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Channel and elsewhere in northern Europe. In a plane raid on Hamburg 95 persons were killed. In the British air attack on Manheim there were many casualties.

-King Victor Emmanuel of Italy made his first
visit to Albania. He flew to Tirana, the capital.
-In Free France, Pierre Mendes-France, former
Under-Secretary of State to Premier Leon Blum,
Socialist leader who headed the Popular Front
Cabinet, was sentenced to six years in prison. He
was charged with desertion.

May 11-Herbert Hoover in a radio broadcast from
New York City said: "We do not have 300,000
men who are sufficiently equipped with planes,
tanks and guns to meet 300,000 Germans, to say
nothing of victory over 5,000,000 of them. We
shall not even have 1,500,000 men so equipped
for probably another twelve months. We have
no substantial air force of the type now being
used in this war. It is true we have a magnifi-
cent Navy, but even that is not yet big enough
for the job it may have to undertake if we join
this war." He urged Americans to keep on let-
ting Britain have every available American
weapon regardless of temporary unpreparedness
at home, since in eight or ten months American
industry will be capable of arming both Britain
and America to the teeth.
May 12-Hamburg, Bremen, Emden, Rotterdam,
London, Pembroke and airports in southern and
central England were the objects of reprisal air
raids by British and German planes. As to
Hamburg and Bremen, the Berlin communique
said: "A heavy weight of high explosive and in-
cendiary bombs was dropped on the shipbuilding
yards and the industrial areas in both cities.
Many large fires were started and left burning.
The British attacks of May 9, 11 and 12 killed
208 persons."

-British fliers kept pounding at Benghazi in
Western Libya. British land forces closing in
on 38,000 Italians holding Amba Alaji fortress,
perched at an altitude of 9,000 feet in northern
Ethiopia, have occupied the nearby stronghold
of Gumsa, the Middle East Command announced.
-The British gunboat, Ladybird, was sunk in
Tobruk Harbor by a German dive bomber.
had been shelled on Dec. 12, 1937, by a Japanese
plane in the Yangtze River, China.
-German troops have occupied the Greek island of


-After a consultation with Secretary Hull, President Roosevelt issued a statement saying that the French people still cherished "the ideals of liberty and free institutions," and that he could not believe they would willingly accept any agreement for "so-called 'collaboration" that would imply alliance with a military power dedicated to "the utter destruction of liberty, freedom and popular institutions everywhere." The "collaboration" plan, he declared, apparently would "deliver up France and its colonial empire, including French African colonies and their Atlantic coast." This government, the statement continued, had recognized the French-German armistice, had received assurances from Marshal Petain that Vichy did not intend to agree to any collaboration with Germany that went beyond the requirements of the armistice agreement. Following these developments, the Coast Guard, by order of the Treasury Department, put guards on the Normandie and other French ships in New York and in other United States ports. -Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden declared in Commons that the French had broken all their pledges by allowing German planes to use Syrian airports as way stations to Iraq, and consequently these bases might be attacked at any moment by the British.

-Commons was officially informed that there were 437,000 British and Imperial troops in France when the Germans began their invasion of the Low Countries. Of them 384,000 were removed safely to England. Of the remainder, 40,000 were taken prisoner, with 13,000 presumable casualties; 23,800 men took part in the Norwegian expedition, of whom 22,600 returned to England. The Germans took 950 prisoners.

May 16-After a respite of several days, German planes resumed raids on London. They also ranged over the Midlands, and the south coast. British air attacks were made on Hanover, Hamburg, Calais, Boulogne and other (French) coast towns. The London raids were not severe, and it was noted that many German planes avoided that city, merely flying across to places beyond. The Petain government, in answer to the Roosevelt radio condemnation of its collaboration with Hitler, said, in an official statement: "In May, 1940, when France was left in the lurch by Britain, America did not see fit to answer her appeal. Today France, anxious to preserve her position as a great power as well as the integrity of her territory and her empire, has certainly the right to envisage with her victory the conditions of a common reorganization of Continental Europe. This in no way means that she has the intention of attacking Britain, much less the United States."

aircraft at airdromes in the French-mandated areas in Syria. Britain announced in London that Syria was "enemy-occupied territory." -British forces reoccupied Solum, Egypt.

France began to withdraw licenses from Jewish doctors and druggists.

May 13-The German Government put the northern part of the Red Sea in the combat zone. The official notice said: "As a result of the development of war in the eastern Mediterranean, war actions of German armed forces may also be expected in the Red Sea in the future. Every ship which travels these waters, which have become an operations area, exposes itself to destruction-British planes attacked German troop-carrying by mines or other weapons of war. The German government therefore urgently warns against travel in the endangered area, which is bounded as follows: the northern part of the Red Sea, including the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba; (south) to the Tropic of Cancer. The waters of Saudi Arabia are excluded. Regulation for travel in the designated operations area by specially marked pilgrim ships has been reserved." President Roosevelt had recently proclaimed the Red Sea open to American shipping. -Deprived of their regular abode by German air raids, members of the House of Commons, London, met in a new abode. The Prime Minister told them that the old house had been damaged beyond repair for a very long time to come. dispatch boxes from which Gladstone Disraeli railed at each other were missing but they were replaced by modern counterparts. Also missing were old volumes of parliamentary procedure.


-The exiled Mufti of Jerusalem called on all Islam
to rise in arms against the British.
-Capt. James Roosevelt arrived, by air, on the
Greek island of Crete and gave to King George
a message from the President promising help.

-Russia and Iraq signed an agreement for the
establishment of diplomatic, trade and consular

-The Iceland Parliament resolved to revoke the
union with Denmark, existing since 1918; each,
under the pact is a free sovereign state.
May 17-An Iraq communique said that Iraq
planes raided Amman, the capital of Trans-Jor-
dan, and Iraq troops penetrated Trans-Jordan
territory, attacking Camp Alshuaiba, inflicting
casualties on the British. Italian planes have
arrived at Iraqi airdromes, after a 1,000 mile
flight from the Dodecanese Islands and a stop in
Syria. German bombers hit at British positions in

-The British War Office has arranged to melt
10,000 World War swords, with their scabbards,
into new munitions without delay.
-Germans and Italians retook Solum also Capuzzo
on the Libyan side of the Egyptian border.

May 14-In Vichy, after a meeting of the French-Vichy denies that the French have taken military Cabinet, at which Admiral and Vice Premier Jean Darlan had told of his negotiations with Hitler, the Cabinet ratified Hitler's terms for collaboration between Germany and France. -Italian planes raided Alexandria; British airmen bombed Helgoland; German planes central England and along the east coast.

-In Zagreb, restoration of a monarchy in Croatia
was formally proclaimed by Italy.
May 15-Marshal Petain told the French people
that, if that country is to "surmount her defeat
and preserve in the world her rank as a European
and Colonial power," it must follow him, in the
negotiations with Germany, "without mental
reservation along the path of honor and national

action against the British for attacks on Syrian airdromes. The German plane landings there are covered by armistice clauses, it is asserted. -Dispatches from Canada to Washington government officials state that recent experiences have shown that the U-boats are hunting in threes and fours, and, when a convoy is sighted, they take position round it during the night and stay alongside until dawn, or, sometimes, even until the next evening, when they close in and deliver their attack.

May 18-In the throne room of the Quirinal Palace, Rome, with rain pouring down outside, Ante Pavelich, Croat Peglavnik (Premier), asked King Victor Emmanuel to appoint a King of Croatia. Thereupon that Monarch said: "We

and judges herself able to end it alone against no matter what coalition. At no moment in the conversations was there any question of France abandoning in any way her sovereignty." He added: "Not having known how to prepare for war, either morally or materially, our governments nevertheless declared it. We lost it because of the mistakes and weakness of those who led us into it." -Charles A. Lindbergh and Senator Burton K. Wheeler, of Montana, of the America First Committee spoke to 22,000 persons in Madison Square Garden, New York City, and to 12,000 outside by loud-speakers. They urged against America entering a foreign war and said the President should plead for peace-a just peace.

designate our beloved nephew, His Royal Highness, Aimone of Savoy-Aosta, Duke of Spoleto, to assume the Crown of the Kingdom of Croatia." May 19-In Ethiopia, 7,000 Italian troops under the Duke of Aosta at the northern mountain fortress of Amba Alaji laid down their arms and surrendered to the British. Under the terms of the capitulation, they have one full day to collect their wounded before formally hoisting the white flag. The Duke surrendered the next day. May 20-German troops-11,500 or more-in gliding planes drawn by transport planes, landed by means of parachutes on the Greek Island of Crete. They had come from German-occupied ports in southern Greece and they dropped down in the Canea-Maleme area. German air bombing at Suda Bay and the various airports-Congress passed a bill giying the government in the Canea-Maleme area preceded the invasion. power to impose priorities on American industry The parachutists came down for four hours, in the interests of national defense.

nine merchant ships and three oil tankers off the coast of Greenland, on the "life-line" course of supplies bound, from Canada and the United States, for Great Britain.

beginning around 8 a.m. King George had-German submarines reported sinking a convoy of left Canea the night before, joining Premier Tsouderos at Perivolia. Thence the royal party made its way, part of the distance on mules, to the coast, arriving at Cairo, Egypt, May 25, on a British cruiser. -The German government announced that the Egyptian steamship Zamzam, which left Jersey City March 20 for Alexandria and was due at Capetown April 23, had been sunk in the South Atlantic by a German warship, but all the passengers, including 140 Americans, had been landed at St. Jean-de-Luz, France, safe and sound. The cargo, Berlin said, contained contraband.

-President Roosevelt set up, with Mayor F. H. LaGuardia of New York as its head, the Office of Civilian Defense to mobilize American civilians, women as well as men, for home defense efforts, including the maintenance of national morale, the organization of volunteer fire fighting and anti-bomb squads, and the training of home guards to protect bridges, culverts, waterworks and vital industries from saboteurs and spies.

-Giuseppe Bastianini, 42, ex-Italian Ambassador to London, was appointed Governor of the new Province of Dalmatia, with Zara, on the Adriatic, as his capital. It was a port of Yugoslavia. May 21-Germany continued the landing by air of parachute troops on the island of Crete, at Suda Bay at the western end of the island, at Rethymno, 35 miles to the east, and at Candia, 65 miles east of the bay. Their arrivals were protected by German bombing planes, some of which attacked British war craft in the nearby Mediterranean and reported, later, having dam aged a battleship, five cruisers and a destroyer. -The American freight steamship, Robin Moor, from New York bound for Capetown, was sunk by a submarine in the South Atlantic, about half way between Dakar, French West Africa, and Nerteel, Brazil. On June 11, the Brazilian freighter, Osorio, landed 46 survivors, including 8 passengers, at Pernambuco. Other (35)survivors landed at Capetown, So. Africa, June 16. There was no loss of life.

-Germany notified the United States and other governments to withdraw their diplomatic representatives from Paris by June 10.

-The German Commissioner for Norway, Josef Terboven, promulgated a series of decrees extending the powers of the German occupation authorities in Norway and curtailing those of Major Vidkum Quisling's party, Nasjonal Samling. May 22-The German High Command communique said: "In the Eastern Mediterranean the Air Force achieved special success today in battle with the British Navy; four British cruisers and several destroyers were sunk with full hits, and one battleship and two other destroyers were seriously damaged."

-On the island of Crete, German parachute troops occupied a part of the town of Candia and the airport of Maleme. London announced withdrawal of the British air force from Crete, saying: "The distance from Crete to our airports in Egypt is such as to preclude any possibility of strong air support by the R.A.F. from our bases there." -The islands of Samothrace and Thasos, off the south coast of Greek Thrace, have been occupied by Bulgarian troops. May 23-French Vice-Premier Darlan, in broadcasting to his countrymen the results of his conversations with Hitler, said: The Chancellor did not ask me to hand over our fleet to him. Every one knows-and the English better than anyone-that I will never hand it over. The Chancellor did not ask me for any colonial territory. He did not ask me to declare war on England. Why has he acted so? Germany began the war alone

May 24-In a five-minute fight off the eastern coast of Greenland, the new 35,000-ton battleship Bismarck sank the 21-year-old 42,100-ton British battlecruiser, Hood, with a heavy shell which penetrated the hull and exploded in the magazine. The German version said the Bismarck was hit somewhere toward the bows by a shell from the Hood. The effect was to reduce the speed of the Bismarck. In the course of the same engagement the Bismarck is said to have been hit again by a torpedo from a British torpedo plane, which further diminished the warship's speed. There were other warships with the Hood. They were part of a convoy sent to search for German craft which had been sinking merchantmen. One of the Hood's convoy, the new battleship, Prince of Wales, was damaged in the fight and put in at Gibraltar May 27.

May 25-German forces claim control of the western part of Crete and are fighting their way eastward. Greek, Australian and New Zealand troops are opposing them on land. Italian warships are helping the Germans to land. -An Italian force of 5,000 colonial troops, 3.000 Banda (natives) and 570 Italians has surrendered in the mountain area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, after three days of fighting with British-led Sudanese and Ethiopian troops, the British announced. This Italian force had filed from Debra Markos early in April.

May 26-President Roosevelt ordered a second registration on July 1 under the Selective Service Act.

-The United States Navy took possession of the Floyd Bennett air field in Brooklyn.

-Rome announced that the main task of the Italian Navy in the operations against Crete was that of escorting convoys of small fishermen's boats having on board 50 to 60 German soldiers as well as weapons. These boats are sailing from unnamed islands of the Greek archipelago. -The German High Command said the Axis had sunk, in the Eastern Mediterranean, 11 cruisers, eight destroyers, one submarine and five speedboats.

May 27-A three-day pursuit of the crippled German battleship, Bismarck, ended at 11:01 a.m. 400 miles due west of Brest when, after a 1,750mile race for a harbor, she was sunk by torpedoes from the British cruiser, Dorsetshire. Included in the pursuing fleet were the battleships King George V, the Prince of Wales, the Rodney, and the Ramillies; the aircraft carriers Ark Royal and Victorious; the battle cruiser, Renown; the cruisers Suffolk, Norfolk, Sheffield and Dorsetshire; and several destroyers, including the Cossack, Zulu and Maori. All of them got a shot at the Bismarck at one time or another, it was said. At 6 p.m. on May 26, after the Bismarck had eluded her pursuers for two days she was struck by two other torpedoes from British planes, one of which broke her rudder and propellers. Thereafter the Germans report the vessel was incapable of maneuvering and was exposed to a fatal engagement with the stronger pursuing British fleet. At 11:42 p.m., May 26, the commander of the German units, who was aboard the Bismarck, Admiral Guenther Luetjens, reported by wireless to the Navy High Command as follows: "Ship unmaneuverable. We shall fight to the last shell. Long live the Fuehrer! Chief of the Fleet." The officers and crew, about 2,400 in all, went down with the ship, except_100. -Commons was informed that two British cruisers and four destroyers had been sunk in Crete waters by German dive bombers. -President Roosevelt proclaimed "an unlimited national emergency." This supplemented "a

armistice. British forces thereupon entered the city and an armistice was signed. Bombs, later identified as of German make, were dropped upon the north side of Dublin, killing 27 persons, with 25 others missing, and 70 severely injured. Roosevelt appointed Secretary of the Interior Ickes to the newly created post of Petroleum Coordinator for Nationl Defense, with instructions to see to it that petroleum and its products were accommodated to the defense program. -The first cargo of U. S. food for Britain under the Lend-Lease Act reached an English port. It included 120,000 lbs. of cheese, 4,000,000 eggs, and 1,000 tons of flour.

limited national emergency" which he proclaimed on Sept. 8, 1939. He now gets control over labor, management and other elements in the organization of the national life and increases his authority to eliminate internal strife and to suppress subversive activities. Coincidentally he made a world-wide radio broadcast on the subject-President in the presence of a large gathering of diplomats and high officers of the government, at the White House. The next day, at his press conference, he said that the use of convoys was not contemplated in transporting aid to Britain, since he was satisfied that sea patrol methods were increasingly effective. Affirmation of the American doctrine of freedom of the seas, he said, did not necessarily conflict with the neutrality law, and he had no immediate intention of asking for repeal of the law. May 28-The German High Command announced capture of Canea, capital of the Island of Crete, with the Greek naval commander among the prisoners. German dive-bombers were reported to have sunk five British transports in Suda Bay and to have inflicted losses on British and Greek troops trying to board them. Parachute troops continued to drop upon the island. -President Roosevelt proclaimed extension to the Philippines of the export licensing control system. It was established within the United States last year. Licenses will be issued in the Philippines by the High Commissioner and the Philippine courts will have jurisdiction over violations of the law.

-Axis forces in North Africa have captured Hal-
faya Pass, in Egypt, southeast of Solum.
road eastward to Sidi Barrani, which was the
highwater mark of the Italian drive into Egypt
last year, runs through Halfaya Pass, between
the Mediterranean coast and an inland escarp-

-British air bombers pursuing a Libya-bound
Italian convoy attacked the important French
Tunisian port of Sfax, setting a French steamer
afire and hitting two Italian vessels.
May 29 The German High Command announced
capture of Candia (the second largest city on
Crete); and Suda Bay, main base of British
naval operations. Italian forces, the communi-
que said, had landed by water in the eastern part
of Crete. The British Admiralty announced loss
of the cruiser York, to German dive bombers in
Suda Bay. The York, previously damaged, had
been lying in the bay for repairs.
-Congress authorized the President to commandeer
foreign ships lying idle in this country.
--Germany announced officially that Max Schmel-
ing, former world's heavyweight boxing cham-
pion, was alive but confined to a hospital with
a tropical disease picked up while fighting as a
Nazi parachute trooper in Crete. The British
had stated he was shot to death escaping from
guards in charge of captured Germans.
-Foreign Secretary Eden said Britain's war aims
included measures to prevent Germany from
again breaking the peace; and social security and
free trade throughout the world-the latter an
aim that could be realized only through Anglo-
American cooperation. The British, he said, are
not fighting for the restoration of the old order,
which, he described, as "the chaos of the old
world," but for the creation of a new interna-
tional society based on "free economic coopera-

May 30-The German High Command announced
that a union with parachute troops at Rethymno
(Crete) was completed; they "conquered the city
and airport of Herakleion (Candia)"; the Greek
commander there offered capitulation; "Italian
troops who landed in the afternoon of May 28,
in the eastern part of Crete have been swiftly
advancing toward the west. The remainder of
scattered British, pursued by our troops, is flee-
ing toward the south coast to escape further
fighting through embarkation by night." Ger-
man planes bombed the evacuating British sol-
diers and Italian torpedo craft attacked the troop

-An Italian naval communique said Italian planes had blown up a British destroyer and had rescued 229 of the crew, including 26 seriously wounded. The communique also reported loss of the liner, Conte Rosso, sunk by a British torpedo south of Syracuse, Sicily, while carrying troops in a convoy apparently bound for Libya. -Maritime agencies reported the torpedoing by German war craft of a British freighter close to the equator in the South Atlantic and four ships 400 miles east of Greenland in a convoy of American supplies for England.

May 31-Flight of the pro-German premier, Rashid


June 1-The German High Command said: "The
mopping up of remaining British and Greek
troops in the southern part of the island of Crete
is progressing. Contact with Italian troops driv-
ing forward from the east was established yester-
day near Ierapetra. Up to the present about
10,000 British and Greeks have been taken pris-
oner. South of Crete German fighting planes
attacked light British sea forces, damaged one
destroyer seriously with bomb hits and shot
down four fighter planes of the Hurricane type
without loss to themselves."
-The British communique said: "After 12 days of
what has undoubtedly been the fiercest fighting
in this war it was decided to withdraw our forces
from Crete. Although the losses we inflicted on
the enemy's troops and aircraft have been enor-
mous, it became clear that our naval and military
forces could not be expected to operate indefinite-
ly in and near Crete without more air support
than could be provided from our bases in Africa.
Some 15,000 of our troops have been withdrawn
to Egypt, but it must be admitted that our losses
have been severe."
-At Sfax in Tunisia the Italian ship previously
attacked on May 30 was again bombed and ma-
chine-gunned by the British; three direct hits on
the vessel were followed by clouds of black smoke,
London stated.

-London had an air raid warning, the first since
May 10. British planes raided Berlin; German
planes attacked Manchester, causing damage to
industry and casualties.

June 2-The German communique said: "The bat-
tle for Crete is ended. The entire island is free
of the enemy. German troops yesterday occupied
the last stronghold of the defeated British, the
harbor of Sphakion. Mountain troops broke the
last British resistance in the mountain country
north of Sphakion and brought in 3,000 more
prisoners." London asserted that the British
Navy destroyed 20,000 Nazi sea-borne troops off
the northern coast of Crete before the Mediter-
ranean Fleet received the task of removing Allied
troops from the southern side of the island.
These German losses were in addition to the
'thousands of parachutists reported killed in the
13 days of land fighting. London asserts that
80 per cent of British forces had been safely

-Chancellor Hitler and Premier Mussolini, with
their staffs, met at the Brenner Pass, each in his
special armored train, and conferred (in Musso-
lini's car) "on the political situation.'
-The U. S. Navy took formal possesison of Floyd
Bennett Field, Brooklyn.

-President Roosevelt signed, in Hyde Park, two
defense measures, one imposing mandatory pri-
orities of wartime scope on industry; the other
permits Canadian ships to carry ore between
American Great Lakes ports during the 1941
transportation season and is intended to assure
supply of steel. Heretofore, the government could
give mandatory priorities only to contracts placed
by the Army or Navy. Now the government also
has authority to establish the order in which
materials and machines are to be delivered for all
planes, tanks, ships and other war equipment
being produced under the Lend-Lease Act for
Britain and other countries resisting the Axis.
June 3-Acting Prime Minister Walter Nash an-
nounced in Wellington that 2,800 New Zealand
troops are "unaccounted for" after the evacua-
tion of British Imperial troops from Crete.
added that 768 wounded New Zealand troops had
been removed to Egypt.


-The Rome communique said: "Operations on the Island of Crete have been finished. Our (Italian) prisoners on the island have been released. Our detachments are proceeding to mop up the zone assigned to them."

All from Iraq, with closing in aroung Bagdad-Nearly 10,000 Americans are serving in the Britby British, led to a request by the Mayor for an

ish fighting forces, R. H. Hutchinson, founder of

the American Eagle Club in London, told members of the English-Speaking Union in New York City. -By a vote of 2,430,000 to 19,000 the British Labour party decided at its annual convention that a compromise peace or peace by negotiation with Germany and Italy was impossible. The convention demanded an end to profiteering, unemployment and distress areas after the peace as well as during the war. Delegates voted 2,413,000 to 30,000 for a peace memorandum, moved by Hugh Dalton, Laborite Minister of Economic Warfare.

June 4-Egypt proclaimed Syria as "German-occupied territory" and broke off all trade and other relations with that French mandate. The order did not apply to adjoining French Lebanon. The step was taken soon after the Egyptian Cabinet had resigned. -German planes bombed the British naval base, Alexandría, Egypt, from 9 to 10:30 P. M. The planes, it was said, came 510 miles from Crete. The attack was centered on the harbor, Berlin said. -British planes bombed the harbor installations at Beirut.

June 5-French aircraft bombed Amman, the capital of Trans-Jordan. French aircraft have been withdrawn from the Tadmur, Aleppo and Damascus airports, which have been occupied by the Germans. The French aircraft have been based at Rayak.

-The Germans and Italians are running an air shuttle service between Aleppo, Tadmur and other airports and the Italian air base at Rhodes. The British announced that they had bombed the Maritza airdrome on Rhodes, in the Italian Dodecanese Islands, where Axis planes were concentrated.

-Martin Bormann, who succeeded Rudolph Hess as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery on May 10, is to have the powers of a Reich Minister and be a member of the government as well as of the Ministerial Council of National Defense. -The British naval base at Gibraltar was attacked by Italian planes, which had come from Sardinia, 800 miles to the east.

June 6-The President signed the ship seizure bill, by which the government can buy or lease, not later than June 30, 1942, "any foreign merchant vessel which is lying idle in waters within the jurisdiction of the United States, including the Philippine Islands and the Canal Zone, and which is necessary to the national defense." The Maritime Commission is authorized to take over such vessels at such times as it chooses. There are more than 80 craft available, including the French liner, Normandie.

June 7-The new 35,000-ton battleship, South Dakota, was launched in Camden, N. J., and on the same ways work was begun at once on the 10,000-ton cruiser, Santa Fe.

-Italy fixed, by decree, the boundaries of the new Croatia, which will extend from the junction of the Sava River with the Danube, near Belgrade, northward to the junction of the Drina and Sava rivers, thence south to a junction with the Hrasnica River, east of the village of Zaemljice. From there it runs east of the Drina, following the old lines that existed until 1918. The city of Zemun, on the south side of the Danube, about five miles west of Belgrade, is to be occupied by German troops until the end of the war, but the rest of the territory will be occupied immediately by units of the Croat Army and Ustashi party detachments.

-An Italian oil tanker riding in ballast toward the Black Sea was torpedoed at the entrance to the Dardanelles, and a German bomber was grounded at Emras in Turkey.

afternoon. A petroleum reservoir was fired. Landing parties from British warships were captured, Vichy said. French airfields at Damascus, Aleppo and Rayak were raided. -Another bombing attack on Alexandria by Axis planes, which killed many persons, was followed by flights from the city which crowded the roads for miles.

June 9-Backed by an Executive Order from President Roosevelt based on his proclamation of an unlimited national emergency, the Army seized the warplane factory of the North American Aviation Co., at Ingleside, in Los Angeles, Calif., where an unauthorized five-day strike had tied up production in the midst of negotiations before the National Defense Mediation Board. Lieut. Col. Charles E. Branshaw took charge of the plant with 3,000 troops of the 15th Infantry. More than 30 persons were injured in disorders, 11 severely, and 16 strikers were taken to Fort MacArthur under military arrest as troops banned all picketing after clashes between pickets and workers, and served notice they were in complete charge of the plant. Normally the plant employs 12,000 on three shifts. The soldiers, supported by armored cars, drove strikers and pickets at bayonet point a mile from the factory. -A strike began in the Cleveland, O., plant of the Aluminum Company of America. On June 11 the strikers voted to accept a formula proposed by the National Defense Mediation Board, clearing the way for resumption of work on $60,000,000 in orders for aluminum castings and parts vital to the engines of warplanes. June 10-Premier Mussolini in an address to the Chamber of Fasces and Corporations said that by agreement with the German Command almost all of Greece, including Athens, would be occupied by Italian troops. -Prime Minister Churchill, defending the Crete campaign, estimated the Empire losses in killed, wounded, missing and captures were about 15,000 men; 17,000 were evacuated. The Germans were estimated to have lost 5,000 men drowned while trying a sea-borne invasion and at least 12,000 killed or captured on the ground.

June 11-Berlin announced that in the first four months of 1941 Allied ship sinkings had amounted to 2,235,000 tons and that an additional 1,200,000 tons had been damaged. British reports said losses for May were only 350,000 tons and indicated U-boat operations were veering nearer to American shores. Berlin also reported that the first German units-an air corps-were sent to Africa in the beginning of January under the command of General Hans Geisler. From the middle of February land forces were sent to Libya in convoys and were formed into the German African Corps under General Erwin Rommel. On March 24 the German Africa Corps began the attack and in two months, the report declares, covered 1,125 miles in their advance.

June 12-At President Roosevelt's request, the executive council of the International Association of Machinists, A. F. of L., called off the strike at shipyards in the San Francisco Bay Area which has held up the $500,000,000 defense shipbuilding program for weeks.

-The German High Command reported that German casualties in the Balkans and Crete were 2,559 officers and men killed, 3,169 missing and 5,820 wounded. Prisoners taken by German forces in Yugoslavia and Greece-6,298 Serbian officers and 337,864 men; 324 British officers and 10,900 men, and 8,000 Greek officers and 210,000 men. June 13-British planes bombed the Ruhr for the second successive day. London also said that a British plane had dropped a half-ton torpedo on a German pocket battleship-the Luetzow or the Admiral Scheer-off Egersund, Norway. Italian forces evacuated the port of Assab, in


June 8-A British Middle East communique said: "Early this morning Allied forces under the Command of Gen. Wilson crossed the frontier-German planes, London said, dive-bombed and into Syria with the object of eliminating German personnel and influence from certain areas in which they are securing a dominating position through continued infiltration. If allowed to proceed unchecked, the establishment of German bases in these areas might endanger the security of the Allied situation in the Middle East and lead to the Arab countries being seized by the Axis powers. It is hoped to secure both French and Arab co-operation in this task." --Sir Miles Lampson, British Ambassador to Egypt, and Gen. G. C. Catroux, on behalf of General Charles de Gaulle, head of the "Free France" forces, jointly declared French-mandated Syria and Lebanon free and independent. Petain by radio appealed to Syria and Lebanon to stand by him.


- British planes bombed the airport of Mezze, near Damascus. Beirut was bombed twice in the

sank the St. George's Channel steamer, St. Patrick on the way from Rosslaro, Ireland, to Fishguard, Wales, with a loss of 23 lives. June 14-President Roosevelt, by an Executive Order, froze all Axis money and other funded assets in the United States. Although Japan, under the tri-partite pact, is an Axis partner, it was not included in the order, which specified Albania, Andorra, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Liechtenstein, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Under previous Executive Orders, freezing control had been extended to the assets of Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxenburg, France, Latvia, Estonia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Greece. Italy next day froze "all property belonging to the United States in Italy.'

-A British Admiralty communique said: "The
operation of rounding up enemy supply ships
which put to sea in order to be available for the
Bismarck and Prinz Eugen continued success-
fully. Another German supply ship has been
intercepted and sunk. Thus, six enemy supply
ships and one armed trawler have been inter-
cepted by our ships during these recent opera-

June 15-In Venice, in formal ceremonies under the
auspices of the Italian Foreign Office, the new
State of Croatia signed the Axis pact.
-In Syria, British and Free French forces got
within five miles of Damascus, having occupied
Jezzine, and Sidon (Saida).

Congress gave the President authority to regulate or prohibit the movement into or out of the country of both citizens and aliens. June 21-Germany declared war against Soviet Russia. The proclamation, by Chancellor Hitler, was radioed to the people of the Reich and the rest of the world at 5:30 A. M. June 22 (Berlin time) by Propaganda Minister Goebbels. Declaring that "we" (the Germans) "are neither Englishmen nor Jews," the Chancellor said: "the task is to safeguard Europe and thus save all. I have therefore today decided to give the fate of the German people and the Reich and of Europe again into the hands of our soldiers." -The actual declaration of war was issued almost simultaneously by the German Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop. It had been communicated to the Ambassador of the Soviet Union at Berlin, who was thereby told that "in view of the threatening of the German frontiers by the armies of Russia, Germany has taken military measures of defense."

the troops of Finland and Rumania.

Moscow, a little while after the war declaration, announced that Russia and Britain were now "in full accord."

Constant duplicity, seizure of Lithuania, Estonia and Bukowina, border attacks on Germany and a secret British alliance were cited as among the Soviet's war provocations.

French troops evacuated Damascus which was occupied by British forces.

-In San Francisco, A. F. of L. strikers voted, 585 to 400, against ending the five-week tieup in 11 shipyards pending negotiations. C. I. O. striking machinists in the shipyards voted, 359 to 56, to stay out. In Camden, N. J., by a vote of 64 to 2, union representatives of 50,000 workers in East Coast shipyards endorsed the two-year no-strike agreement proposed by the Office of Production-Marching with the forces of Germany are also Management. June 16-The Department of State, by direction of President Roosevelt, directed Germany, through Hans Thomsen, the Charge d'Affaires ad interim, to close by July 10 all consular offices in the United States; also the German Library of Information in New York City, the German Railway and Tourist Agencies, and the Transocean News Service. All German Nationals connected with these places are to be removed from U. S. territory by the date named. The action was taken, the note stated, because "it has come to the knowledge of this government that agencies of the German Reich in this country, including German consular establishments, have been engaged in activities wholly outside the scope of their legitimate duties. These activities have been of an improper and unwarranted character. They render the continued presence in the United States of these agencies and consular establishments inimical to the welfare of this country." June 17-A Washington decree was issued closing United States borders to an estimated 330,000 German nationals "pending further instructions." It was issued jointly by the Treasury Department and the Department of Justice, and warned against taking out of the country gold or silver coin or bullion or any currency and announced also that the "freezing" order applied to any and all kinds of property. Border patrols and customs officers were instructed to be on watch.

-The Italian Government "froze" United States credits in Italy. The decree ordered all Italian individuals and firms to report American credits in 20 days and provided that Americans living in Italy could obtain funds from blocked bank accounts "in case of proven necessity" It was estimated that American credits in Italy were $145,000,000.

June 18-Germany and Turkey signed in Ankara
a 10-year treaty in which they "bind themselves
mutually to respect the integrity and inviola-
bility of their territories and will take no measure
that is aimed directly or indirectly against the
other contracting party." They further "bind
themselves in the future to communicate with
each other in friendly manner on all questions
affecting their common interests in order to bring
about understanding on the treatment of such
questions." It was mutually agreed, in a supple-
mentary note, to negotiate for economic rela-

June 19 Germany and Italy notified the United
States Government to close by July 15 all the
latter's consulates and recall the employees in
those countries and the lands occupied by Axis
troops. The German note included the Ameri-
can Express Company offices.
-An Executive Order was issued at the White
House suspending the 8-hour day for laborers on
cantonments, airfields, fortifications and other
defense construction in the Panama Canal Zone,
Alaska and Puerto Rico.

June 20-In a special message to Congress directing
its attention to the "ruthless" sinking of the
American ship, Robin Moor, May 21, in the
South Atlantic, President Roosevelt declared that
"the government of the German Reich may be
assured that the United States will neither be
intimidated nor will it acquiesce in the plans
for world domination which the present leaders
of Germany may have."
-An Executive Order forbade exports of petroleum
products from Atlantic Coast ports to any coun-
tries except the British Empire, Egypt, and those
in the Western Hemisphere, including Iceland
and Greenland.

-The United States told Italy to close its con-
sulates in this country by July 15.
June 22-An official Rome announcement said:
"The Italian government has informed the Soviet
Ambassador that from 5:30 A. M. of June 22 Italy
considers herself in a state of war against the
Union of Russian Soviet States."
-Turkey proclaimed its neutrality. It has non-
aggression pacts with Germany and Russia.
-Slovakia severed relations with Russia.
-The only Berlin communique said: "Since the
early morning hours hostilities have been taking
place along the Soviet-Russian frontier. An at-
tempt of the enemy to fly into East Prussia was
repulsed with heavy losses. German pursuit
pilots shot down many Red battle planes."
-In Finland, Soviet planes bombed coastal defense
works at Alskar, and dropped bombs on Finnish
ships at the Turku Archipelago (Aabo) in the
Gulf of Bothnia. German planes raided Sebas-
topol, Kiev, Zhitomir, Kaunas, Odessa and
-Russia proclaimed martial law in border areas
from the Arctic to the Black Sea, including the
newly Sovietized Baltic States and the Leningrad
area. The government announced it had called
up army classes from 1905 to 1918 inclusive. Rules
for chemical and air raid defense were broadcast
and a complete blackout was ordered for the
capital and Moscow Province.

June 23-German troops invading Russia occupied
Kolno, Lomza and the citadel of Brest-Litovsk
on the Bug River. Their soldiers were using
flame-throwers, Berlin said. Russian planes
raided places in East Prussia and Russian forces
attempting to seize Koenigsberg were repulsed.
Insterburz and Tilsit were machine-gunned. The
German Air Force began the invasion of Russia
by bombing airfields, hangars, barracks and
bridges along the west shoreline of retreat, and
railway junctions and stations, troop and motor-
ized columns advancing toward the front and
artillery positions. These air raids continue. Ger-
man-Rumanian forces entered Bessarabia. In
the Baltic and Black Seas warfare was active.
The campaign in the east is being directed by
four German Field Marshals, Siegmund Wilhelm
List, Fedor von Bock, Walther von Reichenau
and Gerd von Rundstedt.

-The United States banned departure of Italian
Nationals from this country.

-Hungary broke off diplomatic relations with the
Soviet Union it was officially announced.
-Arrival of Capt. James Roosevelt in Washington
ended his military observation tour around the
world for his father, the President.

-In Madrid, a crowd smashed windows of the
British Embassy. There were Falangist parades
in Barcelona and other Spanish cities.
June 24-President Roosevelt announced the United
States would give all the aid it possibly can to
Russia. The Treasury Department issued a gen-
eral license releasing $39,000,000 of Russian assets
which had been frozen on June 14 under an
executive order. This sum includes cash, securi-
ties, real property and other negotiable instru-
ments, belonging to Russia and its nationals. In
London, Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden told
the House of Commons that the Soviet Union

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