Brooklyn) poPanic in N. Y.; failure of Marine Bank and
litical "boss," sentenced to 6 years in prison Grant and Ward, May 5-7.
for election frauds, Feb. 20. - Tornadoes ranging from Illinois south to the Jacob S. Coxey led 20,000 unemployed from
Gulf of Mexico, and including Virginia, the mid-west into Washington, April 29. killed 800, and destroyed 10,000 buildings. Strike of mine workers throughout v. S.. Feb. 9.
followed by that of Pullman Car manufac1885 Gen. Charles G. ("Chinese'') Gordon, British
tory workers and then by order from Eugene governor of the Soudan, was slain, Jan. 26,
V. Debs for general strike of American Ry. by a Mohammedan soldier, who stuck the
union men; trouble centered in Chicago head on & spear, at Omdurman. Several
where, after Federal Court had enjoined thousand whites were massacred by the
strikers, President Cleveland sent Federal Mahdi's troops. Gordon was revenged on
troops, July 2. Many died in conflict, vast Sept. 2, 1898, when the British, under Gen.
property loss. U. S. troops withdrawn, July Kitchener, defeated the Mahdi's army and
19; Gov. Altgeld recalled State militia. ended his rule.
Aug. 7, a day after union called strike ofl. Rebellion in northwest Canada begun under Capt. Dreyfus, France, degraded, Dec. 23; leadership of Louis David Riel, March 24,
restored to rank, July 12, 1906. he surrendered, May 15, and, after trial and 1895 Cuban Revolution began, Feb. 20; "Gen. conviction, he was hanged on Nov. 16.
Antonio Maceo, leader of the insurrection. First electric street railway in U, S., in Balti
was killed in action on Dec. 7. 1896. more, opened by Frank J. Sprague. Sept. 1
X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Konrad Roent1886 Haymarket Anarchist riots, Chicago; 7 police
gen, a German physicist, who was awarded killed, 60 wounded, May 4. Ajury con
& Nobel prize in 1901. victed anarchists August Spies, Adolf Fis- The Queen of Korea was assassinated in the cher, George Engel, and Albert R. Parsons,
royal palace in Seoul, Oct. 8. She was first and they were hanged on Nov. 11, 1887.
cut down, her clothing was then soaked in Louis Lingg killed himself in jail. Samuel
oil, and the body was burned. The JapaFielden and Michael Schwab got life im
nese minister was recalled to Tokyo and prisonment.
was tried and acquitted, Charleston, s. C., earthquake, Aug. 31: 41 1896 President Cleveland appointed Venezuela killed; $5,000,000 property loss.
Boundary Commission, Jan. 1; treaty Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island, N. Y.
signed, Feb. 2, 1897. Harbor, unveiled on Oct. 28 in presence of Battle at Adowa, Etheopia, began on night of 1,000,000 people.
Feb. 29. The Ethiopians under King 1887 Triple Alliance (treaty) of Germany, Austria
Menelik, took the Italians by surprise. The and Italy, Mch. 13, against France and
Italians lost 4,600 white and nearly 3.000 Russia.
native troops killed and wounded and more - Flood in Hoang-Ho River, China: 900,000
than 2,500 soldiers were captured. persons perished.
"Greater New York" bill signed, May 11; the Opera Comique, Paris, burned, May 25: 200
City of Five Boroughs came into corporate lives lost; theater, Exeter, England fire.
existence on Jan. 1, 1898. Sept. 4; 200 died.
1897 The Turkish-Greek War. 1888 Great blizzard in N. Y. City and in eastern Salon on August Andree, Swedish explorer, part of U. S., March 11-14. Roscoe Conk
and two companions, left Dane's Island Ung was a victim of exposure in N. Y..
Spitzbergen, in a balloon, in July 11, for the dying April 18.
North Pole, and were not heard of until 1889 Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and Baroness
Aug. 6, 1930, when their remains were found Marie Vetsera were found, slain, in his
on White Island. Their balloon had hunting lodge in Castle Mierling. Jan. 29
grounded after dritting 117 miles. Johnstown, Pa., flood. May 31; 2,209 lives Charity Bazaar fire, Paris; 150 lives lost. lost.
1898 U. S. Battleship Maine blown up in harbor of Adolf Hitler born, April 20, in Braunau, in
Havana, Cuba, Feb. 15; 260 lost: followed Austria
by war between Spain and the United World's Fair, in Paris, May 6-Nov. 6. Eiffel
States. Diplomatic relations broken, April Tower opened (985 ft. high).
21: Cuban blockade declared, April 22: war 1890 First electrocution for crime in N. Y. State.
declared by Spain, April 24, by the United The victim was William Kemmler. whr
States. April 25: Dewey destroyed the murdered Matilda Zieigler on Mch. 29. 1889. Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, May 1: Battles Put to death in chair in Auburn Prison,
of San Juan and El Caney, July 1-3: Battle Aug. 6.
of Santiago de Cuba. Adm. Cervera's _Ellis Island opened as Immigration Depot, and
Spanish fleet destroyed, July 3; Peace proCastle Garden ceased as such, Dec. 31.
tocol signed between the United States and 1891 Park Place disaster, N. Y., 64 killed, Aug. 22
Spain, Aug. 12; Peace treaty signed by by the collapse of upper floor; most victims
American and Spanish delegates at Paris, were in a restaurant.
Dec. 10, the U. s. acquiring the Philippines Henry L. Norcross, of Somerville, Mass.
and Puerto Rico. threw a bomb, with poor aim, at Russell Empress Elizabeth of Austria-Hungary, wife Sage, in financier's office, N. Y. City; he
of Franz Josef, assassinated, Sept. 10, by blew himself to pieces, Dec, 4.
an anarchist, at Geneva, Switzerland. 1892 Fire destroyed 28 lives in Hotel Royal, N. Y., Radium discovered by Pierre Curie, Mme. Feb. 6; and 600 at St. John's, N. F., July 8.
Curie and G. Bemont. Conflict between 300 Pinkerton guards and 1899 Treaty with Spain ratified by U. S. Senate, strikers at steel mills, Homestead, near
Feb. 6, Pittsburgh, Pa.; 7 guards and 11 strikers Universal Peace Conference in The Hague and spectators shot to death, many wound
called by Czar, May 18. ed, July 6. The strike had been set for July The South African War began. Oct. 11; Gen. 3, but the mills shut down on July 1; the
Cronje surrendered, Feb. 27; Ladysmith re. National Guard arrived on July 12 and the
lieved, Feb. 28; Pretoria surrendered, June town and mills were put under martial law.
5, 1900; war ended, May 31, 1902. H. C. Frick wounded at Pittsburgh, July Martha Place, first woman electrocuted in
1899 N. Y. State, at Sing Sing, Mar. 20.
361 killed. Philippine-American War began, Feb. 4. On Chelsea (Mass.) destroyed by fire; loss over June 12, 1898, Filipinos had declared their
$6,000,000; Mar. 20. independence of Spain, and on Sept. 15. 1908 Earthquakes in Sicily and Calabria killed 1898, a revolutionary assembly in Manila
76,483. Messina partly destroyed, Dec. 28. had ratified" the independence, as rep- Financial panic in the United States. resentatives of
Katipunan League In a fire and panic at the Lake View School built up by Andres Bonifacio, Emilio
at Collinwood, Ohio, near Cleveland, on Aguinaldo, Antonia Luna and Marcelo del
March 4, 174 children and two teachers lost Pilar. Aguinaldo was captured on Mch. 23,
their lives. Rhodes Theater fire, Jan. 4, 1901, and civil government was established
Boyertown, Pa., 169 died. by the United States on May 3, 1901. W. H. 1909 Louis Bleriot flew across the English Channel, Taft became the first civil governor, on July
from Calais to Dover (31 miles in 37 min4, 1901, the first Filipino Legislature met
utes) July 25. on Oct. 16, 1907.
Hudson-Fulton celebration, New York, Sept.Windsor Hotel Fire (N. Y.). March 17: 45
Oct. -Nov. lost.
Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, Seattle, 1900 Paris Exposition opened, April 15.
Wash. Humbert, King of Italy, assassinated, July 1910 Earthquake killed 1,500 at Cartago, Costa 29, at Monza, by Angelo Bresci.
Rica. Boxer insurrection in China, June; Peking Los Angeles, Calif., "Times" dynamited, Oct. captured by foreign allies, Aug. 14. There
1, 21 killed. were 18,000 marines and sailors--American 1911 U. S. Supreme Court ordered Standard Oil (2,000), Japanese, Russian, British and
combine dissolved, May 15; same decree as French
to American Tobacco Co., May 29. Hoboken docks and ships fire, June 30: 145 The Italian-Turkish War began, Sept. 29. lives lost; $10,000,000 property destroyed.
Triangle waist factory fire, N. Y., 145 killed, Galveston hurricane and tidal wave, Sept. 8:
March 25. 6.000 lives lost.
Flood in Yangtze River, China; 100,000 1901 Northern Pacific Railway stock"corner" and
drowned. panic, May 9.
Leonardo da Vinci's painting, "Mona Lisa" - Pan-American Exposition, (Buffalo, N. Y.).
("La Giaconda"), stolen
the Louvre May 1-Nov. 2.
Gallery, Paris, Aug. 22; recovered in FlorPresident William McKinley shot in Buffalo,
ence, Italy, Dec. 12, 1913, and restored to N. Y., Sept. 6. (died Sept. 14) by Leon
the Louvre. Ccolgosz, an anarchist, who was later put
C. P. Rogers ieft N. Y., Sept. 17, in an aeroto death.
plane and made the first transcontinental Marconi signalled letter "S" across Atlantic
flight, landing at Pasadena, Calif., Nov. 4; from England to Poldhu, Newfoundland.
actual flying time, 84 hours, 2 minutes. Dec. 12. First radio message sent in Dec., 1902.
1912 China becomes a Republic, Feb. 12; Yuan Shi 1902 St. Pierre, Martinique, destroyed by eruption
Kai elected President, Feb. 15. of Mt. Pelee, May 8; about 30,000 lives lost.
War in Balkans, against Turkey, by MonPark Ave. Hotel fire, N. Y. City, Feb. 2; 21
tenegro, Bulgaria. Servía and Greece, Oct. lives lost.
8-Dec. 3. Pennsylvania coal strike of 145,000 anthracite
Equitable Life building burned, Jan. 9, N. Y. miners. May 12. Settled by President
City; 6 perished.
Steamship Titanic wrecked on maiden trip,
from Southampton for New York, by iceJ., Feb.; and 115 people at a church, Birm
berg of Newfoundland coast, April 14-15; ingham, Ala., Sept. 20.
1,517 lost of whom 103 were women and Cuban Republic inaugurated, American occu
53 were children. Passengers and crew pation, under Gen. Leonard Wood, ended
had totaled 2,207. The ship was 88242 ft. May 20; rights and franehises of France in
long, and cost $7,500,000. Panama Canal bought by U. S., June 28.
Rev. Clarence V. T. Richeson, Baptist minisFirst International Arbitration Court opened
ter, Boston, electrocuted in Mass. State in The Hague, Holland, in October.
Prison, May 21, for murder of Miss Avis 1903 Kishineff (Russia) massacre of Jews, April
Linnel, 18, of Hyannis. She was about to 19-20; 47 slain, several hundred wounded.
become a mother. Her death was due to 700 houses destroyed, 600 stores looted.
poison. King Alexander of Serbia, and Queen Draga,
Herman Rosenthal, gambler, assassinated at assassinated by army officers, in Belgrade,
N. Y. City, July 16. Police Lieut. Charles June 11.
Becker, "Gyp the Blood" Horowitz, "Lefty Panama Revolution, Nov. 3; republic recog
Louie" Rosenberg, "Whitey Lewis" Seidennized by U. S., Nov. 13.
shner, and "Dago Frank" Cirofici were conFirst successful mechanical aeroplane flight
victed of the murder and executed at Sing by the Wright Brothers, Dec. 17, from Kill
Sing-Becker on July 30, 1915; the others Devil Hill, on the North Carolina seacoast,
on April 13, 1914. 4 miles south of Kitty Hawk.
1913 Ohio and Indiana floods, March 25-27; 732 Fire killed 602 in Iroquois Theatre, Chicago,
lives lost. In Brazos, Téx., floods, 500 died. Dec. 30. Most of the victims were trampled
Peace Palace at the Hague dedicated. to death
President F. I. Madero of Mexico, and Vice 1904 The great fire in Baltimore. Feb. 7: 2,500
President Sudrez, assassinated. Feb. 23. buildings, destroyed.
King George of Greece assassinated March The Russo-Japanese War began, Feb. 6. Port
18. Arthur surrendered to Japanese on Jan. 2,
Mine explosion, Oct. 14, Cardiff, Wales; 400 1905. Peace treaty signed in Portsmouth,
killed. N. H., Sept. 5, 1905.
1914 World War began in Europe. Archduke St. Louis Exposition (Louisiana Purchase)
Francis of Austria and wife assassinated in opened, May 1.
Sarajevo, Bosnia, June 28 (St. Vitus Day) The United States occupied Panama Canal
by Gavrillo Princip, a Serb student, Austria Zone.
declared war on Serbia, July 28; Germany Subway opened, New York, Oct. 27.
invaded France at Cirey, Russian troops
invaded Germany, Aug. 2; Germans en1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Portland, Oregon.
tered Liege, Aug: 7; British Expeditionary
Force landed in France, Aug. 16; Germans The Duma, first Russian national parliament,
occupied Brussels, Aug. 20; Japan declared was organized.
war on Germany, Aug. 23; Austria declared 1906 San Francisco earthquake and conflagration;
war on Japan, Aug. 25; Louvain bombarded 500 lives were lost; property loss, $350,
and damaged, Aug. 25; Germans under von 000,000; April 18-19. On April 17, earth
Hindenburg, Ludendorf, Hoffman and quakes in Formosa had killed many thou
Francois, defeated Russians under Samsands; and on Aug. 16, quakes tore down the
sonov, at Tannenberg in East Prussia, City of Valparaiso, Chile, 1,500 lives lost.
Aug. 26-31. Samsonov killed himself. One $100,000,000 property damage.
of the Russian armies, under Rennen1907 Earthquake killed 1,400, Kingston, Jamaica,
kampf, fled. Battle of the Marne, Sept. 6Jan. 14. In that month the Italian Vol.
10, Germans occupied Antwerp, Oct. 9: De canoes, Etna and Vesuvius, were destruc
Wet's rebellion in South Africa, Oct. 28; tively active, also the Volcano of Mauna
Japanese capture Tsingtau. Nov 7: First Loa, Hawaii.
Battle of Ypres, Nov. 9; German cruiser Jamestown (Va.). Exposition opened, April Emden destroyed at Cocos Island, Nov. 10. 26.
United States marines landed at Vera Cruz, Fire in coal mine Dec. 6, Monongah, W. Va.;
Mex. April 21.