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Channel and elsewhere in northern Europe. In --After a consultation with Secretary Hull, Presi& plane raid on Hamburg 95 persons were killed. dent Roosevelt issued a statement saying that In the British air attack on Manheim there were the French people still cherished "the ideals of many casualties.
liberty and free institutions," and that he could --King Victor Emmanuel of Italy made his first not believe they would willingly accept any
visit to Albania. He flew to Tirana, the capital. agreement for "so-called 'collaborations that --In Free France, Pierre Mendes-France, former would imply alliance with a military power dedi
Under-Secretary of State to Premier Leon Blum, cated to the utter destruction of liberty, freeSocialist leader who headed the Popular Front dom and popular institutions everywhere." The Cabinet, was sentenced to six years in prison, He "collaboration" plan, he declared, apparently was charged with desertion.
would deliver up France and its colonial empire, May 11-Herbert Hoover in a radio broadcast from including French African colonies and their New York City said: "We do not have 300,000
Atlantic coast." This government, the statement men who are sufficiently equipped with planes, continued, had recognized the French-German tanks and guns to meet 300,000 Germans, to say
armistice, had received assurances from Marshal nothing of victory over 5,000,000 of them. We Petain that Vichy did not intend to agree to any shall not even have 1,500,000 men so equipped collaboration with Germany that went beyond for probably another twelve months. We have the requirements of the armistice agreement. no substantial air force of the type now being -Following these developments, the Coast Guard, used in this war. It is true we have a magnifi- by order of the Treasury Department, put guards cent Navy, but even that is not yet big enough on the Normandie and other French ships in for the job it may have to undertake it we join New York and in other United States ports. this war." He urged Americans to keep on let- -Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden declared in ting Britain have every available American Commons that the French had broken all their weapon regardless of temporary unpreparedness pledges by allowing German planes to use Syrian at home, since in eight or ten months American airports as way stations to Iraq, and consequently industry will be capable of arming both Britain these bases might be attacked at any moment by and America to the teeth.
the British. May 12-Hamburg, Bremen, Emden, Rotterdam, -Commons was officially informed that there were
London, Pembroke and airports in southern and 437,000 British and Imperial troops in France central England were the objects of reprisal air when the Germans began their invasion of the raids by British and German planes. As to Low Countries. of them 384,000 were removed Hamburg and Bremen, the Berlin communique safely to England. 01 the remainder, 40,000 were said: "A heavy weight of high explosive and in- taken prisoner, with 13,000 presumable casualties; cendiary bombs was dropped on the shipbuilding 23,800 men took part in the Norwegian expedition, yards and the industrial areas in both cities. of whom 22,600 returned to England. The GerMany large fires were started and left burning. mans took 950 prisoners. The British attacks of May 9, 11 and 12 killed May 16 After a respite of several days, German 208 persons."
planes resumed raids on London. They also -- British fliers kept pounding at Benghazi in ranged over the Midlands, and the south coast. Western Libya. British land forces closing in British air attacks were made on Hanover, Hamon 38,000 Italians holding Amba Alaji fortress, burg, Calais, Boulogne and other (French) coast perched at an altitude of 9,000 feet in northern towns. The London raids were not severe, and Ethiopia, have occupied the nearby stronghold it was noted that many German planes avoided
of Gumsa, the Middle East Command announced. that city, merely flying across to places beyond. -The British gunboat, Ladybird, was sunk in -The Petain government, in answer to the Roose
Tobruk Harbor by a German dive bomber. She velt radio condemnation of its collaboration with had been shelled on Dec. 12, 1937, by a Japanese Hitler, said, in an official statement: "In May, plane in the Yangtze River, China.
1940, when France was left in the lurch by --German troops have occupied the Greek island of Britain, America did not see fit to answer her Melos.
appeal. Today France, anxious to preserve her May 13-The German Government put the northern position as a great power as well as the integrity
part of the Red Sea the combat zone. The of her territory and her empire, has certainly the official notice said: "As a result of the develop- right to envisage with her victory the conditions ment of war in the eastern Mediterranean, war of a common reorganization of Continental actions of German armed forces may also be ex- Europe. This in no way means that she has pected in the Red Sea in the future. Every ship the intention of attacking Britain, much less which travels these waters, which have become the United States." an operations area, exposes itself to destruction --British planes attacked German troop-carrying by mines or other weapons of war. The German aircraft at airdromes in the French-mandated government therefore urgently warns against areas in Syria. Britain announced in London travel in the endangered area, which is bounded that Syria was "enemy-occupied territory." as follows: the northern part of the Red Sea. -- British forces reoccupied Solum, Egypt. including the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of France began to withdraw licenses from Jewish Aqaba; (south) to the Tropic of cancer. The doctors and druggists. waters of Saudi Arabia are excluded. Regulation -Russia and Iraq signed an agreement for the for travel in the designated operations area by establishment of diplomatic, trade and consular specially marked pilgrim ships has been re- relations. served." President Roosevelt had recently pro- -The Iceland Parliament resolved to revoke the
claimed the Red Sea open to American shipping. union with Denmark, existing since 1918; each, -Deprived of their regular abode by German air under the pact is a free sovereign state.
raids, members of the House of Commons, Lon- May 17-An Iraq communique said that Iraq don, met in a new abode. The Prime Minister planes raided Amman, the capital of Trans-Jortold them that the old house had been damaged dan, and Iraq troops penetrated Trans-Jordan beyond repair for a very long time to come. The territory, attacking Camp Alshuaiba, inflicting dispatch boxes from which Gladstone and casualties on the British. Italian planes have Disraeli railed at each other were missing but arrived at Iraqi airdromes, after a 1,000 mile they were replaced by modern counterparts. Also flight from the Dodecanese Islands and a stop in missing were old volumes of parliamentary pro- Syria, German bombers hit at British positions in cedure.
Iraq. -The exiled Mufti of Jerusalem called on all Islam -The British War Office has arranged to melt to rise in arms against the British.
10,000 World War swords, with their scabbards, -Capt. James Roosevelt arrived, by air, on the into new munitions without delay.
Greek island of Crete and gave to King George -Germans and Italians retook Solum also Capuzzo a message from the President promising help. on the Libyan side of the Egyptian border. May 14-In Vichy, after a meeting of the French -Vichy denies that the French have taken military
Cabinet, at which Admiral and Vice Premier action against the British for attacks on Syrian Jean Darlan had told of his negotiations with airdromes. The German plane landings there Hitler, the Cabinet ratified Hitler's terms for are covered by armistice clauses, it is asserted.
collaboration between Germany and France. -Dispatches from Canada to Washington govern-Italian planes raided Alexandria; British airmen ment officials state that recent experiences have
bombed Helgoland; German planes central Eng- shown that the U-boats are hunting in threes land and along the east coast.
and fours, and, when a convoy is sighted, they -In Zagreb, restoration of a monarchy in Croatia take position round it during the night and stay was formally proclaimed by Italy.
alongside until dawn, or, sometimes, even until May 15-Marshal Petain told the French people the next evening, when they close in and deliver
that, if that country is to "surmount her defeat their attack. and preserve in the world her rank as a European May 18-In the throne room of the Quirinal and Colonial power," it must follow him, in the Palace, Rome, with rain pouring down outside, negotiations with Germany, "without mental Ante Pavelich. Croat Peglavnik (Premier), reservation along the path of honor and national asked King Victor Emmanuel to appoint a King interest."
of Croatia. Thereupon that Monarch said: “We
designate our beloved nephew, His Royal High- and judges herself able to end it alone against ness, Aimone of Savoy-Aosta, Duke of Spoleto, no matter what coalition. At no moment in the
to assume the Crown of the Kingdom of Croatia." conversations was there any question of France May 19 In Ethiopia, 7,000 Italian troops under the abandoning in any way her sovereignty." He Duke of Aosta at the northern mountain fortress added: "Not having known how to prepare for of Amba Alaji laid down their arms and sur- war, either morally or materially, our governrendered to the British. Under the terms of the ments nevertheless declared it. We lost it becapitulation, they have one full day to collect cause of the mistakes and weakness of those who their wounded before formally hoisting the white led us into it." flag. The Duke surrendered the next day. -Charles A. Lindbergh and Senator Burton K. May 20–German troops-11,500 or more--In gliding Wheeler, of Montana, of the America First Complanes drawn by transport planes, landed by mittee spoke to 22,000 persons in Madison Square means of parachutes on the Greek Island of Garden, New York City, and to 12,000 outside by Crete. They had come from German-occupied loud-speakers. They urged against America enports in outhern Greece and they
tering a foreign war and aid the President down in the Canea-Maleme area. German air should plead for peace-a just peace. bombing at Suda Bay and the various airports Congress passed & bill giying the government in the Canea-Maleme area preceded the invasion. power to impose priorities on American industry The parachutists came down for four hours, in the interests of national defense. beginning around 8 a.m. King George had -German submarines reported sinking a convoy of left Canea the night before, joining Premier nine merchant ships and three oil tankers off the Tsouderos at Perivolia. Thence the royal party coast of Greenland, on the “life-line" course of made its way, part of the distance on mules, to supplies bound, from Canada and the United the coast, arriving at Cairo, Egypt, May 25, on States, for Great Britain. a British cruiser.
May 24- In a five-minute fight off the eastern -The German government announced that the coast of Greenland, the new 35.000-ton battle
Egyptian steamship Zamzam, which left Jersey ship Bismarck sank the 21-year-old 42,100-ton City March 20 for Alexandria and was due at British battlecruiser, Hood, with a heavy shell Capetown April 23, had been sunk in the South which penetrated the hull and exploded in the Atlantic by a German warship, but all the pas- magazine. The German version said the Bismarck sengers, including 140 Americans, had been was hit somewhere toward the bows by a shell landed at St. Jean-de-Luz, France, safe and from the Hood. The effect was to reduce the sound. The cargo, Berlin said, contained con- speed of the Bismarck. In the course of the same traband.
engagement the Bismarck is said to have been hit --President Roosevelt set up, with Mayor F. H. again by a torpedo from a British torpedo plane,
LaGuardia of New York as its head, the Office which further diminished the warship's speed. of Civilian Defense to mobilize American There were other warships with the Hood. They civilians, women as well as men, for home were part of a convoy sent to search for German defense efforts, including the maintenance of craft which had been sinking merchantmen. One national morale, the organization of volunteer of the Hood's convoy, the new battleship, Prince fire fighting and anti-bomb squads, and the of Wales, was damaged in the fight and put in training of home guards to protect bridges, cul- at Gibraltar May 27. verts, waterworks and vital industries from May 25-German
forces claim control of the westsaboteurs and spies.
ern part of Crete and are fighting their way --Giuseppe Bastianini, 42, ex-Italian Ambassador eastward. Greek, Australian and New Zealand
to London, was appointed Governor of the new troops are opposing them on land. Italian warProvince of Dalmatia, with Zara, on the Adriatic, ships are helping the Germans to land.
as his capital. It was a port of Yugoslavia. -An Italian force of 5,000 colonial troops, 3,000 May 21-Germany continued the landing by air of Banda (natives) and 570 Italians has surrendered parachute troops on the island of Crete, at Suda in the mountain area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Bay at the western end of the island, at after three days of fighting with British-led Rethymno, 35 miles to the east, and at Candia, Sudanese and Ethiopian troops, the British an65 miles east of the bay. Their arrivals were nounced. This Italian force had fled from Debra protected by German bombing planes, some of Markos early in April. which attacked British war craft in the nearby May 26--President Roosevelt ordered & second Mediterranean and reported, later, having dam registration on July 1 under the Selective Service
aged a battleship, five cruisers and a destroyer. Act. --The American freight steamship, Robin Moor, -The United States Navy took possession of the
from New York bound for Capetown, was sunk Floyd Bennett air field in Brooklyn. by a submarine in the South Atlantic, about half -Rome announced that the main task of the way between Dakar, French West Africa, and Italian Navy in the operations against Crete was Nerteel, Brazil. On June 11, the Brazilian that of escorting convoys of small fishermen's freighter, Osorio, landed 46 survivors, including boats having on board 50 to 60 German soldiers 8 passengers, at Pernambuco. Other (35 )sur- as well as weapons. These boats are sailing from vivors landed at Capetown, So. Africa, June 16. unnamed Islands of the Greek archipelago. There was no loss of life.
--The German High Command said the Axis had - Germany notified the United States and other sunk, in the Eastern Mediterranean, 11 cruisers,
governments to withdraw their diplomatic rep- eight destroyers, one submarine and five speed resentatives from Paris by June 10.
boats. --The German Commissioner for Norway, Josef May 27-A three-day pursuit of the crippled GerTerboven, promulgated a series
of decrees ex- man battleship, Bismarck, ended at 11:01 a.m. tending the powers of the German occupation
400 miles due west of Brest when, after a 1,750authorities in Norway and curtailing those of mile race for a harbor, she was sunk by torpedoes Major Vidkum Quisling's party, Nasjonal Sam- from the British cruiser, Dorsetshire. Included ling.
in the pursuing fleet were the battleships King May 22--The German High Command communique George V, the Prince of Wales, the Rodney, and said: "In the Eastern Mediterranean the Air the Ramillies; the aircraft carriers Ark Royal and Force achieved special success today in battle Victorious; the battle cruiser, Renown;
the with the British Navy; four British
cruisers and cruisers Suffolk, Norfolk, Sheffield and Dorsetseveral destroyers were sunk with full hits, and shire; and several destroyers, including the Cos
one battleship and two other destroyers were sack, Zulu and Maori. All of them got a shot at On the island of Crete, German parachute troops seriously damaged."
the Bismarck at one time or another, it was said.
At 6 p.m. on May 26, after the Bismarck had occupied a part of the town of Candia and the eluded her pursuers for two days she was struck airport of Maleme. London announced with- by two other torpedoes from British planes, one of drawal of the British air force from Crete, say. which broke her rudder and propellers. Thereing: "The distance from Crete to our airports in after the Germans report the vessel was incapable Egypt is such as to preclude any possibility of of maneuvering and was exposed to & fatal enstrong air support by the R.A.F. from our bases gagement with the stronger pursuing British there."
feet. At 11:42 p.m., May 26, the commander of -The islands of Samothrace and Thasos, off the the German units, who was aboard the Bismarck.
south coast of Greek Thrace, have been occupied Admiral Guenther Luetjens, reported by wireby Bulgarian troops.
less to the Navy High Command as follows: May 23-French Vice-Premier Darlan, in broad- *Ship unmaneuverable. We shall fight to the
casting to his countrymen the results of his con- last shell. Long live the Fuehrer! Chief of the versations with Hitler, said: The Chancellor did Fleet.' The oficers and crew, about 2,400 in all, not ask me to hand over our fleet to him. Every went down with the ship, except 100. one knows and the English better than anyone -Commons was informed that two British cruisers that I will never hand it over. The Chancellor and four destroyers had been sunk in Crete did not ask me for any colonial territory. He waters by German dive bombers. did not ask me to declare war on England. Why --President Roosevelt proclaimed "an unlimited has he acted so? Germany began the war alone national emergency.' This supplemented "a limited national emergency'' which he proclaimed armistice. British forces thereupon entered the on Sept. 8, 1939. He now gets control over city and an armistice was signed. labor, management and other elements in the Bombs, later identified as of German make, organization of the national life and increases were dropped upon the north side of Dublin, his authority to eliminate internal strife and to killing 27 persons, with 25 others missing, and suppress subversive activities. Coincidentally he 70 severely injured. made a world-wide radio broadcast on the subject |--President Roosevelt appointed Secretary of the in the presence of a large gathering of diplomats Interior Ickes to the newly created post of and high officers of the government, at the Petroleum Coordinator for Nationl Defense, with White House. The next day, at his press confer- instructions to see to it that petroleum and ence, he said that the use of convoys was not its products were accommodated to the defense contemplated in transporting aid to Britain, program. since he was satisfied that sea trol methods -The first cargo of U. S. food for Britain under were increasingly effective. Affirmation of the the Lend-Lease Act reached an English port. It American doctrine of freedom of the seas, he included 120,000 lbs. of cheese, 4,000,000 eggs, said, did not necessarily conflict with the and 1,000 tons of flour, neutrality law, and he had no immediate Intention of asking for repeal of the law.
1941-JUNE May 28- The German High Command announced June 1-The German High Command said: “The
capture of Canea, capital of the Island of Crete, with the Greek naval commander among the
mopping up of remaining British and Greek prisoners. German dive-bombers were reported
troops in the southern part of the island of Crete to have sunk five British transports in Suda Bay
is progressing. Contact with Italian troops driyand to have inflicted losses on British and Greek
ing forward from the east was established yestertroops trying to board them. Parachute troops
day near Ierapetra. Up to the present about continued to drop upon the island.
10,000 British and Greeks have been taken pris
oner. South of Crete German fighting planes -President Roosevelt proclaimed extension to the
attacked light British sea forces, damaged one Philippines of the
control system. It was established within the United
destroyer seriously with bomb hits and shot
down four fighter planes of the Hurricane type States last year. Licenses will be issued in the
without loss to themselves." Philippines by the High Commissioner and the Philippine courts will have jurisdiction over vio
-The British communique said: "After 12 days of
what has undoubtedly been the fiercest fighting lations of the law.
in this war it was decided to withdraw our forces --Axis forces in North Africa have captured Halfay& Pass, in Egypt, southeast of Solum. The
from Crete. Although the losses we inflicted on road eastward to Sidi Barrani, which was the
the enemy's troops and aircraft have been enorhighwater mark of the Italian drive into Egypt
mous, it became clear that our naval and military last year, runs through Halfaya Pass, between
forces could not be expected to operate indefinitethe Mediterranean coast and an inland escarp
ly in and near Crete without more air support ment.
than could be provided from our bases
in Africa. --British air bombers pursuing a Libya-bound
Some 15,000 of our troops have been withdrawn Italian convoy attacked the important French
to Egypt, but it must be admitted that our losses
have been severe." Tunisian port of Sfax, setting a French steamer
-At Sfax in Tunisia the Italian ship previously afire and hitting two Italian vessels. May 29The German High Command announced
attacked on May 30 was again bombed and macapture of Candia (the second largest city on
chine-gunned by the British; three direct hits on Crete): and Suda Bay, main base of British
the vessel were followed by clouds of black smoke,
London stated. naval operations. Italian forces, the communi
-London had an air raid warning, the first since que said, had landed by water in the eastern part of Crete The British Admiralty announced loss
May 10. British planes raided Berlin; German of the cruiser York, to German dive bombers in
planes attacked Manchester, causing damage to Suda Bay. The York, previously damaged, had
industry and casualties. been lying in the bay for repairs.
June 2-The German communique said: "The bat
tle for Crete is ended. The entire island is free --Congress authorized the President to commandeer foreign ships lying idle in this country.
of the enemy. German troops yesterday occupied - Germany announced officially that Max Schmel
the last stronghold of the defeated British, the ing, former world's heavyweight boxing cham
harbor of Sphakion. Mountain troops broke the
last British resistance in the mountain country pion, was alive but confined to a hospital with a tropical disease picked up while fighting as a
north of Sphakion and brought in 3,000 more
prisoners." London asserted that the British Nazi parachute trooper in Crete. The British had stated he was shot to death escaping from
Navy destroyed 20,000 Nazi sea-borne troops off guards in charge of captured Germans.
the northern coast of Crete before the Mediter
ranean Fleet received the task of removing Allied -Foreign Secretary Eden said Britain's war aims included measures to prevent Germany from
troops from the southern side of the island. again breaking the peace; and social security and
These German losses were in addition to the free trade throughout the world the latter an
'thousands of parachutists reported killed in the aim that could be realized only through Anglo
13 days of land fighting, London asserts that American cooperation. The British, he said, are
80 per cent of British forces had been safely
evacuated. not fighting for the restoration of the old order, which, he described, as "the chaos of the old
-Chancellor Hitler and Premier Mussolini, with world," but for the creation of a new interna
their staffs, met at the Brenner Pass, each in his tional society based on "free economic coopera
special armored train, and conferred (in Musso
lini's car) "on the political situation." May 30 The German High Command announced
-The U. S. Navy took formal possesison of Floyd that a union with parachute troops at Rethymno
Bennett Field, Brooklyn. (Crete) was completed; they "conquered the city
-President Roosevelt signed, in Hyde Park, two and airport of Herakleion (Candia)"; the Greek
defense measures, one imposing mandatory pricommander there offered capitulation; "Italian
orities of wartime scope on industry; the other troops who landed in the afternoon of May 28,
permits Canadian ships to carry ore between in the eastern part of Crete have been swiftly
American Great Lakes ports during the 1941 advancing toward the west. The remainder of
transportation season and is intended to assure scattered British, pursued by our troops, is flee
supply of steel. Heretofore, the government could ing toward the south coast to escape further
give mandatory priorities only to contracts placed fighting through embarkation by night." Ger- by the Army or Navy. Now the government also
has authority to establish the order in which man planes bombed the evacuating British soldiers and Italian torpedo craft attacked the troop
materials and machines are to be delivered for all transports,
planes, tanks, ships and other war equipment --An Italian naval communique said Italian planes
being produced under the Lend-Lease Act for had blown up a British destroyer and had res
Britain and other countries resisting the Axis. cued 229 of the crew, including 26 seriously
June 3-Acting Prime Minister Walter Nash anwounded. The communique also reported loss
nounced in Wellington that 2,800 New Zealand of the liner, Conte Rosso, sunk by a British tor
troops are "unaccounted for after the evacuapedo south of Syracuse, Sicily, while carrying
tion of British Imperial troops from Crete. He troops in a convoy apparently bound for Libya.
added that 768 wounded New Zealand troops had -Maritime agencies reported the torpedoing by
been removed to Egypt. German war craft of a British freighter close -The Rome communique said: "Operations on the to the equator in the South Atlantic and four Island of Crete have been finished. Our (Italian) ships 400 miles east of Greenland in a convoy of prisoners on the island have been released. Our American supplies for England.
detachments are proceeding to mop up the zone May 31-Flight of the pro-German premier, Rashid assigned to them."
Alt from Iraq, with closing in aroung Bagdad -Nearly 10.000 Americans are serving in the Britby British, led to a request by the Mayor for an ish fighting forces, R. H. Hutchinson, founder o
the American Eagle Club in London, told mem- afternoon. A petroleum reservoir was fired. bers of the English-Speaking Union in New York Landing parties from British warships were capCity,
tured, Vichy said. French airfields at Damascus, By a vote of 2,430,000 to 19,000 the British Labour Aleppo and Rayak were raided. party decided at its annual convention that a -Another bombing, attack on Alexandria by Axis compromise peace or peace by negotiation with planes, which killed many persons, was followed Germany and Italy was impossible. The conven- by flights from the city which crowded the roads tion demanded an end to profiteering, unem- for miles. ployment and distress areas after the peace as June 9-Backed by an Executive Order from Presiwell as during the war. Delegates voted 2,413,000 dent Roosevelt based on his proclamation of an to 30,000 for a peace memorandum, moved by unlimited national emergency, the Army seized Hugh Dalton, Laborite Minister of Economic the warplane factory of the North American Warfare.
Aviation Co., at Ingleside, in Los Angeles, Calif. June 4--Egypt proclaimed Syria as "German-occu- where an unauthorized five-day strike had tied
pied territory” and broke off all trade and other up production in the midst of negotiations before relations with that French mandate. The order the National Defense Mediation Board. Lieut. did not apply to adjoining French Lebanon. The Col. Charles E. Branshaw took charge of the step was taken soon after the Egyptian Cabinet plant with 3,000 troops of the 15th Infantry. had resigned.
More than 30 persons were injured in disorders, -German planes bombed the British naval base, 11 severely, and 16 strikers were taken to Fort
Alexandria, Egypt, from 9 to 10:30 P. M. The MacArthur under military arrest as troops planes, it was said, came 510 miles from Crete. banned all picketing after clashes between pickets The attack was centered on the harbor, Berlin and workers, and served notice they were in said.
complete charge of the plant. Normally the plant British planes bombed the harbor installations employs 12,000 on three shifts. The soldiers, at Beirut.
supported by armored cars, drove strikers and June 5-French aircraft bombed Amman, the capi. pickets at bayonet point a mile from the factory, tal of Trans-Jordan. French aircraft have been -A strike began in the Cleveland, O., plant of withdrawn from the Tadmur, Aleppo and Damas- the Aluminum Company of America. On June cus airports, which have been occupied by the 11 the strikers voted to accept a formula proGermans. The French aircraft have been based posed by the National Defense Mediation Board, at Rayak.
clearing the way for resumption of work on --The Germans and Italians are running an air $60,000,000 in orders for aluminum castings and
shuttle service between Aleppo, Tadmur and parts vital to the engines of warplanes. other airports and the Italian air base at Rhodes. June 10--Premier Mussolini in an address to the The British announced that they had bombed Chamber of Fasces and Corporations said that the Maritza airdrome on Rhodes, in the Italian by agreement with the German Command almost Dodecanese Islands, where Axis planes were all of Greece, including Athens, would be occuconcentrated.
pied by Italian troops. -Martin Bormann, who succeeded Rudolph Hess --Prime Minister Churchill, defending the Crete as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery on May campaign, estimated the Empire losses in killed, 10, is to have the powers of a Reich Minister and wounded, missing and captures were about 15,000 be a member of the government as well as of the men; 17,000 were evacuated. The Germans were Ministerial Council of National Defense.
estimated to have lost 5,000 men drowned while -The British naval base at Gibraltar was attacked trying a sea-borne invasion and at least 12,000
by Italian planes, which had come from Sardinia, killed or captured on the ground. 800 miles to the east.
June 11--Berlin announced that in the first four June 6-The President signed the ship seizure bill, months of 1941 Allied ship sinkings had amountby which the government can buy or lease, not ed to 2,235,000 tons and that an additional 1,later than June 30, 1942, "any foreign merchant 200,000 tons had been damaged. British reports vessel which is lying idle in waters within the said losses for May were only 350,000 tons and jurisdiction of the United States, including the indicated U-boat operations were veering nearer Philippine Islands and the Canal Zone, and to American shores. Berlin also reported that which is necessary to the national defense. The the first German units-an air corps-were sent Maritime Commission is authorized to take over to Africa in the beginning of January under the such vessels at such times as it chooses. There command of General Hans Geisler. From the are more than 80 craft available, including the middle of February land forces were sent to Libya French liner, Normandie.
in convoys and were formed into the German June 7--The new 35,000-ton battleship, South African Corps under General Erwin Rommel. On Dakota, was launched in Camden, N. J., and on March 24 the German Africa Corps began the the same ways work was begun at once on the attack and in two months, the report declares, 10,000-ton cruiser, Santa Fe.
covered 1,125 miles in their advance. -Italy fixed, by decree, the boundaries of the new June 12—At President Roosevelt's request, the exCroatia, which will extend from the junction of ecutive council of the International Association the Sava River with the Danube, near Belgrade, of Machinists, A. F. of L., called off the strike northward to the junction of the Drina and Sava at shipyards in the San Francisco Bay Area rivers, thence south to a junction with the which has held up the $500,000,000 defense shipHrasnica River, east of the village of Zaemljice. building program for weeks. From there it runs east
of the Drina,
following - The German High Command reported that Gerthe old lines that existed until 1918. The city of man casualties in the Balkans and Crete were Zemun, on the south side of the Danube, about 2,559 officers and men killed, 3,169 missing and five miles west of Belgrade, is to be occupied by 5,820 wounded. Prisoners taken by German forces German troops until the end of the war, but the in Yugoslavia and Greece-6,298 Serbian officers rest of the territory will be occupied immediately and 337,864 men; 324 British officers and 10.900 by units of the Croat Army and Ustashi party men, and 8,000 Greek officers and 210,000 men. detachments.
June 13--British planes bombed the Ruhr for the -An Italian oil tanker riding in ballast toward the second successive day. London also said that a
Black Sea was torpedoed at the entrance to the British plane had dropped a half-ton torpedo Dardanelles, and a German bomber was grounded on a German pocket battleship--the Luetzow or at Emras in Turkey.
the Admiral Scheer-off Egersund, Norway. June gA British Middle East communique said: | -Italian forces evacuated the port of Assab, in
"Early this morning. Allied forces under the Eritrea. Command of Gen. Wilson crossed the frontier German planes, London said, dive-bombed and into Syria with the object of eliminating German sank the St. George's Channel steamer, St. personnel and influence from certain areas in Patrick on the way from Rosslaro, Ireland, to which they are securing a dominating position Fishguard, Wales, with a loss of 23 lives. through continued innstration. If allowed to June 14-President Roosevelt, by an Executive proceed unchecked, the establishment of German Order, froze all Axis money and other funded bases in these areas might endanger the security assets in the United States. Although Japan, of the Allied situation in the Middle East and under the tri-partite pact, is an Axis partner, it lead to the Arab countries being seized by the was not included in the order, which specified Axis powers. It is hoped to secure both French Albania, Andorra, Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Arab co-operation in this task,
Liechtenstein, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, -Sir Miles Lampson, British Ambassador to Egypt, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the Union of
and Gen. G. C. Catroux, on behalf of General Soviet Socialist Republics. Under previous ExecuCharles de Gaulle, head of the "Free France" tive Orders, freezing control had been extended forces, jointly declared French-mandated Syria to the assets of Norway, Denmark, the Netherand Lebanon free and independent. Marshal lands, Belgium, Luxenburg, France, Latvia, EstoPetain by radio appealed to Syria and Lebanon nia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Hungary, to stand by him.
Yugoslavia and Greece. Italy next day froze -- British planes bombed the airport of Mezze, near "all property belonging to the United States in Damascus, Beirut was bombed twice in the
-A British Admiralty communique said: "The --Congress gave the President authority to regulate operation of rounding up enemy supply ships or prohibit the movement into or out of the which put to sea in order to be available for the country of both citizens and aliens. Bismarck and Prinz Eugen continued success- June 21-Germany declared war against Soviet fully. Another German supply ship has been Russia. The proclamation, by Chancellor Hitler, intercepted and sunk, Thus, six enemy supply was radioed to the people of the Reich and the ships and one armed trawler have been inter- rest of the world at 5:30 A. M. June 22 (Berlin cepted by our ships during these recent opera- time) by Propaganda Minister Goebbels. Declartions."
ing that "we", (the Germans) “are neither EngJune 15-In Venice, in formal ceremonies under the lishmen nor Jews," the Chancellor said: "the
auspices of the Italian Foreign Office, the new task is to safeguard Europe and thus save all. I State of Croatia signed the Axis pact.
have therefore today decided to give the fate of -In Syria, British and Free French forces got the German people and the Reich and of Europe
within five miles of Damascus, having occupied again into the hands of our soldiers." Jezzine, and Sidon (Saida).
-The actual declaration of war was issued almost -In San Francisco, A. F. of L. strikers voted, 585 simultaneously by the German Foreign Minister,
to 400, against ending the five-week tieup in 11 Joachim von Ribbentrop. It had been communishipyards pending negotiations. C. I, 0. strik- cated to the Ambassador of the Soviet Union at ing machinists in the shipyards voted, 359 to 56, Berlin, who was thereby told that "in view of the to stay out. In Camden, N. J., by a vote of 64 to threatening of the German frontiers by the 2, union representatives of 50,000 workers in East armies of Russia, Germany has taken military Coast shipyards endorsed the two-year no-strike measures of defense." agreement proposed by the Office of Production - Marching with the forces of Germany are also Management.
the troops of Finland and Rumania. June 16--The Department of State, by direction of Moscow, a little while after the war declaration,
President Roosevelt, directed Germany, through announced that Russia and Britain were now “in Hans Thomsen, the Charge d'Affaires ad interim, full accord." to close by July 10 all consular offices in the -Constant duplicity, seizure of Lithuania, Estonia United States; also the German Library of and Bukowina, border attacks on Germany and Information in New York City, the German Rail- a secret British alliance were cited as among the way and Tourist Agencies, and the Transocean Soviet's war provocations. News Service. All German Nationals connected - French troops evacuated Damascus which was with these places are to be removed from U. S. occupied by British forces. territory by the date named. The action was -The United States told Italy to close its contaken, the note stated, because it has come to sulates in this country by July 15. the knowledge of this government that agencies June 22-An official Rome announcement said: of the German Reich in this country, including **The Italian government has informed the Soviet German consular establishments, have been en- Ambassador that from 5:30 A. M, of June 22 Italy gaged in activities wholly outside the scope of considers herself in a state of war against the their legitimate duties. These activities have Union of Russian Soviet States." been of an improper and unwarranted character. -Turkey proclaimed its neutrality. It has nonThey render the continued presence in the United aggression pacts with Germany and Russia. States of these agencies and consular establish- -Slovakia severed relations with Russia.
ments inimical to the welfare of this country.' -The only Berlin communique said: "Since the June 17-A Washington decree was issued closing early morning hours hostilities have been taking United States borders to an estimated 330,000 place along the Soviet-Russian frontier. An atGerman nationals "pending further instruc- tempt of the enemy to fly into East Prussia was tions.'' It was issued jointly by the Treasury repulsed with heavy losses. German pursuit Department and the Department of Justice, and
pilots shot down many Red battle planes." warned against taking out of the country gold or -In Finland, Soviet planes bombed coastal defense silver coin or bullion or any currency and an
works at Alskar, and dropped bombs on Finnish nounced also that the "freezing" order applied
ships at the Turku Archipelago (Aabo) in the to any and all kinds of property. Border patrols
Gult of Bothnia. German planes raided Sebasand customs officers were instructed to be on topol, Kiev, Zhitomir, Kaunas, Odessa and watch.
Minsk. -The Italian Government “froze" United States
-Russia proclaimed martial law in border areas credits in Italy. The decree ordered all Italian
from the Arctic to the Black Sea, including the individuals and firms to report American credits
newly Sovietized Baltic States and the Leningrad
area. in 20 days and provided that Americans living in
The government announced it had called Italy could obtain funds from blocked bank ac
up army classes from 1905 to 1918 inclusive. Rules counts "in case of proven necessity It was
for chemical and air raid defense were broadcast estimated that American credits in Italy were
and a complete blackout was ordered for the $145,000,000.
capital and Moscow Province. June 18-Germany and Turkey signed in Ankara
June 23-German troops invading Russia occupied
Kolno, Lomza and the citadel of Brest-Litovsk & 10-year treaty in which they bind themselves mutually to respect the integrity and inviola
on the Bug River. Their soldiers were using bility of their territories and will take no measure
flame-throwers, Berlin said. Russian planes that is aimed directly or indirectly against the
raided places in East Prussia and Russian forces other contracting party." They further "bind
attempting to seize Koenigsberg were repulsed. themselves in the future to communicate with
Insterburz and Tilsit were machine-gunned. The each other in friendly manner on all questions
German Air Force began the invasion of Russia affecting their common interests in order to bring
by bombing airfields, hangars, barracks and about understanding on the treatment of such
bridges along the west shoreline of retreat, and questions." It was mutually agreed, in a supple
railway functions and stations, troop and motor
ized columns advancing toward the front and mentary note, to negotiate for economic relations.
artillery positions. These air raids continue. GerJune 19-Germany and Italy notified the United
man-Rumanian forces entered Bessarabia. In
the Baltic and Black Seas warfare was active. States Government to close by July 15 all the
The campaign in the east is being directed by latter's consulates and recall the employees in
four German Field Marshals, Siegmund Wilhelm those countries and the lands occupied by Axis
List, Fedor von Bock, Walther von Reichenau troops. The German note included the Ameri
and Gerd von Rundstedt. can Express Company offices. An Executive Order was issued at the White
-The United States banned departure of Italian
Nationals from this country. House suspending the 8-hour day for laborers on
--Hungary broke off diplomatic relations with the cantonments, airfields, fortifications and other
Soviet Union it was officially announced. defense construction in the Panama Canal Zone, -Arrival of Capt. James Roosevelt in Washington Alaska and Puerto Rico.
ended his military observation tour around the June 20-In a special message to Congress directing world for his father, the President. its attention to the "ruthless" sinking of the
-In Madrid, a crowd smashed windows of the American ship. Robin Moor, May 21, in the British Embassy. There were Falangist parades South Atlantic, President Roosevelt declared that in Barcelona and other Spanish cities. "the government of the German Reich may be June 24-President Roosevelt announced the United assured that the United States will neither be States would give all the aid it possibly can to intimidated nor will it acquiesce in the plans Russia. The Treasury Department issued a genfor world domination which the present leaders eral license releasing $39,000,000 of Russian assets of Germany may have."
which had been frozen on June 14 under an -An Executive Order forbade exports of petroleum executive order. This sum includes cash, securi
products from Atlantic Coast ports to any coun- ties, real property and other negotiable instrutries except the British Empire, Egypt, and those ments, belonging to Russia and its nationals. In in the Western Hemisphere, including Iceland London, Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden told and Greenland.
the House of Commons that the Soviet Union