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Channel and elsewhere in northern Europe. In a plane raid on Hamburg 95 persons were killed. In the British air attack on Manheim there were many casualties.
-King Victor Emmanuel of Italy made his first
May 11-Herbert Hoover in a radio broadcast from
-British fliers kept pounding at Benghazi in
-After a consultation with Secretary Hull, President Roosevelt issued a statement saying that the French people still cherished "the ideals of liberty and free institutions," and that he could not believe they would willingly accept any agreement for "so-called 'collaboration" that would imply alliance with a military power dedicated to "the utter destruction of liberty, freedom and popular institutions everywhere." The "collaboration" plan, he declared, apparently would "deliver up France and its colonial empire, including French African colonies and their Atlantic coast." This government, the statement continued, had recognized the French-German armistice, had received assurances from Marshal Petain that Vichy did not intend to agree to any collaboration with Germany that went beyond the requirements of the armistice agreement. Following these developments, the Coast Guard, by order of the Treasury Department, put guards on the Normandie and other French ships in New York and in other United States ports. -Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden declared in Commons that the French had broken all their pledges by allowing German planes to use Syrian airports as way stations to Iraq, and consequently these bases might be attacked at any moment by the British.
-Commons was officially informed that there were 437,000 British and Imperial troops in France when the Germans began their invasion of the Low Countries. Of them 384,000 were removed safely to England. Of the remainder, 40,000 were taken prisoner, with 13,000 presumable casualties; 23,800 men took part in the Norwegian expedition, of whom 22,600 returned to England. The Germans took 950 prisoners.
May 16-After a respite of several days, German planes resumed raids on London. They also ranged over the Midlands, and the south coast. British air attacks were made on Hanover, Hamburg, Calais, Boulogne and other (French) coast towns. The London raids were not severe, and it was noted that many German planes avoided that city, merely flying across to places beyond. -The Petain government, in answer to the Roosevelt radio condemnation of its collaboration with Hitler, said, in an official statement: "In May, 1940, when France was left in the lurch by Britain, America did not see fit to answer her appeal. Today France, anxious to preserve her position as a great power as well as the integrity of her territory and her empire, has certainly the right to envisage with her victory the conditions of a common reorganization of Continental Europe. This in no way means that she has the intention of attacking Britain, much less the United States."
aircraft at airdromes in the French-mandated areas in Syria. Britain announced in London that Syria was "enemy-occupied territory." -British forces reoccupied Solum, Egypt. -France began to withdraw licenses from Jewish doctors and druggists.
May 13-The German Government put the northern part of the Red Sea in the combat zone. The official notice said: "As a result of the development of war in the eastern Mediterranean, war actions of German armed forces may also be expected in the Red Sea in the future. Every ship which travels these waters, which have become an operations area, exposes itself to destruction-British planes attacked German troop-carrying by mines or other weapons of war. The German government therefore urgently warns against travel in the endangered area, which is bounded as follows: the northern part of the Red Sea, including the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba; (south) to the Tropic of Cancer. The waters of Saudi Arabia are excluded. Regulation for travel in the designated operations area by specially marked pilgrim ships has been reserved." President Roosevelt had recently proclaimed the Red Sea open to American shipping. -Deprived of their regular abode by German air raids, members of the House of Commons, London, met in a new abode. The Prime Minister told them that the old house had been damaged beyond repair for a very long time to come. dispatch boxes from which Gladstone Disraeli railed at each other were missing but they were replaced by modern counterparts. Also missing were old volumes of parliamentary procedure.
-The exiled Mufti of Jerusalem called on all Islam
-In Zagreb, restoration of a monarchy in Croatia
-Russia and Iraq signed an agreement for the
-The Iceland Parliament resolved to revoke the
The British War Office has arranged to melt
Germans and Italians retook Solum also Capuzzo on the Libyan side of the Egyptian border. -Vichy denies that the French have taken military action against the British for attacks on Syrian airdromes. The German plane landings there are covered by armistice clauses, it is asserted. -Dispatches from Canada to Washington government officials state that recent experiences have shown that the U-boats are hunting in threes and fours, and, when a convoy is sighted, they take position round it during the night and stay alongside until dawn, or, sometimes, even until the next evening, when they close in and deliver their attack.
May 18-In the throne room of the Quirinal Palace, Rome, with rain pouring down outside, Ante Pavelich, Croat Peglavnik (Premier), asked King Victor Emmanuel to appoint a King of Croatia. Thereupon that Monarch said: "We
and judges herself able to end it alone against no matter what coalition. At no moment in the conversations was there any question of France abandoning in any way her sovereignty.' He added: Not having known how to prepare for war, either morally or materially, our governments nevertheless declared it. We lost it because of the mistakes and weakness of those who led us into it."
-Charles A. Lindbergh and Senator Burton K. Wheeler, of Montana, of the America First Committee spoke to 22,000 persons in Madison Square Garden, New York City, and to 12,000 outside by loud-speakers. They urged against America entering a foreign war and said the President should plead for peace-a just peace.
designate our beloved nephew, His Royal Highness, Aimone of Savoy-Aosta, Duke of Spoleto, to assume the Crown of the Kingdom of Croatia. May 19-In Ethiopia, 7,000 Italian troops under the Duke of Aosta at the northern mountain fortress of Amba Alaji laid down their arms and surrendered to the British. Under the terms of the capitulation, they have one full day to collect their wounded before formally hoisting the white flag. The Duke surrendered the next day. May 20-German troops-11,500 or more-in gliding planes drawn by transport planes, landed by means of parachutes on the Greek Island of Crete. They had come from German-occupied ports in southern Greece and they dropped down in the Canea-Maleme area. German air bombing at Suda Bay and the various airports-Congress passed a bill giying the government in the Canea-Maleme area preceded the invasion. The parachutists came down for four hours. beginning around 8 a.m. King George had-German submarines reported sinking a convoy of left Canea the night before, joining Premier Tsouderos at Perivolia. Thence the royal party made its way, part of the distance on mules, to the coast, arriving at Cairo, Egypt, May 25, on a British cruiser. -The German government announced that the Egyptian steamship Zamzam, which left Jersey City March 20 for Alexandria and was due at Capetown April 23, had been sunk in the South Atlantic by a German warship, but all the passengers, including 140 Americans, had been landed at St. Jean-de-Luz, France, safe and sound. The cargo, Berlin said, contained contraband.
-President Roosevelt set up, with Mayor F. H.
-Giuseppe Bastianini, 42, ex-Italian Ambassador
-Germany notified the United States and other
-On the island of Crete, German parachute troops
power to impose priorities on American industry in the interests of national defense.
nine merchant ships and three oil tankers off the
May 24-In a five-minute fight off the eastern
May 25-German forces claim control of the west-
May 26-President Roosevelt ordered a second
The United States Navy took possession of the
May 27-A three-day pursuit of the crippled Ger-
armistice. British forces thereupon entered the city and an armistice was signed. -Bombs, later identified as of German make, were dropped upon the north side of Dublin, killing 27 persons, with 25 others missing, and 70 severely injured. Roosevelt appointed Secretary of the Interior Ickes to the newly created post of Petroleum Coordinator for Nationl Defense, with instructions to see to it that petroleum and its products were accommodated to the defense program. -The first cargo of U. S. food for Britain under the Lend-Lease Act reached an English port. It included 120,000 lbs. of cheese, 4,000,000 eggs, and 1,000 tons of flour.
limited national emergency" which he proclaimed on Sept. 8, 1939. He now gets control over labor, management and other elements in the organization of the national life and increases his authority to eliminate internal strife and to suppress subversive activities. Coincidentally he made a world-wide radio broadcast on the subject-President in the presence of a large gathering of diplomats and high officers of the government, at the White House. The next day, at his press conference, he said that the use of convoys was not contemplated in transporting aid to Britain, since he was satisfied that sea patrol methods Affirmation of the were increasingly effective. American doctrine of freedom of the seas, he conflict with the said, did not necessarily neutrality law, and he had no immediate intention of asking for repeal of the law. May 28-The German High Command announced capture of Canea, capital of the Island of Crete, with the Greek naval commander among the prisoners. German dive-bombers were reported to have sunk five British transports in Suda Bay and to have inflicted losses on British and Greek Parachute troops troops trying to board them. continued to drop upon the island. -President Roosevelt proclaimed extension to the Philippines of the export licensing control system. It was established within the United States last year. Licenses will be issued in the Philippines by the High Commissioner and the Philippine courts will have jurisdiction over violations of the law.
-Axis forces in North Africa have captured Hal-
-British air bombers pursuing a Libya-bound
--An Italian naval communique said Italian planes
had blown up a British destroyer and had rescued 229 of the crew, including 26 seriously wounded. The communique also reported loss of the liner, Conte Rosso, sunk by a British torpedo south of Syracuse, Sicily, while carrying troops in a convoy apparently bound for Libya. -Maritime agencies reported the torpedoing by German war craft of a British freighter close to the equator in the South Atlantic and four ships 400 miles east of Greenland in a convoy of American supplies for England. May 31-Flight of the pro-German premier, Rashid All from Iraq, with closing in aroung Bagdad by British, led to a request by the Mayor for an
June 1-The German High Command said: "The
-The British communique said: "After 12 days of
-London had an air raid warning, the first since
June 2-The German communique said: "The battle for Crete is ended. The entire island is free of the enemy. German troops yesterday occupied the last stronghold of the defeated British, the harbor of Sphakion. Mountain troops broke the last British resistance in the mountain country north of Sphakion and brought in 3,000 more prisoners." London asserted that the British Navy destroyed 20,000 Nazi sea-borne troops off the northern coast of Crete before the Mediterranean Fleet received the task of removing Allied troops from the southern side of the island. These German losses were in addition to the 'thousands of parachutists reported killed in the 13 days of land fighting. London asserts that 80 per cent of British forces had been safely evacuated.
-Chancellor Hitler and Premier Mussolini, with
-The U. S. Navy took formal possesison of Floyd
-President Roosevelt signed, in Hyde Park, two
-The Rome communique said: "Operations on the Island of Crete have been finished. Our (Italian) prisoners on the island have been released. Our detachments are proceeding to mop up the zone assigned to them."
-Nearly 10,000 Americans are serving in the British fighting forces, R. H. Hutchinson, founder of
the American Eagle Club in London, told members of the English-Speaking Union in New York City. -By a vote of 2,430,000 to 19,000 the British Labour party decided at its annual convention that a compromise peace or peace by negotiation with Germany and Italy was impossible. The convention demanded an end to profiteering, unemployment and distress areas after the peace as well as during the war. Delegates voted 2,413,000 to 30,000 for a peace memorandum, moved by Hugh Dalton, Laborite Minister of Economic Warfare.
June 4-Egypt proclaimed Syria as "German-occupied territory" and broke off all trade and other relations with that French mandate. The order did not apply to adjoining French Lebanon. The step was taken soon after the Egyptian Cabinet had resigned. -German planes bombed the British naval base, Alexandria, Egypt, from 9 to 10:30 P. M. The planes, it was said, came 510 miles from Crete. The attack was centered on the harbor, Berlin said. -British planes bombed the harbor installations at Beirut.
June 5-French aircraft bombed Amman, the capital of Trans-Jordan. French aircraft have been withdrawn from the Tadmur, Aleppo and Damascus airports, which have been occupied by the Germans. The French aircraft have been based at Rayak.
-The Germans and Italians are running an air shuttle service between Aleppo, Tadmur and other airports and the Italian air base at Rhodes. The British announced that they had bombed the Maritza airdrome on Rhodes, in the Italian Dodecanese Islands, where Axis planes were concentrated.
-Martin Bormann, who succeeded Rudolph Hess as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery on May 10, is to have the powers of a Reich Minister and be a member of the government as well as of the Ministerial Council of National Defense. -The British naval base at Gibraltar was attacked by Italian planes, which had come from Sardinia, 800 miles to the east.
June 6-The President signed the ship seizure bill. by which the government can buy or lease, not later than June 30, 1942, "any foreign merchant vessel which is lying idle in waters within the jurisdiction of the United States, including the Philippine Islands and the Canal Zone, and which is necessary to the national defense." The Maritime Commission is authorized to take over such vessels at such times as it chooses. There are more than 80 craft available, including the French liner, Normandie.
June 7-The new 35,000-ton battleship, South Dakota, was launched in Camden, N. J., and on the same ways work was begun at once on the 10,000-ton cruiser, Santa Fe.
-Italy fixed, by decree, the boundaries of the new Croatia, which will extend from the junction of the Sava River with the Danube, near Belgrade, northward to the junction of the Drina and Sava rivers, thence south to a junction with the Hrasnica River, east of the village of Zaemljice. From there it runs east of the Drina, following the old lines that existed until 1918. The city of Zemun, on the south side of the Danube, about five miles west of Belgrade, is to be occupied by German troops until the end of the war, but the rest of the territory will be occupied immediately by units of the Croat Army and Ustashi party detachments.
-An Italian oil tanker riding in ballast toward the Black Sea was torpedoed at the entrance to the Dardanelles, and a German bomber was grounded at Emras in Turkey.
afternoon. A petroleum reservoir was fired. Landing parties from British warships were captured, Vichy said. French airfields at Damascus, Aleppo and Rayak were raided. -Another bombing attack on Alexandria by Axis planes, which killed many persons, was followed by flights from the city which crowded the roads for miles.
June 9-Backed by an Executive Order from President Roosevelt based on his proclamation of an unlimited national emergency, the Army seized the warplane factory of the North American Aviation Co., at Ingleside, in Los Angeles, Calif. where an unauthorized five-day strike had tied up production in the midst of negotiations before the National Defense Mediation Board. Lieut. Col. Charles E. Branshaw took charge of the plant with 3,000 troops of the 15th Infantry. More than 30 persons were injured in disorders, 11 severely, and 16 strikers were taken to Fort MacArthur under military arrest as troops banned all picketing after clashes between pickets and workers, and served notice they were in complete charge of the plant. Normally the plant employs 12,000 on three shifts. The soldiers, supported by armored cars, drove strikers and pickets at bayonet point a mile from the factory. -A strike began in the Cleveland, O., plant of the Aluminum Company of America. On June 11 the strikers voted to accept a formula proposed by the National Defense Mediation Board, clearing the way for resumption of work on $60,000,000 in orders for aluminum castings and parts vital to the engines of warplanes. June 10-Premier Mussolini in an address to the Chamber of Fasces and Corporations said that by agreement with the German Command almost all of Greece, including Athens, would be occupied by Italian troops.
-Prime Minister Churchill, defending the Crete campaign, estimated the Empire losses in killed, wounded, missing and captures were about 15,000 men; 17,000 were evacuated. The Germans were estimated to have lost 5,000 men drowned while trying a sea-borne invasion and at least 12,000 killed or captured on the ground.
June 11-Berlin announced that in the first four months of 1941 Allied ship sinkings had amounted to 2,235,000 tons and that an additional 1,200,000 tons had been damaged. British reports said losses for May were only 350,000 tons and indicated U-boat operations were veering nearer to American shores. Berlin also reported that the first German units-an air corps-were sent to Africa in the beginning of January under the command of General Hans Geisler. From the middle of February land forces were sent to Libya in convoys and were formed into the German African Corps under General Erwin Rommel. On March 24 the German Africa Corps began the attack and in two months, the report declares, covered 1,125 miles in their advance.
June 12-At President Roosevelt's request, the executive council of the International Association of Machinists, A. F. of L., called off the strike at shipyards in the San Francisco Bay Area which has held up the $500,000,000 defense shipbuilding program for weeks.
-The German High Command reported that German casualties in the Balkans and Crete were 2,559 officers and men killed, 3,169 missing and 5,820 wounded. Prisoners taken by German forces in Yugoslavia and Greece 6,298 Serbian officers and 337,864 men; 324 British officers and 10,900 men, and 8,000 Greek officers and 210,000 men. June 13-British planes bombed the Ruhr for the second successive day. London also said that a British plane had dropped a half-ton torpedo on a German pocket battleship-the Luetzow or the Admiral Scheer-off Egersund, Norway. -Italian forces evacuated the port of Assab, in Eritrea.
June 8-A British Middle East communique said:
-British planes bombed the airport of Mezze, near
planes, London said, dive-bombed and sank the St. George's Channel steamer, St. Patrick on the way from Rosslaro, Ireland, to Fishguard, Wales, with a loss of 23 lives. June 14-President Roosevelt, by an Executive Order, froze all Axis money and other funded assets in the United States. Although Japan. under the tri-partite pact, is an Axis partner, it was not included in the order, which specified Albania, Andorra, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Liechtenstein, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Under previous Executive Orders, freezing control had been extended to the assets of Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxenburg, France, Latvia, Estonía, Rumania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Greece. Italy next day froze "all property belonging to the United States in Italy."
-A British Admiralty communique said: The
June 15-In Venice, in formal ceremonies under the
-In San Francisco, A. F. of L. strikers voted, 585
-Congress gave the President authority to regulate
-Marching with the forces of Germany are also
Moscow, a little while after the war declaration, announced that Russia and Britain were now "in full accord."
Constant duplicity, seizure of Lithuania, Estonia and Bukowina, border attacks on Germany and a secret British alliance were cited as among the Soviet's war provocations.
troops evacuated Damascus which was occupied by British forces. -The United States told Italy to close its consulates in this country by July 15.
June 22-An official Rome announcement said: "The Italian government has informed the Soviet Ambassador that from 5:30 A. M. of June 22 Italy considers herself in a state of war against the Union of Russian Soviet States."
June 16-The Department of State, by direction of President Roosevelt, directed Germany, through Hans Thomsen, the Charge d'Affaires ad interim, to close by July 10 all consular offices in the United States; also the German Library of Information in New York City, the German Railway and Tourist Agencies, and the Transocean News Service. All German Nationals connected-French with these places are to be removed from U. S. territory by the date named. The action was taken, the note stated, because it has come to the knowledge of this government that agencies of the German Reich in this country, including German consular establishments, have been engaged in activities wholly outside the scope of their legitimate duties. These activities have been of an improper and unwarranted character. They render the continued presence in the United States of these agencies and consular establish-Slovakia severed relations with Russia. ments inimical to the welfare of this country."-The only Berlin communique said: "Since the June 17-A Washington decree was issued closing United States borders to an estimated 330,000 German nationals "pending further instructions." It was issued jointly by the Treasury Department and the Department of Justice, and warned against taking out of the country gold or silver coin or bullion or any currency and announced also that the "freezing" order applied to any and all kinds of property. Border patrols and customs officers were instructed to be on watch.
-The Italian Government "froze" United States credits in Italy. The decree ordered all Italian individuals and firms to report American credits in 20 days and provided that Americans living in Italy could obtain funds from blocked bank accounts "in case of proven necessity" It was estimated that American credits in Italy were $145,000,000.
June 18-Germany and Turkey signed in Ankara
June 19 Germany and Italy notified the United
June 20-In a special message to Congress directing
-Turkey proclaimed its neutrality. It has nonaggression pacts with Germany and Russia.
early morning hours hostilities have been taking place along the Soviet-Russian frontier. An attempt of the enemy to fly into East Prussia was repulsed with heavy losses. German pursuit pilots shot down many Red battle planes.' -In Finland, Soviet planes bombed coastal defense works at Alskar, and dropped bombs on Finnish ships at the Turku Archipelago (Aabo) in the Gulf of Bothnia. German planes raided Sebastopol, Kiev, Zhitomir, Kaunas, Odessa and Minsk.
-Russia proclaimed martial law in border areas from the Arctic to the Black Sea, including the newly Sovietized Baltic States and the Leningrad area. The government announced it had called up army classes from 1905 to 1918 inclusive. Rules for chemical and air raid defense were broadcast and a complete blackout was ordered for the capital and Moscow Province.
June 23-German troops invading Russia occupied
-The United States banned departure of Italian
-Hungary broke off diplomatic relations with the
In Madrid, a crowd smashed windows of the British Embassy. There were Falangist parades in Barcelona and other Spanish cities. June 24-President Roosevelt announced the United States would give all the aid it possibly can to Russia. The Treasury Department issued a general license releasing $39,000,000 of Russian assets which had been frozen on June 14 under an executive order. This sum includes cash, securities, real property and other negotiable instruments, belonging to Russia and its nationals. In London, Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden told the House of Commons that the Soviet Union