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Beginnings of Famous Foreign Universities
Source: Records of the Institutions The Moslem University of Al-Azhar, in Cairo, Egypt, was founded in 970. Louvain University in Belgium was founded in 1426 by Duke John IV of Brabant in the town that had been the capital before the rise of Brussels.
At the end of the 12th Century there were three prominent universities in Europe-Bologna for law. Salerno for medicine, Paris for theology. There were, at Bologna, practically four universities in the Studium Generale-Lombards, Ultramontanes. Tuscans, Romans.
At Bologna the university consisted of a body of students who hired professors to teach them. At Paris the students were younger and were considered as apprentices.
The University of Pavia, Italy, was founded by Lothaire, grandson of Charlemagne, in 825.
Other old Italian universities are Bologna, founded 1200; Padua, 1228; Naples, 1224; Genoa, 1243; Perugla, 1276; Macerata, 1290. There were nine more founded between 1300 and 1550. Italy was the greatest resort of students for the higher education in the middle ages.
The University of Paris was founded by King Philip II. 1140-1170, exact date unknown. It was an outgrowth of the Cathedral School of Notre Dame.
The University of Poitiers, western France, was founded in 1431.
In England, Walter of Merton, began to round his Oxford College in 1266.
Winchester School, in Hampshire, England, was founded by Bishop William of Wykeham, 1382-1387. The first college of the University of Cambridge was founded by Hugo, Bishop of Ely, in 1257. But there was a school there as early as 635. In 1109 education was revived there.
Eton College, in Buckinghamshire, England, was founded by Henry VI in 1440 and was intended as a preparatory school for King's College, Cambridge. Henry took many ideas for Eton from the Casa Giacosa, the great school near Mantua, Italy, founded by its Marquis about 1429.
The University of Prague, Bohemia, was founded in 1348. The University of Heidelberg was founded in 1380.
Uppsala University, in the ancient capital of Sweden, was founded in 1477.
The University of Moscow was founded in 1755 by the Empress Elizabeth, and the University of St. Petersburg in 1819 by Czar Alexander I. There was a school there in 1747.
The first Hungarian University was founded by
King Louis the Great at Pecs in 1367. It was in. its prosperity attended by 2,000 students, but passed out of existence in 1543 at the time of the occupation of Pecs by the Turks. In 1635 the University of Nagyzombat, now the University of Budapest, was founded by Peter Pazmany, Archbishop of Estergom.
The oldest Spanish university is that of Salamanca, founded in 1239. It was preceded in 1209 by the University of Palenza. There was a school at Cordova in 968.
The University of Lima, Peru, was founded in 1551 by Charles V.
The University of Copenhagen, Denmark, was founded in 1478 and opened in 1479 by virtue of a bull issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1475. The Technical College of Denmark was founded in 1829.
The Royal Frederick University at Oslo was founded in 1811 and opened in 1813.
The University of Leyden, in the Netherlands, was founded by Prince William (the Silent) of Orange in 1575.
The Municipal University of Amsterdam was founded in 1632.
Trinity College, Dublin, was incorporated by royal charter in 1591.
St. Andrews University, in Scotland, was founded by Bishop Wardlaw in 1411.
The University of Glasgow was founded by Bishop Turnbull in 1451.
The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1582 by a charter granted by King James VI, of Scotland.
Dulwich College, near London, was founded in 1619. by Edward Alleyn, a noted actor of that time.
The Royal College of Physicians, London, dates from letters patent granted under Henry VIII in 1518 to his physician, Dr. Linacre, who became the first president. The College of Physicians at Dublin was created in 1667; that at Edinburgh in 1681; the College of Surgeons, London, in 1745; and that at Dublin in 1786.
The University of Cracow, Poland, where Copernicus received his education, was founded in 1364 by King Casimir III (the Great).
The University of Havana, Cuba, was opened on Feb. 15, 1730.
The College of San Nicolas de Hidalgo was founded in Patzcuaro in the State of Michoacan, Mexico, in 1540, by Vasco de Quiroga.
The University of Mexico was founded in 1553 by the Roman Catholic Church.
The University of Finland was founded in 1640.
The Simpler Spelling Movement
Source: William Russell, M.S.
The following is a list of representative reform words in common use thruout America today, along with general rules for further simplifications:
(1) Substitute e for ae or oe. Examples: cyclopedia, ameba, esthetic, maneuver.
(2) Avoid the use of gh. Examples: nite, altho, enuf, furlo, thru.
(3) Drop ue from words ending in gue. Examples: catalog, dialog, pedagog, prolog.
(4) Change final ise to ize when so pronounst. Examples: surprize, advize.
(5) Change ph to when so pronounst. Examples: fantasy, fantom, fonetic, sulfur, telefone. (6) Omit silent letters.
(9) Form plurals in s or es according to general rule, avoiding Latin endings. Example: formulas, not formulae.
(10) In all cases where two or more forms are acceptable choose the simpler and more fonetic.
Frequency of Letters in English
Source: The late Frank H. Vizetelly
In the work of computing the frequency of letters in use in English words done for the Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary, the following results were obtained. Capital initial letters were found to have been used in the following ratio:
The Principal Languages of the World
Source: Dr. Charles Earle Funk, Editor of the New Standard Dictionary
The actual number of languages computed by officers of French Academy is put at 2,796.
The English language is spoken by more than 270,000,000 of people of which more than half are Americans. Of these 150,500,000 are citizens of the United States of America, 1,000,000 are Liberians, and 70,900,000 are English-speaking people of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales, and the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, and Ireland, Gibraltar and Malta and the Dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. population of the various other self-governing units or dependent colonies of Great Britain, which combined form the British Empire, has been computed at 381,084,000 persons. Assuming that one-eighth of this number understands and uses English speech in barter, trade exchange, or other manner of communication, a total of 47,633,000 more persons is to be added to the number who understand and speak English.
The principal other languages of the world are listed below, followed by the number of persons speaking them according to official reports available in 1941.
The reputable English language contains approximately 700,000 words. Possibly 300,000 more terms may be stigmatized as nonce, obsolete, vulgar, low, etc., and therefore seldom or never sought in dictionaries designed for the home.
Of the bulk-700,000 terms-nearly one-half consists of scientific terminology seldom met outside of text books and of archaic, obsolescent or obsolete
Various estimates of the sources of English words have been made at different times. W. W. Skeat in the fourth edition of his "Etymological Dictionary" which contains approximately 20,000 words, shows the following sources:
Anglo-Saxon and English, 3,681; Low German, 126; Dutch, 207; Scandinavian, 693; German, 333.
French from Low German, 54; French from Dutch or Middle Dutch, 45, French from Scandinavian, 63; French from (1) German, 85, French from (2) Middle High German, 27; French from (3) Old High German, 154; French from (4) Teutonic, 225; French (Romance languages), 297; French from Latin, 4,842; French from Late Latin, 828; French from Italian, 162.
Celtic, 170; Latin (direct), 2,880; Provencal, from Latin, 25; Italian, 99; Spanish, 108; Portuguese, 21. Greek direct or through Latin, Late Latin, French or other sources, 2,493; Slavonic, 31; Lithuanian, 1.
Asiatic: Aryan languages, including Persian and Sanskrit, 163; European non-Aryan languages, 20. Semitic: Hebrew, 99; Arabic, 272.
Asiatic: Non-Aryan, not Semitic, including Malay, Chinese, Japanese, Tartar, Australian, 135; African languages, 32; American, 102; hybrid, 675; unknown, 12. Total, 19,160.
The select vocabulary of the New Standard Dictionary of the English Language totals approximately 455,000 words. If the dead words of our speech be added, the total, as shown by the New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, would reach 700,000 words for the English tongue, living and dead.
The latter work admits to a vocabulary of 418,825 terms in use in the literary language. It has not specialized in scientific terminology.
The vocabulary of the New International Dictionary, Second Edition, as reported by its Editorin-Chief, Dr. W. A. Neilson, (July 2, 1934) was placed at 550,000 entries, which total was increased to 600,000 by adding 36,000 names in the Gazetteer, 13,000 in the Biographical Section, and 5,000 Abbreviations.
The German word-book (Kurschner's UniversalKonversations-Lexikon) contains not more than 300,000 words, including personal names.
African dial... 93,923,000 German
Dutch figures in the above table include oneeighth of the total population of the Dutch colonial possessions (60,731,025), 7,591,378.
French figures include one-eighth of the total population of the French colonial possessions (68,480,000) 8,560,000.
German figures include German-speaking citizens of Switzerland, Yugoslavia and elsewhere. The effect of the recent mass migrations in Poland and other European States upon the languages of those peoples cannot be reliably computed.
The population of India including Feudatory States is reported as consisting of 370,500,000 persons. The languages spoken have been classified as belonging to Aryan, Dravidian, Kolarian, and Tibeto-Burman stocks. No computation of reliable character that shows the number of persons speaking these languages is available for none has been or could be made.
Of the stocks the Indo-Aryan group embraces the Vedic, the earliest accessible form of Aryan speech in India. From this, through the development of grammatical and phonetic studies, came a literary language-the Sanskrit, a word that signifies correctly or completely formed;" hence, cultivated or polished. Thereafter followed Pali and Maharashtri, of Behar and Mahratta-dialects that were called Prakrits, i.e., common, vulgar or derived (from the Sanskrit). The chief Neo-Aryan languages of India are Bengali (Bengal), Uriya (Orissa), Hindi (Upper Provinces) with Punjabi and Nepali, the closely allied language of the Gurkhas, the ruling class of Nepal, Sindhi (Lower Indus), Kashmiri, Marathi, Gujarati (the last of which is sometimes classed as a dialect of Hindi), Assamese (once considered a dialect of Bengali), Brahui (one of the two lan
Urdu (See Note below)
guages of Baluchistan), and Sinhalese (the speech of the southern half of the island of Ceylon).
The Dravidian group includes twelve distinct languages-Tamil, Telegu, Kanarese, Malayalam, Tulu, Kodagu, Tuda, Kota, Gond, Khond, Oraon, and Rajmahal. These languages are spoken in the following regions or districts of India: Southeastern, northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern, the Malabar coast, Coorg (adjoining the Malabar coast), Nilgiri hills, Central India, Northwest Orissa, the Rajmahal hills of Bengal. Tamil is spoken also in the northern part of Ceylon.
The Mohammedan people of India numbering nearly 70,000,000 generally speak one languageHindustani or Urdu. The Mohammedans of Eastern Bengal speak Bengali. In general, Arabic and Persian are known as classic languages to the Mohammedans of India, but are not spoken by them. Urdu or Hindustani, or Hindi with the addition of Persian and Arabic words, written in the Persian character, originated after the Mohammedan conquest through official intercourse of Persian-speaking rulers with their Hindu subjects. A southern
variant of it is Dakhani.
The Kolarian (so-called from the Kols of Bengal) or Munda group consists of ten languages of which the best known are the Santali (spoken by a tribe which inhabits the western frontier of Lower Bengal) and the Mundari (spoken by the Mundas, Bhumij, and Larka Kols). More than 2,000,000 persons have been said to speak these languages.
The Tibeto-Burman group has not yet been completely surveyed. It has been divided by Cust to five geographical groups-the Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Manipur-Chittagong, and Trans-Himalayan
Source: United States Department of the Interior, Office of Education
All Federal funds for vocational education are matched by State and local money, and in 1940 the States and local communities expended $1.75 for each dollar of Federal aid for vocational educa
tion. This does not include expenditures for plant and equipment of vocational schools, for which no Federal money can be used.
ENROLLMENT IN FEDERALLY AIDED SCHOOLS OR CLASSES BY YEARS Enrollment figures include enrollment in schools and classes for distributive occupations-(1938) 36,008; (1939) 88,429; (1940) 129,433.
The 1940 figures are provisional, subject to final audit of State reports.
Of the enrollment in 1940, males numbered 1,279,109; females, 1,011,632.
Expenditures under the Federal Vocational Education Acts (except for teacher-training)-(1930) $27,412,136; (1931) $29,538,445: (1932) $30,767,572; (1933) $27,760.956; (1934) $26,011,341; (1935) $27,076,447; (1936) $31,141,788; (1937) $34,051,285; (1938) $41,411,122; (1939) $48,454,640; (1940) $50,626,777. Expenditures for teacher-training in 1936 were $2,286,046; (1937) $2,348,001; (1938) $3,583,415; (1939) $4,211,531; (1940) $4,454,534.
The figures on vocational education costs do not represent costs of education for the CCC camps, except in so far as some of the boys from the camps have attended classes in public schools operating under the vocational program.
Public Schools Attendance, Teachers, Expenditures
Source: U. S. Office of Education; Salaries cover superintendents, supervisors, and teachers
The 1938 figures for teachers (total) include "other instructional staff" not divided by sex. The U. S. Office of Education estimated that 1941-42 students would total 31,566,000. The enrollment in elementary schools was expected to drop to 20,707,000.
An illiterate is a person 10 years of age or over who cannot write in any language.
+ The average percent of illiteracy among negroes in 1930 in the United States was 16.3.
The average percentage of illiteracy among the native whites in the United States in 1930 was 1.5. Illiteracy among foreign-born whites in United States in 1930 averaged 9.9 per cent. and ranged from 0.3 p. ct. among Scots, and 0.6 p. ct. among English and Canadians, to 36.9 p. ct. among persons from the Azores.
The American Rhodes Scholarships were suspended by the Rhodes Trustees in September, 1939. as a result of the war. No new elections have been held, and it is not likely that any will be until the war is over.
Normally, to the United States are assigned, yearly, 32 scholarships, worth £400, tenable for 2 years.
To be eligible a candidate must be-(a) A male citizen of the United States; (b) Over nineteen and not over twenty-five years of age; (c) Above soph
Other percentages were-Portuguese, 34.7: Italians, 25.3; Poles, 19.0; Yugoslavs, 15.6; Turks, 14.1; Spanish, 14.0; Greeks, 13.6; Russians, 11.3: Austrians, 10.4; French-Canadians, 9.9: Hungarians, 9.8; Cubans, 6.6; Belgians, 6.4; Finns. 6.3; French, 3.8; Germans, 3.2.
The percentage of illiteracy in 1930 among Negroes in cities averaged about 5.0.
omore standing in some recognized degree granting university or college in the United States. Candidates may apply either from the State in which they have their ordinary private domicile, home, or residence, or from the State in which they have received at least two years of their college education.
Selections are made on the basis of the candidate's record in school and college, supplemented by references of persons who know him and by a personal interview with the Committee of Selection.
The Pulitzer School of Journalism
Source: An official of the school
The School of Journalism (graduate) at Colum- | York City; Julian LaRose Harris (1940-1944), The bia University, founded and endowed by the late Joseph Pulitzer, opened (Sept. 1912) and entered (1913) its new building at 116th St. and Broadway, New York City. The dean is Carl W. Ackerman. The school has a reference library of 15,800 books and 4,350 bound newspaper volumes, a file of fifty daily papers (American and foreign) and a "morgue" of 1,400,000 newspaper clippings of which the private collection of Dr. Talcott Williams, former Dean, formed the basis.
Advisory Board:-Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia University; Sevellon Brown (1940-1944), The Providence (R. I.) Journal; Kent Cooper (1940-1944), The Associated Press, New THE PULITZER
Desirous of aiding a number of boys of exceptional ability to gain an education that would fit them for careers of leadership and usefulness, the late Joseph Pulitzer founded (1889) the notable scholarships that bear his name.
For a time the boys selected went to the College of the City of New York, but the lack of suitable preparatory schools at that time caused a new arrangement to be made (1893) for a seven years' course for the students selected, three years in Horace Mann High School and four in Columbia
In that year Columbia, in return for a gift of
Chattanooga (Tenn.) Times; Walter M. Harrison (1941-1945). The Daily Oklahoman, Oklahoma City, Okla.; Arthur M. Howe (1938-1942), formerly of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Frank R. Kent (1941-1945), The Sun, Baltimore, Md.: Robert Lincoln O'Brien (1938-1942), former publisher of the Boston Herald, Washington, D. C.; Stuart H. Perry (1941-1945), The Adrian (Mich.) Telegram; Harold Stanley Pollard (1939-1943), The New York World-Telegram; Joseph Pulitzer (1939-1943), The St. Louis (Mo.) Post-Dispatch; William Allen White (1938-1942), The Emporia (Kan.) Gazette: Arthur Krock (1940-1943) Washington correspondent of The New York Times; Dean Ackerman, Secretary, Columbia University. SCHOLARSHIPS
money, undertook to carry ten boys a year, forty in all, upon its scholarship rolls without tuition fee. Still later, as the public high schools multiplied in number in the city, the scholarships were thrown open to graduates of the high schools-those of Kings, Queens and Richmond being later added to the list.
To the holders of the scholarships, never fewer than forty, a stipend of $250 each, available in any American college of the first class, was annually paid by Mr. Pulitzer during his lifetime, and payment is now continued by Columbia University under the terms of his will out of the income of a fund provided for the purpose.
Pulitzer Prizes in Journalism and Letters
paign against unscrupulous politicians in Jackson county, Ore.
1935-Sacramento Bee for articles on Federal Judiciary nominations in Nevada.
Source: Pulitzer School of Journalism The Pulitzer Prizes in Journalism and in Letters, established by the late Joseph Pulitzer in a bequest York City, to Columbia University, New awarded annually by the trustees of Columbia University on recommendation of the Advisory Board of the School of Journalism at Columbia, which was also founded and endowed by Mr. Pulitzer.
Juries selected to pass on the year's productions for 1935 made no selection of prize-winners but submitted to the Advisory Board for its guidance a list of eligible candidates for each prize with a statement of reasons for each recommendation. The specifications for the prize winning play and novel for 1934 and after carry the phrase "preferably dealing with American life."
The awards of 1941 for work done in the year 1940, are here given, with a list of the previous awards:
For the most disinterested and meritorious public service rendered by an American newspaper during the year-$500 gold medal
1918-The New York Times for the publication in full of so many official reports, documents and speeches relating to the World War.
1919 Milwaukee Journal for its campaign for Americanism.
1921-Boston Post for its work in the exposure of
1922-World of New York for its work in exposing
1924-World of New York for its work in connection
1926-Enquirer-Sun, Columbus, Ga. 1927-Canton, (O.) Daily News.
1928 Indianapolis Times (a Scripps-Howard news-
1929 Evening World of New York for its effective
1933-New York World-Telegram (a Scripps-How-
1936-Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Gazette for its crusade
1937 St. Louis Post Dispatch for its exposure of
1941-St. Louis Post Dispatch for its successful
For a distinguished example of a reporter's work during the year, the test being strict accuracy, terseness, the preference being given to news stories prepared under the pressure of edition time, that. redound to the credit of the profession of journalism-$1,000.
1917-Herbert Bayard Swope, World of New York.
1920-John J. Leary, Jr., World of New York.
1923-Alva Johnston, The New York Times.
1925 James W. Mulroy and Alvin H. Goldstein, Chicago Daily News. 1926-William Burke Miller, Louisville CourierJournal.
1927 John T. Rogers, St. Louis Post Dispatch. 1928-No award.
1929-Paul Y. Anderson, St. Louis Post Dispatch. 1930-Russell D. Owen, The New York Times; also special award of $500 to W. O. Dapping, Auburn (N. Y.) Citizen.
1931-A. B. MacDonald, Kansas City Star. 1932-W. C. Richards, D. D. Martin, J. S. Pooler, F. D. Webb and J. N. W. Sloan, Detroit Free Press.
1933-Francis A. Jamieson of the Associated Press in Trenton, N. J.
1934-Royce Brier, San Francisco Chronicle. 1935-William H. Taylor, New York Herald Tribune. 1936-Lauren D. Lyman, The New York Times. 1937-Shared by five reporters who covered the tercentenary celebration of Harvard University; John J. O'Neill, New York Herald Tribune; William L. Laurence, The New York Times; Howard W. Blakeslee, Associated Press; Gobind Behari Lal, Universal Service, and David Dietz, ScrippsHoward newspapers.
1938-Raymond Sprigle, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 1939-Thomas L. Stokes, Scripps-Howard Newspaper Alliance.
1940 S. Burton Heath, New York World-Telegram,
FOREIGN OR WASHINGTON
For distinguished service as a Washington or Foreign correspondent during the year-$500. 1929 Paul Scott Mowrer, Chicago Daily News. 1930-Leland Stowe, New York Herald Tribune. 1931-H. R. Knickerbocker, Philadelphia Public Ledger and New York Evening Post. 1932-Walter Duranty, The New York Times, and Charles G. Ross of St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 1933-Edgar Ansel Mowrer, Chicago Daily News. 1934-Frederick T. Birchall, The New York Times. 1935-Arthur Krock, New York Times. 1936-Wilfred C. Barber, Chicago Tribune; honorable mention to Webb Miller of the United Press Associations: Ashmun Brown of the Providence Evening Bulletin; Jay C. Hayden of the Detroit News and James A. Mills of the Associated Press.
1937-Anne O'Hara McCormack, The New York Times.
1938-Arthur Krock, The New York Times. 1939-Louis P. Lochner, correspondent of the Associated Press in Germany.
1940-Otto D. Tolischus, The New York Times. 1941-No award. The judges ordered a special plaque be made recognizing the achievements of American news reporters in the war zone.
A special citation was made to The New York Times "for the public educational value of its foreign news reports, exemplified by its scope, by excellence of writing and presentation and supplementary background information, illustration and interpretation!"
For distinguished editorial writing during the year, the test of excellence being clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning and power to influence public opinion in what the author conceives to be the right direction-$500. 1917-New York Herald Tribune.
1918-Louisville Courier Journal, Henry Watterson, writer.
Louis Post-Dispatch, Bart Howard,
1941-New York Daily News, Reuben Maury, writer. CARTOONS
For a distinguished example of a cartoonist's work during the year-$500.
1922-Rollin Kirby, World of New York. 1923-No award.
1924-J. N. Darling, New York Herald Tribune. 1925-Rollin Kirby, World of New York.
1926-D. R. Fitzpatrick, St. Louis Post Dispatch. 1927-Nelson Harding, Brooklyn Eagle. 1928-Nelson Harding, Brooklyn Eagle. 1929-Rollin Kirby, World of New York. 1930-Charles B. Macauley, Brooklyn Eagle. 1931-Edmund Duffy, Baltimore Sun.
1932-John T. McCutcheon, Chicago Tribune. 1933-H. M. Talburt, Washington Daily News (A Scripps-Howard newspaper). 1934-Edmund Duffy, Baltimore Sun.
1935-Ross A. Lewis, Milwaukee Journal. 1936 No award.
1937-C. D. Batchelor, Daily News of New York: honorable mention to John Frances Knott, of the Dallas News and Quincy Scott of the Portland (Ore.) Oregonian.
1938-Vaughn Shoemaker, Chicago Daily News. 1939 Charles G. Werner, The Daily Oklahoman. Oklahoma City, Okla.
1940-Edmund Duffy. The Baltimore Sun. 1941-Jacob Burck, The Chicago Times.
For a distinguished novel, preferably dealing with American life, by an American author, published during the year-$1000. 1918-Ernest Poole, "His Family."
1919 Booth Tarkington, "The Magnificent Ambersons."
1920 No award.
1921-Edith Wharton, "The Age of Innocence." 1922-Booth Tarkington, "Alice Adams."
1923-Willa Cather, "One of Ours."
1924-Margaret Wilson. "The Able McLaughlins." 1925-Edna Ferber, "So Big."
1926--Sinclair Lewis, Arrowsmith." (He declined the prize.)
1927-Louis Bromfield. "Early Autumn."
1928-Thornton Wilder, "The Bridge of San Luis Rey."
1929 Julia M. Peterkin. "Scarlet Sister Mary." 1930-Oliver La Farge, "Laughing Boy." 1931-Margaret Ayer Barnes, "Years of Grace." 1932-Pearl Buck, "The Good Earth." 1933-T. S. Stribling, "The Store." 1934--Caroline Miller, "Lamb in His Bosom!" 1935-Josephine Johnson, "Now in