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at that time included Holland, Belgium,
Hamburg, Bremen, the Rhineland, Italian
Piedmont, and Spanish Catalonia. His Im-
perial Guard contained Dutch grenadiers
and Portuguese light horse. There were
many Poles with the Little Corporal, under
Marshal Poniatowski. The Rheinbunders
were led by Marshal Wrede.

1813 Fight between the U. S. warship, Chesapeake,
and the British warship, Shannon, in Massa-
chusetts Bay, 30 miles from Boston, June
1. After an engagement of 15 minutes the
Chesapeake surrendered though her com-
mander, James Lawrence, had cried "don't
give up the ship" as he was carried below
deck, fatally wounded. He lost 146 men
killed and wounded.

Perry's victory on Lake Erie, Sept. 10: Buf-
falo, N. Y., burned by Indians, Dec. 29.
The Shawnee Indian chief, Tecumseh, was
commissioned a Brigadier General in the
British Army at the outbreak of the war of
1812. He was killed on Oct. 15, 1813, in
the battle with the Americans under Gen.
William Henry Harrison ("Tippecanoe")
on the Thames River in Ontario, Canada.
Russia, Prussia and Austria united against
Napoleon; he was beaten at Leipzig, Oct.
16-19; Wellington drove the French from

1814 Allies entered Paris, March 31; Napoleon
abdicated, April 11; Louis XVIII, restored
to throne, May 3; Congress of Vienna
opened, Nov. 3.
British burned the White House, Washington,
Aug. 24; Battle of Lake Champlain, (Platts-
burg) Macdonough's and Macomb's victory,
Sept. 11; treaty of peace between United
States and Britain signed in Ghent, Bel-
gium, Dec. 24.

1815 Gen. Jackson defeated the British at New
Orleans, Jan. 8. This was the news that
was received of the signing of the peace
treaty, which was ratified by Congress on
Feb 17, 1815.

Napoleon returned from Elba to France
March 1; the "Hundred Days," March 20,
June 22; Napoleon defeated at Waterloo,
June 18; sent to St. Helena, landed Oct. 16
and died there May 5, 1821.

First steamboat, the Virginia, ascended the Mississippi River as far as Fort Snelling (April 21-May 10; 729 miles). 1824 Lafayette, who had been an aide to Gen. Washington in the American Revolution. returned to this country and visited each of the 24 states: went back in 1825 to France.

1825 Trade unions allowed in England.

Erie Canal opened, first boat left Buffalo. Oct. 26, and reached N. Y. City, Nov. 4. 1827 Slavery abolished in N. Y. State, by the Legislature, July 4.


The steamship Curacoa, first European-built oceanic vessel to use steam power alone, in April, crossed the Atlantic, from Antwerp to Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. The Royal William, launched in Montreal, April 29, 1831. left there Aug. 18, 1833, and crossed to Europe in 25 days, using no power but


1828 First passenger railroad in United States (the
Baltimore and Ohio) was begun July 4;
first 14 miles opened to (horse-drawn, rail-
car) traffic on May 24, 1830.
Revolution in France. Charles X abdicated,
Aug. 2, and was succeeded by the Duke of
Orleans as Louis Philippe I. There were
revolutions, too, in Germany (Brunswick
and Saxony), and Belgium. Holland be-
came an independent country.
Mormon church organized by Joseph Smith,
in Fayette, Seneca County, N. Y., April 6.
He and his brother, Hyrum, were killed by
a mob in Carthage, Ill., June 27, 1844.
First railway abroad opened, between Liver-
pool and Manchester, England, Sept. 15.
1831 First train drawn in U. S. by steam locomo-
tive, Albany to Schenectady, N. Y., Aug. 9.
1832 The South Carolina Legislature (it had de-
nounced in 1827 the U. S. protective tari
law as an invasion of state rights) called
9 state convention, which in Nov. 1832.
passed an ordinance of nullification of the
tariff, voiding it in that state, and declar-
ing that if the federal government at-
tempted to enforce the law the state would
consider itself no longer a member of the
Union. Congress in Feb. 1833, passed a
compromise tariff act; whereupon South
Carolina in State Convention repealed the
nullification ordinance.

Holy Alliance, so-called, formed by Russia,
Austria and Prussia; signed at Paris, Sept.
26; promulgated, at Frankfort, on Feb. 2, 1833
1816, and acceded to in 1818 by the rulers
of England and France. One of the results
was the Monroe Doctrine.

1817 Rush-Bagot treaty signed, April 28-29, limit-
ing naval armaments of the United States
and Canada on the Great Lakes.

1819 First American steamboat crossed the At-
lantic. This was the Savannah, which was
built at N. Y. City by Francis Ficket and
engined by Stephen Vail. She was launched
Aug. 22,1818, left Mch. 28, 1819, for Savan-
nah; arrived there April 12; left May 22
for Liverpool; arrived there June 20. The
steamer went thence to Stockholm and St.
Petersburgh; left last named Oct. 10: ar-
rived at Savannah, Nov. 30. Her captain
was Moses Rogers of Georgetown, N. C.
The Savannah, divested of the engine sank
off the Long Island, N. Y., coast. The en-
gine was for a time in a London museum.
The Savannah used steam, but only as
auxiliary power. The log of her 1819 At-
lantic voyage is owned by the U. S. Nation-
al Museum, in Washington.

1820 Congress, on Mch. 3, passed Henry Clay's
Missouri Compromise bill, by which slavery
was allowed in that State, but not else-
where west of the Mississippi River north
of 36 30 Latitude (the southern boundary
of Missouri). In 1854 Congress repealed the
Missouri Compromise bill, and authorized
the people of Kansas and Nebraska to
decide for themselves for or against slavery.
The Kansas-Nebraska bill, backed by
Stephen A. Douglas, opened the Territories
to slavery by setting up the principle of
"squatter sovereignty." (See 1857.)
1822 Revolution in Portugal; separation of Brazil
which proclaimed independence on Sept. 7;
Dom Pedro was crowned emperor on Dec.
1; he abdicated in 1831; succeeded by his
son; a republic proclaimed in 1888; em-
peror banished in 1889 and died in Paris
in 1891.

1823 Monroe Doctrine declared, Dec. 2. under
which no European power, it was an-
nounced, could seize territory or set up a
government on the American continent.

The British Parliament, Aug. 28, outlawed slavery in the Empire as of Aug. 1, 1834. About 700,000 were liberated at a cost of £20,000,000. Slavery had been unlawful in the British Isles since June 22, 1772, by a decision of the Court of Kings Bench. 1835 Fire in New York City, Dec. 16-17, began in a store at Pearl and Merchant (Hanover) Sts., spread up to Garden St. (Exchange Pl.), ravaging 17 blocks (52 acres), destroying 674 buildings, including the Stock Exchange, Merchants Exchange, Post Office, and the South Dutch Church; loss, $20,000,000.

Texas, which for a time had been joined with
Coahuila as a Mexican State, proclaimed
its independence, Νον. 13: Garrison of
Texans at the Alamo plaza, San Antonio
besieged 11 days, then butchered and the
bodies burned by Mexican troops. Mch. 6,
1836 (among the victims were Davy
Crockett); constitution adopted for the
Republic of Texas, Mch. 17, 1836; battle of
San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, in which 800
under Gen. Sam Houston defeated 3,000
Mexicans under Gen. Santa Anna, who
signed two treaties recognizing the inde-
pendence of Texas with borders reaching
to the Rio Grande River.

-Business panic, hard times in U. S., also in
1857; 1873-7; 1893-4; 1907-8; 1921; 1929.
1837 First metal vessels built in the United States
were the Chatham and the Lamar, con-
structed in Savannah, Ga., in 1837 and 1838
of iron imported from England. The first
vessel built in the U. S. of iron made in
this country was the Valley Forge.
launched in Pittsburgh, in 1839.
1838 Fire destroyed 1,158 buildings in Charleston,
S. C., April 27.

The Great Western, 236 ft. long, 450 horse-
power, 1340 gross tons, left Bristol, Eng-
land, on April 8, and arrived in N. Y. City
on April 23. The Sirius, 178 ft. long, 703
tons, left Liverpool on Mch. 28, and
Queenstown on April 4, and reached N. Y.
City on April 22. She had used steam only.
The British Queen arrived in New York
on July 28, 1839; the President got there


on Aug. 17, 1840. 1839 Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands were separated by treaties signed by those two countries and by Great Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia (at London, April 19). To the treaties was annexed a document declaring Belgium an independent and "perpetually neutral" state. 1840 Penny postage begun in England Jan. 10; on May 6, that year, the first postage stamp was issued. In the United States, the adhesive stamp came into use in 1847. 1841 Upper and Lower Canada united, Feb. 10. 1842 Dorr's Rebellion in Rhode Island, due to an election contest for the governorship. Thomas W. Dorr was inaugurated by the 1859 suffragists, and Samuel W. King, by the landholders. Dorr's adherents tried to seize the arsenal at Providence. King declared martial law. Dorr was convicted of treason and sentenced in 1844 to life imprisonment, but was released in 1847. Croton. Aqueduct opened, June 22.

1843 First telegraph line in U. S., Washington to Baltimore.

1845 U. S. Naval Academy in Annapolis opened, Oct. 10.

1846 War

was declared by the United States against Mexico on May 13, and by Mexico against the United States on May 23. Peace was ratified by the U. S. Senate in Feb., 1848, and by the Mexican Senate on May 24, 1848. By the 1848 pact the Rio Grande was fixed as the boundary; Irish potato famine.

1848 Louis Philippe dethroned in France; second Republic set up, Feb. 26. In Austria. Ferdinand I abdicated, Dec. 2, in favor of his nephew, Franz Josef; in Hungary, freedom ⚫ was declared under Kossuth; revolts in Ireland, Lombardy, Venice, Denmark, and Schleswig-Holstein.

Gold discovered in California, Jan. 24. 1849 Astor Place riots in N. Y. City against Macready, English actor, 34 killed, May 10. The outbreak was in retaliation for the treatment of Edwin Forrest, American actor, in London, in 1845.

The Roman National Assembly, Feb. 8, divested the Pope of all temporal power and proclaimed a republic; French troops captured the city, and restored the keys to him, July 4; his temporal power was reestablished, July 15. It was in this year that Pope Pius IX proposed that the doctrine of the immaculate conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary be adopted as an article of Catholic belief. In 1854 (Dec. 8) it was announced in a Papal Bull as so adopted.

1850 Jenny Lind's first concert in U. S., at Castle Garden, N. Y., Sept. 11; Lola Montez danced there in 1852, at the centenary of the stage in N. Y. City.

Fugitive slave law and Henry Clay's other "compromise" resolutions passed by Congress, last one in Sept.

1851 Gold discovered in Australia. Feb. 12.

Fire destroyed 2,500 buildings in San Francisco, May 3-5; also 500 buildings there June 22.

N. Y. Central Railroad, N. Y. City to Albany, opened Oct. 8.

First International Exhibition, London (Crystal Palace).

1853 World's Fair opened in Crystal Palace, N. Y. City, July 14. The building was destroyed by fire Oct. 5, 1858. There was that year a World's Fair in Dublin.

Know Nothing secret political movement be-
gun, at N. Y. City, opposed to Roman
Catholics; broke up in 1860.
Commodore Matthew C. Perry, U. S. N., met
the Lord of Toda on Kurihama Beach,
July 14, and gave him President Fillmore's
letter to the Emperor, which resulted, on
Mch. 8, 1854, in a treaty of peace and amity
that gave American ships (whaling, the
China trade, etc.) access to Japanese ports.
and opened commercial relations between
the United States and Japan.

1855 International Fair in Paris.


First Atlantic cable was laid between Cape Breton, N. S., and Newfoundland. cable was completed to Ireland in 1857 and the first messages were sent between N. Y. City and Europe on Aug. 5, 1858. Sebastopol falls; Crimean War (England and France against Russia) ends, Sept. 8. 1857 The great mutiny in India; broke out May 10. It spread all over the country, lasted several


years, cost over 100,000 lives, and was succeeded by famines, in one of which, in 1866, in Bengal, 1,500,000 person perished. The Dred Scott decision of the U. S. Supreme Court, (5 to 2), Mch. 6, denied the legality of the socalled Missouri Compromise, and denied that a negro (in this case the slave, Dred Scott) was a citizen. Roger B. Taney, of Maryland, was the Chief Justice. Mountain Meadow Massacre, 120 emigrants killed by Indians led by Mormons in Utah. Sept. 16.

East India Company dissolved, Aug. 2; gov-
ernment of India transfered to the British

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, Va.,
Oct. 16; his band killed 5, Brown was
hanged at Charlestown, W. Va., Dec. 2.
His purpose was to incite a slave revolt in

First petroleum well opened, Titusville, Pa., by Edward L. Drake, Aug. 27. 1860 Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) visited the U. S.

First Pony-express between Sacramento, Calif., and St. Joseph, Mo., 1,980 miles apart, started from each place at 5 p.m.. April 3; there were 80 riders, and 420 horses, and they were changed every 10 miles. There were 190 relay stations. The service ended in October, 1861, when the telegraph line was completed.

South Carolina seceded from the Union, Dec. 20. A state convention as far back as 1852 had declared the right of the state to seccde.

1861 Emancipation of the Russian serfs, by Czar Alexander II; he was assassinated, Mch. 13, 1881. Slavery had been unlawful in Russia since 1842; in the hereditary states of the German Emperor, since 1781; in Denmark since 1766; in Prussia, since 1702. Southern Confederacy formed, Feb. 4; elected Jefferson Davis President. Feb. 9; inaugurated, Feb. 18, in Montgomery, Ala. (and again in Richmond, Va., Feb. 22, 1862). Fort Sumter fired on, April 12, after discretionary power wired to Gen. Beauregard on April 11, from Montgomery; the fort surrendered on April 14; Lincoln called for volunteers, April 15; Queen Victoria's proclamation of neutrality, May 13: Battle of Bull Run, July 21; McClellan given command of Union Army, Nov. 1; Mason and Slidell affair, Nov. 8.


Grant captured Forts Henry and Donelson, Feb. 6 and 16; the Confederate ironclad. Virginia (rebuilt from the 40-gun steam frigate, Merrimac) destroyed. Mch. 8, at Hampton Roads, the Union frigates Cumberland and Congress; on Mch. 9 the

Virginia fought the Union fronclad, Mon-
itor, built by John Ericsson; Farragut
captured New Orleans, April 25; McClel-
lan's Peninsula Campaign, March-August;
Battle of Antietam, Sept. 17; Fredericks-
burg, Dec. 13.
Preliminary proclamation. Sept. 22, by Presi-
dent Lincoln announcing that on Jan. 1,
1863, slaves would be declared free in terri-
tory then in rebellion. Slavery in the Dis-
trict of Columbia was abolished by Congress
on April 16.

International Exposition in London, opened
May 1.

1863 Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, Jan. 1. In this proclamation he declared free forever the slaves in Ark., Tex., La., (certain parishes excepted); Miss., Ala.. Fla., Ga., S. Car., N. Car., and Va. (W. Va. and other portions excepted). About 3,120,000 slaves were thus freed; 830,000 slaves in the excepted parts were not freed under the proclamation.

Lincoln's address at Gettysburg, Nov. 19; it was impromptu, from notes; later he wrote out the address, from his notes, and made several copies, or versions. It appears elsewhere in the Almanac. (See, Lincoln, index.)

Hooker defeated at Chancellorsville, May 2-4; Lee defeated at Gettysburg, July 1-3: Grant captures Vicksburg, July 4: Battles of Chickamauga. Sept. 19-20; Lookout Mountain, Nov. 24; Missionary Ridge, Nov. 25. -Draft riots in N. Y. City, July 13-16; 1,000. killed, including Negroes, who were hung by mobs; property damage, $2,000,000. It was asserted that the Republican officials in charge of the draft had stuffed the lists with names of Democrats.


1864 Grant made Commander-in-Chief, March 12: | 1870

Battles of the Wilderness, May 5-6; of Spotsylvania, May 8-21; Cedar Creek, Oct. 19: Sherman's March to Atlanta, May-July; he captured Savannah, Dec. 21; U.S.S. Kearsarge sank the raider Alabama, June 19. 1865 The 1st Artillery fired last shot of Civil War, and Confederate Gen. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, April 9.


Lincoln shot by J. Wilkes Booth, in Washing-
ton, April 14; died, April 15; Booth was
shot to death in the pursuit, on April 26,
in or at the door of a barn, which, it is
said, had been set on fire by one of the
pursuers, near Port Royal, Va. Those
hanged for complicity were Mrs. Mary E.
Surratt, David E. Herold, George A. At-
zerodt and Lewis Payne (Powell), on July
7; Michael O'Laughlin, Samuel Arnold, 1872
and Dr. Samuel A. Mudd were sentenced
to life imprisonment; Edward Spangler, to
6 years in prison. Arnold, Mudd and Spang-
ler were pardoned in 1869. John H. Sur-
ratt, son of Mrs. Mary E., fled to Europe
but was brought back, and tried in 1867.
The jury disagreed. He was reindicted, but
never tried. Stories or rumors crop out
from year to year that Booth escaped from
the Garrett barn and died free, his pur-
suers having shot another of the one or
two men who, according to the rumors
were hiding with Booth. The government
order was to get Booth alive, if possible.
The barn was fired and Booth was shot
in disobedience of orders. Booth's body.
identified by a number of persons.
buried under the floor of the prison, in
Washington; several years later the body
was dug up and given to relatives who
interred it in a cemetery in Baltimore.
Slavery abolished in the U. S. by adoption,
by over three-fourths of the states, of the
13th amendment to the Constitution, pro-
claimed as in effect, Dec 18.


1866 Fenians invaded Canada, near Buffalo, N. Y., May 31; they were repulsed, and reentered the United States, June 2; about 1,000 Fenians from the U. S. attacked St. Armand, Quebec Province, and were routed. June 9.

Ku Klux Klan movement begun in the
South against negro voters, "carpet bag-
gers" from the north; nominally dis-
banded in 1869, but night-raids continued
for several years. The movement was re-
vived in 1920, and spread to the north.
east and west, at first against negro voters,
later mainly against Roman Catholics in

Second Atlantic cable laid; completed, July
27, 1867. First (1857-8) had been outlasted.
Fire destroyed 2,500 buildings in Quebec,
Canada, Oct. 13.

1867 Alaska purchased from Russia, March 30.

The Dominion of Canada established. July 1. 1867-68 Abolition of the Shogunate and restoration of the Mikado in Japan; feudalism abolished in 1871; Constitution promulgated in 1889, 1868 President Andrew Johnson impeached, tried and acquitted, March-May.

Earthquake in Peru and Ecuador, 25,000 killed, Aug. 13-15.

1869 Financial "Black Friday" in New York, Sept. 24; caused by gold corner.

Golden spike driven at Ogden, Utah, May 10, marking the junction of Central Pacific and Union Pacific and the completion of the first transcontinental railway.

Suez Canal opened, Nov. 17.

1870 Franco-Prussian War begun, July 19; ended at Sedan, on the River Meuse, Sept. 1, when Napoleon 111 (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte) surrendered to King William of Prussia. France proclaimed a Republic, Sept. 4.

Doctrine of papal infallibility adopted by the Ecumenical Council in Rome, July 18, by vote of 547 to 2. There were 764 prelates at the council. The only American objector was Bishop Fitzgerald, of Little Rock, Ark. The troops of Victor Emmanuel II. under Gen. Cadorna, took possession of Rome, on Sept. 20, in the name of the Kingdom of Italy; Rome and the rest of the Papal State then were annexed by a plebiscite, taken on Oct. 2. On May 13, 1871, the Italian Parliament, which had meanwhile transferred the national capital from Turin to Rome, passed the Law of Guarantees, allowing to the Pope and his successors forever

the possession of the Vatican, the


Lateran palaces and the Villa of Castel Gandolfo and a yearly allowance of 3,225,000 lire, or then about $645,000, for their upkeep. The money was not claimed. The German Empire re-established, Jan. 18: Paris captured, Jan. 28; treaty of Frankfort ended Franco-Prussian War, May 10. The great fire in Chicago, Oct. 8-11; 18,000 bldgs. destroyed; est. loss, $196,000,000. The flames started in Mrs. O'Leary's barn, at 137 de Koven St., either from spontaneous combustion of hay, or from a kick of a cow, upsetting a lantern. Pestigo fire, in Wisconsin, after 3 months drought, one of the greatest forest conflagrations in U. S. history. Six counties were burned over, over 1,000 lives were lost, thousands crippled, 3,000 beggared.

Col. Jas. Fisk Jr., "King of Wall Street," shot at N. Y. by Edw. S. Stokes, Jan. 6; he died two days later; Stokes got 4 years in prison. Jesse Pomeroy, at 13, began his crime career by tying and torturing children in Boston suburbs; in 1874 he mutilated and killed a boy of 4 and a girl of 9; in 1876 he was sentenced to be hanged; sentence commuted to life in prison, at Bridgewater, Mass., where he died, Sept. 29, 1932. .

The great fire in Boston, Nov. 9; 776 buildings destroyed.

1873 Panic in N. Y. began with bank failures on Sept. 20; Stock Exchange closed on that day and reopened on Sept. 30. International Fair at Vienna. Charley Ross, 4, kidnapped from home in Germantown, Pa., then a suburb of Philadelphia, July 1. A Superior Court jury in Phoenix, Ariz., decided, May 8, 1939, that Gustav Blair, a carpenter of that place, is, in reality, Charley (Charles Brewster) Ross, and is entitled to use the name. He testified that the Ross family had refused to recognize him.

"Boss" W. M. Tweed at N. Y., convicted of fraud, Nov. 19, and sentenced 12 years in prison; in June, 1875, the court released him from Blackwells Island prison on a technicality; he was committed to Ludlow St. Jail in a civil suit; escaped, Dec. 4, 1875, and went to Cuba, then to Spain, brought back to N. Y. City in Nov., 1876; he died in Ludlow St. Jail, April 12, 1878. The Tichborne claimant, indicted as Thomas Castro, otherwise Arthur Orton, convicted in London of perjury in swearing he was Sir Roger Tichborne, was sentenced, Feb. 28, to 14 years in prison; released in 1884. 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia; opened on May 19; closed on Nov. 10. Battle of Little Big Horn in Montana, in Sioux Indian war; massacre of Gen. Geo. A. Custer and 276 soldiers of the 7th Cavalry, by redskins under Sitting Bull, June 25.

Wild Bill Hickok killed a man named McCall, at the Pony Express stable, Rock Creek, Kan., in June; McCall's brother, Jack, walked up behind Hickok, on Aug. 5, at Deadwood, S. D., and shot him dead. A vigilance committee acquitted McCall, but the U. S. Court at Yankton, S. D., found him guilty of murder and he was hanged. Brooklyn Theatre fire, Dec. 5: 289 lives lost. A passenger train fell from a bridge into the ravine, Ashtabula, Ohio; 84 killed, 60 inJured, Dec. 29.

1877 Russia declared war on Turkey, April 24; peace treaty signed in Mch., 1878. Fire swept over 600 acres of City of St. John, N. B., June 20; 100 lives lost. Eleven Molly Maguires were hanged in Pennsylvania (3 at Mauch Chunk, June 21; 5 at Pottsville June 21; 3 at Bloomsburg. Aug. 9) for murders in coal region. The order terrorized the region (1870-1880). Strike on B. and O., Penn., and other railways, troops; riots; many killed; began July 1.

1878 Congress in Berlin June 13-July 13, deals with the Turkish question. Bulgaria, Montenegro, Serbia and Roumania made independent.

International Exposition in Paris. 1881 Alexander II, Czar of Russia, assassinated in St. Petersburg, March 13, by Nihilists. President Garfield shot at Washington, July 2; died in Elberon, N. J., Sept. 19. Ring Theater, Vienna, burned, Dec. 8; 850 perished.

1882 Panama Canal begun by the French, Jan. 20; the U. S. bought, in 1904 for $40,000,000


the uncompleted water-way from the de Lesseps successors, and the canal was finished and opened to traffic on Aug. 15. 1914. Prof. Robert Koch announced, in Berlin, discovery of the tuberculosis germ; Mch. 24. 1883 Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria and Italy. (Renewed in 1887, 1891 and 1896.) Brooklyn Bridge opened, May 24; panic on it, May 30; twelve trampled to death. Benito Mussolini born, July 29, in Predappio, near Forli, Italy.

Earthquakes and eruptions of the volcano, Krakatoa, on the Island of Java, followed by most of the 45 other volcanoes; 36,000 lives lost Aug. 25-28.

1884 At Cincinnati, O., after several slayers had been convicted of manslaughter instead of murder, mobs stormed and burned the court house; in several days of rioting, beginning on Mch. 28, over 5 were killed. 138 wounded.

Panic in N. Y.; failure of Marine Bank and
Grant and Ward, May 5-7.

Tornadoes ranging from Illinois south to the
Gulf of Mexico, and including Virginia.
killed 800, and destroyed 10,000 buildings.
Feb. 9.

1885 Gen. Charles G. ("Chinese") Gordon, British governor of the Soudan, was slain, Jan. 26, by a Mohammedan soldier, who stuck the head on a spear, at Omdurman. Several thousand whites were massacred by the Mahdi's troops. Gordon was revenged on Sept. 2, 1898, when the British, under Gen. Kitchener, defeated the Mahdi's army and ended his rule.

Rebellion in northwest Canada begun under leadership of Louis David Riel, March 24. he surrendered, May 15, and, after trial and conviction, he was hanged on Nov. 16. First electric street railway in U. S., in Balti more, opened by Frank J. Sprague, Sept. 1 1886 Haymarket Anarchist riots, Chicago; 7 police

killed, 60 wounded, May 4. A jury convicted anarchists August Spies, Adolf Fischer, George Engel, and Albert R. Parsons, and they were hanged on Nov. 11, 1887. Louis Lingg killed himself in jail. Samuel Fielden and Michael Schwab got life imprisonment.

Charleston, S. C., earthquake, Aug. 31: 41 killed; $5,000,000 property loss.

Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island. N. Y. Harbor, unveiled on Oct. 28 in presence of 1,000,000 people.

1887 Triple Alliance (treaty) of Germany, Austria and Italy, Mch. 13, against France and Russia.

Flood in Hoang-Ho River, China: 900,000 persons perished.

Opera Comique, Paris, burned, May 25; 200 lives lost; theater, Exeter, England fire. Sept. 4; 200 died.

1888 Great blizzard in N. Y. City and in eastern part of U. S., March 11-14. Roscoe Conkling was a victim of exposure in N. Y.. dying April 18.

1889 Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and Baroness Marie Vetsera were found, slain, in his

hunting lodge in Castle Mierling. Jan. 29 Johnstown, Pa., flood, May 31; 2,209 lives lost.

Adolf Hitler born, April 20, in Braunau, in

World's Fair, in Paris, May 6-Nov. 6. Eiffel
Tower opened (985 ft. high).

1890 First electrocution for crime in N. Y. State. The victim was William Kemmler, whe murdered Matilda Zicigler on Mch. 29. 1889. Put to death in chair in Auburn Prison, Aug. 6.

Ellis Island opened as Immigration Depot, and Castle Garden ceased as such, Dec. 31. 1891 Park Place disaster, N. Y., 64 killed, Aug. 22 by the collapse of upper floor; most victims were in a restaurant.


Henry L. Norcross, of Somerville.
threw a bomb, with poor aim, at Russell
Sage, in financier's office, N. Y. City; he
blew himself to pieces, Dec. 4.

1892 Fire destroyed 28 lives in Hotel Royal, N. Y.,

Feb. 6; and 600 at St. John's, N. F.. July 8. Conflict between 300 Pinkerton guards and strikers at steel mills, Homestead, near Pittsburgh, Pa.; 7 guards and 11 strikers and spectators shot to death, many wounded, July 6. The strike had been set for July 3, but the mills shut down on July 1; the National Guard arrived on July 12 and the town and mills were put under martial law. H. C. Frick wounded at Pittsburgh, July

23, by Alexander Berkman, anarchist, who, after a term in prison, married Emma Goldman.

1893 America's first gasoline buggy had its pulling test by Charles E. Duryea, April 19, in Springfield, Mass. World's Fair (Columbian Exposition) in Chicago, opened May 1; several of the buildings were destroyed by fire on Jan. 8, 1894.

Tornadoes kill 3,000 in Charleston, Savannah, and on coast of Louisiana, Aug. 28, Oct. 2. 1894 Chinese-Japanese War began, July 25: Battle of Yalu, Sept. 17; treaty of Shimonosekl, April 17, 1895, gave Japan Liaotung Peninsula, Formosa and the Pescadores. Lexow State Senate inquiry as to police corruption in N. Y. City; committee, headed by Clarence Lexow, began examination of witnesses on May 21; last session, Dec. 29; report to Legislature on Jan. 18, 1895. -John Y. McKane, Gravesend (Brooklyn) political "boss," sentenced to 6 years in prison for election frauds, Feb. 20. Jacob S. Coxey led 20,000 unemployed from the mid-west into Washington, April 29. Strike of mine workers throughout U. S.. followed by that of Pullman Čar manufactory workers and then by order from Eugene V. Debs for general strike of American Ry. union men; trouble centered in Chicago where, after Federal Court had enjoined strikers, President Cleveland sent Federal troops, July 2. Many died in conflict, vast property loss. U. S. troops withdrawn. July 19; Gov. Altgeld recalled State militia. Aug. 7, a day after union called strike off. Capt. Dreyfus, France, degraded, Dec. 23. restored to rank, July 12, 1906.

1895 Cuban Revolution began, Feb. 20; 'Gen. Antonio Maceo, leader of the insurrection. was killed in action on Dec. 7, 1896. X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, a German physicist, who was awarded a Nobel prize in 1901.

The Queen of Korea was assassinated in the royal palace in Seoul, Oct. 8. She was first cut down. her clothing was then soaked in oil, and the body was burned. The Japanese minister was recalled to Tokyo and was tried and acquitted. 1896 President Cleveland appointed Venezuela Boundary Commission, Jan. 1; treaty signed, Feb. 2, 1897.

Battle at Adowa, Etheopia, began on night of
Feb. 29. The Ethiopians under King
Menelik, took the Italians by surprise. The
Italians lost 4,600 white and nearly 3,000
native troops killed and wounded and more
than 2,500 soldiers were captured.
"Greater New York" bill signed, May 11; the
City of Five Boroughs came into corporate
existence on Jan. 1, 1898.

1897 The Turkish-Greek War.
Salon on August Andree, Swedish explorer,
and two companions, left Dane's Island,
Spitzbergen, in a balloon, in July 11, for the
North Pole, and were not heard of until
Aug. 6, 1930, when their remains were found
on White Island. Their balloon had
grounded after drifting 117 miles.
Charity Bazaar fire, Paris; 150 lives lost.
1898 U. S. Battleship Maine blown up in harbor of
Havana, Cuba, Feb. 15; 260 lost; followed
by war between Spain and the United
States. Diplomatic relations broken, April
21; Cuban blockade declared, April 22: war
declared by Spain, April 24, by the United
States, April 25: Dewey destroyed the
Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, May 1: Battles
of San Juan and El Caney, July 1-3: Battle
of Santiago de Cuba. Adm. Cervera's
Spanish fleet destroyed, July 3; Peace pro-
tocol signed between the United States and
Spain, Aug. 12; Peace treaty signed by
American and Spanish delegates at Paris,
Dec. 10. the U. S. acquiring the Philippines
and Puerto Rico.
Empress Elizabeth of Austria-Hungary, wife
of Franz Josef, assassinated, Sept. 10, by
an anarchist, at Geneva, Switzerland.
Radium discovered by Pierre Curie, Mme
Curie and G. Bemont.

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1899 N. Y. State, at Sing Sing, Mar. 20. Philippine-American War began, Feb. 4. On June 12, 1898, Filipinos had declared their independence of Spain, and on Sept. 15. 1898, a revolutionary assembly in Manila had "ratified" the independence, as representatives of the Katipunan League built up by Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo, Antonia Luna and Marcelo del Pilar. Aguinaldo was captured on Mch. 23, 1901, and civil government was established by the United States on May 3, 1901. W. H. Taft became the first civil governor, on July 4, 1901, the first Filipino Legislature met on Oct. 16, 1907.

Windsor Hotel Fire (N. Y.). March 17: 45 lost.

1900 Paris Exposition opened, April 15.

Humbert, King of Italy, assassinated, July
29, at Monza, by Angelo Bresci.
Boxer insurrection in China, June; Peking
captured by foreign allies, Aug. 14. There
were 18,000 marines and sailors--American
(2,000). Japanese, Russian, British and

Hoboken docks and ships fire, June 30: 145
lives lost; $10,000,000 property destroyed.
Galveston hurricane and tidal wave, Sept. 8:
6,000 lives lost.

1901 Northern Pacific Railway stock "corner" and panic, May 9.

-Pan-American Exposition, (Buffalo, N. Y.).
May 1-Nov. 2.

President William McKinley shot in Buffalo,
N. Y., Sept. 6 (died Sept. 14) by Leon
Ccolgosz, an anarchist, who was later put
to death.

Marconi signalled letter "S" across Atlantic from England to Poldhu, Newfoundland. Dec. 12. First radio message sent in Dec., 1902. 1902 St. Pierre, Martinique, destroyed by eruption of Mt. Pelee, May 8; about 30,000 lives lost. Park Ave. Hotel fire, N. Y. City, Feb. 2; 21 lives lost.

Pennsylvania coal strike of 145,000 anthracite miners. May 12. Settled by President Roosevelt's commission, Oct. 15-23.

Fire destroyed 456 buildings in Paterson, N. J., Feb.; and 115 people at a church, Birmingham, Ala., Sept. 20.

Cuban Republic inaugurated, American occupation, under Gen. Leonard Wood, ended May 20; rights and franchises of France in Panama Canal bought by U. S., June 28. First International Arbitration Court opened in The Hague, Holland, in October. 1903 Kishineff (Russia) massacre of Jews, April 19-20; 47 slain, several hundred wounded, 700 houses destroyed, 600 stores looted. -King Alexander of Serbia, and Queen Draga, assassinated by army officers, in Belgrade, June 11.

Panama Revolution, Nov. 3; republic recognized by U. S., Nov. 13.

First successful mechanical aeroplane flight by the Wright Brothers, Dec. 17, from Kill Devil Hill, on the North Carolina seacoast, 4 miles south of Kitty Hawk.

Fire killed 602 in Iroquois Theatre, Chicago, Dec. 30. Most of the victims were trampled to death.

1904 The great fire in Baltimore. Feb. 7: 2,500

buildings destroyed.

The Russo-Japanese War began, Feb. 6. Port
Arthur surrendered to Japanese on Jan. 2.
1905. Peace treaty signed in Portsmouth,
N. H., Sept. 5, 1905.

St. Louis Exposition (Louisiana Purchase)
opened, May 1.

The United States occupied Panama Canal

Subway opened, New York, Oct. 27.

1995 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Portland, Oregon.

The Duma, first Russian national parliament. was organized.

1906 San Francisco earthquake and conflagration;

500 lives were lost; property loss, $350,000,000; April 18-19. On April 17, earthquakes in Formosa had killed many thousands; and on Aug. 16, quakes tore down the City of Valparaiso, Chile, 1,500 lives lost. $100,000,000 property damage.

1907 Earthquake killed 1,400, Kingston, Jamaica, Jan. 14. In that month the Italian Volcanoes, Etna and Vesuvius, were destructively active, also the Volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

Jamestown (Va.). Exposition opened, April


Fire in coal mine Dec. 6, Monongah, W. Va.;



361 killed.

Chelsea (Mass.) destroyed by fire; loss over $6,000,000; Mar. 20.

Earthquakes in Sicily and Calabria killed 76,483. Messina partly destroyed, Dec. 28. Financial panic in the United States. In a fire and panic at the Lake View School at Collinwood, Ohio, near Cleveland, on March 4, 174 children and two teachers lost their lives. Rhodes Theater fire, Jan. 4, Boyertown, Pa., 169 died.

Louis Bleriot flew across the English Channel, from Calais to Dover (31 miles in 37 minutes) July 25.

Hudson-Fulton celebration, New York, Sept.Oct.-Nov.

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1910 Earthquake killed 1,500 at Cartago, Costa Rica.

Los Angeles, Calif., "Times" dynamited, Oct. 1, 21 killed.

1911 U. S. Supreme Court ordered Standard Oil combine dissolved, May 15; same decree as to American Tobacco Co., May 29. The Italian-Turkish War began, Sept. 29. Triangle waist factory fire, Ñ. Y., 145 killed, March 25.

Flood in Yangtze River, China; 100,000 drowned.

Leonardo da Vinci's painting, "Mona Lisa" ("La Giaconda"), stolen from the Louvre Gallery, Paris, Aug. 22; recovered in Florence, Italy, Dec. 12, 1913, and restored to the Louvre.

C. P. Rogers ieft N. Y., Sept. 17, in an aeroplane and made the first transcontinental flight, landing at Pasadena, Calif., Nov. 4; actual flying time, 84 hours, 2 minutes. 1912 China becomes a Republic, Feb. 12; Yuan Shi Kai elected President, Feb. 15. War in Balkans, against Turkey, by Montenegro, Bulgaria. Servia and Greece, Oct. 8-Dec. 3. Equitable Life building burned, Jan. 9, N. Y. City; 6 perished.


Steamship Titanic wrecked on maiden trip, from Southampton for New York, by iceberg off Newfoundland coast, April 14-15; 1.517 lost of whom 103 were women and 53 were children. Passengers and crew had totaled 2,207. The ship was 8822 ft. long, and cost $7,500,000.

Rev. Clarence V. T. Richeson, Baptist minister, Boston, electrocuted in Mass. State Prison, May 21, for murder of Miss Avis Linnel, 18, of Hyannis. She was about to become a mother. Her death was due to poison.

Herman Rosenthal, gambler, assassinated at N. Y. City, July 16. Police Lieut. Charles Becker, Gyp the Blood" Horowitz, "Lefty Louie" Rosenberg, "Whitey Lewis" Seidenshner, and "Dago Frank" Cirofici were convicted of the murder and executed at Sing Sing-Becker on July 30, 1915; the others on April 13, 1914.

Ohio and Indiana floods, March 25-27; 732 lives lost. In Brazos, Tex., floods, 500 died. Peace Palace at the Hague dedicated. President F. I. Madero of Mexico, and Vice President Sudrez, assassinated, Feb. 23. King George of Greece assassinated March


Mine explosion, Oct. 14, Cardiff, Wales; 400 killed.

1914 World War began in Europe. Archduke Francis of Austria and wife assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia, June 28 (St. Vitus Day) by Gavrillo Princip, a Serb student: Austria declared war on Serbia, July 28; Germany invaded France at Cirey, Russian troops invaded Germany, Aug. 2; Germans entered Liege, Aug. 7; British Expeditionary Force landed in France, Aug. 16; Germans occupied Brussels, Aug. 20; Japan declared war on Germany, Aug. 23; Austria declared war on Japan, Aug. 25; Louvain bombarded and damaged, Aug. 25; Germans under von Hindenburg, Ludendorf, Hoffman and Francois, defeated Russians under Samsonov, at Tannenberg, in East Prussia, Aug. 26-31. Samsonov killed himself. One of the Russian armies, under Rennenkampf, fled. Battle of the Marne, Sept. 610, Germans occupied Antwerp, Oct. 9: De Wet's rebellion in South Africa, Oct. 28; Japanese capture Tsingtau. Nov. 7: First Battle of Ypres, Nov. 9; German cruiser Emden destroyed at Cocos Island, Nov. 10. United States marines landed at Vera Cruz, Mex. April 21.

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