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-Berlin said that Japanese troops had advanced half way across Thailand in an advance on the Burma Road, and had begun an air attack on that link communication between the Pacific Ocean and Chiang Kai-shek's Chinese government at Chungking. In Thailand, the capital. Bangkok, was occupied by Japanese forces. -In Malaya, the Japanese landed at Kota Bharu, fought to land at Kuantan, and made further landings on the Isthmus of Kra.
about 9:25 A. M. At the Pearl Harbor NavalBase several hundred saflors at the barracks were killed by bombs from planes. -Secretary of the Navy Knox reported, after a trip to Hawail, that navy casualties were 91 officers and 2,638 men killed and 20 officers and 636 men wounded. The Army put its losses at 168 officers and men, bringing the aggregate service losses to 2,897. Secretary Knox listed the destroyed vessels as the battleship Arizona, destroyers Cassin, Downes and Shaw, mine layer-In Oglala and training ship Utah. He said the battleship Oklahoma had capsized and an unannounced number of ships had been damaged. He added that all remaining effective units "are at sea seeking contact with the enemy." -Guam was raided by planes, also Davao on Mindanao, Camp John Hay in Luzon. Japanese parachute troops were landed in the Philippines. -Japanese submarines, ranging out over the Pacific, sank an American transport carrying lumber 1,300 miles from San Francisco, and distress signals were heard from a freighter 700 miles from that city.
Dec. 8-9-Congress passed (Dec. 8) a joint reso-
-There was cheering also in Parliament when
-Tokio reported that both Guam and Wake had
-Thailand (Siam) capitulated to Japanese forces.
the Philippines, false air raid alarms, due to a Fifth Column plot, enabled Japanese planes to see military targets with lights on the ground. consequence, the constabulary reported Japanese troops had made two landings on the island of Luzon, on which Manila and the island's chief defense centers are located. -Tokio asserted that its warships had shelled Midway and set hangars and oil stores afire, while planes had been shot down by the Japanese in attacks on Wake. The seizure of Guam had been announced. Tokio claimed, also, that its forces had captured more than 200 merchant ships of enemy nationalities along the China coast and in the Whangpoo River. A news coast and in the Whangpoo River.
-The official Japanese communique said: "At
Dec. 10-11-Germany and Italy (Dec. 11) declared
-Germany, Italy and Japan, Hitler announced in
A United States communique, dated Dec. 10,
Dec. 11-12-The Japanese said officially they had
U. S. Proposals Rejected by Japan
(Secretary of State Cordell Hull made public Dec. 7 the proposals which the United States made to Japan Nov. 26, and which were rejected by Japan Dec. 7, in a note to Secretary Hull).
Steps to be taken by the Government of the United
1. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will endeavor to conclude a multilateral nonaggression pact among the British Empire, China, Japan, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, Thailand and the United States. 2. Both governments will endeavor to conclude among the American, British, Chinese, Japanese, the Netherland and Thai Governments an agreement whereunder each of the governments would pledge itself to respect the territorial integrity of French Indo-China and, in the event that there should develop a threat to the territorial integrity of Indo-China, to enter into immediate consultation with a view to taking such measures as may be deemed necessary and advisable to meet the threat in question. Such agreement would provide also that each of the governments party to the agreement would not seek or accept preferential treatment in its trade or economic relations with Indo-China and would use its influence to obtain for each of the signatories equality of treatment in trade and commerce with French Indo-China.
3. The Government of Japan will withdraw all military, naval, air and police forces from China and from Indo-China.
4. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will not supportmilitarily, politically, economically-any government or regime in China other than the National Government of the Republic of China, with capital temporarily at Chunkging.
5. Both governments will give up all extraJAPAN'S REJECTION OF
territorial rights in China, including rights and interests in and with regard to international settlements and concessions, and rights under the Boxer Protocol of 1901.
Both governments will endeavor to obtain the agreement of the British and other governments to give up extraterritorial rights in China, including rights in international settlements and in concessions and under the Boxer Protocol of 1901. 6. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will enter into negotiations for the conclusion between the United States and Japan of a trade agreement, based upon reciprocal most-favored-nation treatment and reduction of trade barriers by both countries, including an undertaking by the United States to bind raw silk on the free list.
7. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will, respectively, remove the freezing restrictions on Japanese funds in the United States and on American funds in Japan.
8. Both governments will agee upon a plan for the stabilization of the dollar-yen rate, with the allocation of funds adequate for this purpose, half to be supplied by Japan and half by the United States.
9. Both governments will agree that no agreement which either has concluded with any third power or powers shall be interpreted by it in such a way as to conflict with the fundamental purpose of this agreement, the establishment and preservation of peace throughout the Pacific area.
10. Both governments will use their influence to cause other governments to adhere to and to give practical application to the basic, political and economic principles set forth in this agreement.
UNITED STATES PROPOSALS
1. The Government of Japan, prompted by a genuine desire to come to an amicable understanding with the Government of the United States in order that the two countries by their joint efforts may secure the peace of the Pacific area and thereby contribute toward the realization of world peace, has continued negotiations with the utmost sincerity since April last with the Government of the United States regarding the adjustment and advancement of Japanese-American relations and the stabilization of the Pacific area.
The Japanese Government has the honor to state frankly its views concerning the claims the American Government has persistently maintained as well as the measures the United States and Great Britain have taken toward Japan during these eight months.
2. It is the immutable policy of the Japanese Government to insure the stability of East Asia and to promote world peace and thereby to enable all nations to find each its proper place in the world.
Ever since the China affair broke out owing to the failure on the part of China to comprehend Japan's true intentions, the Japanese Government has striven for the restoration of peace and it has consistently exerted its best efforts to prevent the extension of warlike disturbances. It was also to that end that in September last year Japan concluded the Tripartite pact with Germany and Italy.
However, both the United States and Great Britain have resorted to every possible measure to assist the Chungking regime so as to obstruct the establishment of a general peace between Japan and China, interfering with Japan's constructive endeavors toward the stabilization of East Asia. Exerting pressure on the Netherlands Indies, or menacing French Indo-China, they have attempted to frustrate Japan's aspiration to the ideal of common prosperity in cooperation with these regions. Furthermore, when Japan in accordance with its protocol with France took measures of joint defense of French Indo-China, both the American and British Governments, willfully misinterpreting it as a threat to their own possessions, and inducing the Netherlands Government to follow suit, they enforced the assets freezing order, thus severing economic relations with Japan. While manifesting thus an obviously hostile attitude. these countries have strengthened their military preparations perfecting an encirclement of Japan, and have brought about a situation which endangers the very existence of the empire. Nevertheless, to facilitate a speedy settlement, the
Premier of Japan proposed, in August last, to meet the President of the United States for a discussion of important problems between the two countries covering the entire Pacific area. However, the American Government, while accepting in principle the Japanese proposal, insisted that the meeting should take place after an agreement of view had been reached on fundamental and essential questions.
3. Subsequently, on Sept. 25, the Japanese Government submitted a proposal based on the formula proposed by the American Government, taking fully into consideration past American claims and also incorporating Japanese views. Repeated discussions proved of no avail in producing readily an agreement of view. The present Cabinet, therefore, submitted a revised proposal, moderating still further the Japanese claims regarding the principal points of difficulty in the negotiation and endeavored strenuously to reach a settlement. But the American Government, adhering steadfastly to its original assertions, failed to display in the slightest degree a spirit of conciliation. The negotiation made no progress.
Therefore, the Japanese Government, with a view to doing its utmost for averting a crisis in Japanese-American relations, submitted on Nov. 20 still another proposal in order to arrive at an equitable solution of the more essential and urgent questions which simplifying its previous proposal, stipulated the following points:
(1) The Governments of Japan and the United States undertake not to dispatch armed forces into any of the regions, excepting French IndoChina, in the Southeastern Asia and the Southern Pacific area.
(2) Both governments shall cooperate with the view to securing the acquisition in the Netherlands East Indies of those goods and commodities of which the two countries are in need.
(3) Both governments mutually undertake to restore commercial relations to those prevailing prior to the freezing of assets.
The Government of the United States shall supply Japan the required quantity of oil.
(4) The Government of the United States undertakes not to resort to measures and actions prejudicial to the endeavors for the restoration of general peace between Japan and China.
(5) The Japanese Government undertakes to withdraw troops now stationed in French IndoChina upon either the restoration of peace between Japan and China or the establishment of an equitable peace in the Pacific area; and it is prepared to remove the Japanese troops in the
southern part of French Indo-China to the northern part upon the conclusion of the present agreement.
As regards China, the Japanese Government, while expressing its readiness to accept the offer of the President of the United States to act as "introducer" of peace between Japan and China as was previously suggested, asked for an undertaking on the part of the United States to do nothing prejudicial to the restoration of SinoJapanese peace when the two parties have commenced direct negotiations.
The American Government not only rejected the above-mentioned new proposal, but made known its intention to continue its aid to Chiang Kaishek; and in spite of its suggestion mentioned above, withdrew the offer of the President to act as so-called "introducer" of peace between Japan and China, pleading that time was not yet ripe for it. Finally, on Nov. 26, in an attitude to impose upon the Japanese Government those principles it has persistently maintained, the American Government made a proposal totally ignoring Japanese claims, which is a source of profound regret to the Japanese Government.
4. From the beginning of the present negotiation the Japanese Government has always maintained an attitude of fairness and moderation, and did its best to reach a settlement, for which it made all possible concessions often in spite of great difficulties. As for the China question which constitutes an important subject of the negotiation, the Japanese Government showed a most conciliatory attitude. As for the principle of non-discrimination in international commerce, advocated by the American Government, the Japanese Government expressed its desire to see the said principle applied throughout the world, and declared that along with the actual practice of this principle in the world, the Japanese Government would endeavor to apply the same in the Pacific area including China, and made it clear that Japan had no intention of excluding from China economic activities of third powers pursued on an equitable basis. Furthermore, as regards the question of withdrawing troops from French Indo-China, Japanese Government even volunteered, as mentioned above, to carry out an immediate evacuation of troops, from Southern French Indo-China as a measure of easing the situation.
It is presumed that the spirit of conciliation exhibited to the utmost degree by the Japanese Government in all these matters is fully appreciated by the American Government.
On the other hand, the American Government, always holding fast to theories in disregard of realities, and refusing to yield an inch on its impractical principles, caused undue delay in the negotiations. It is difficult to understand this attitude of the American Government and the Japanese Government desires to call the attention of the American Government especially to the following points:
1. The American Government advocates in the name of world peace those principles favorable to it and urges upon the Japanese Government the acceptance thereof. The peace of the world may be brought about only by discovering a mutually acceptable formula through recognition of the reality of the situation and mutual appreciation of one another's position. An attitude such as ignores realities and imposes one's selfish views upon others will scarcely serve the purpose of facilitating the consummation of negotiations.
Of the various principles put forward by the American Government as a basis of the JapaneseAmerican agreement, there are some which the Japanese Government is ready to accept in principle, but in view of the world's actual condition it seems only a Utopian ideal on the part of the American Government to attempt to force their immediate adoption.
Again, the proposal to conclude a multilateral non-aggression pact between Japan, the United States, Great Britain, China, the Soviet Union, the Netherlands and Thailand, which is patterned after the old concept of collective security, is far removed from the realities of East Asia.
2. The American proposal contained a stipulation which states-"Both governments will agree that no agreement, which either has concluded with any third power or powers, shall be interpreted by it in such a way as to conflict with the fundamental purpose of this agreement, the establishment and preservation of peace throughout the Pacific area." It is presumed that the above provision has been proposed with a view to restrain Japan from fulfilling its obligation under the tripartite pact when the United States participates in the war in Europe, and, as such, it cannot be accepted by the Japanese Government.
The American Government, obsessed with its own views and opinions, may be said to be scheming for the extension of the war. While it seeks, on the one hand, to secure its rear by stabilizing the Pacific area, it is engaged, on the other hand, in aiding Great Britain and preparing to attack, in the name of self-defense, Germany and Italy. two powers that are striving to establish a New Order in Europe. variance with the many principles upon which Such a policy is totally at American Government proposes to found the stability of the Pacific area through peaceful means. 3. Whereas the American Government, under the principles it rigidly upholds, objects to settle international issues through military pressure, it is exercising in and upon other nations pressure by economic power. a means of dealing with international relations Recourse to such pressure as humane than military pressure. should be condemned, as it is at times more in
4. It is impossible not to reach the conclusion that the American Government desires to mainBritain and other powers, its dominant position tain and strengthen, in coalition with Great other areas of East Asia. It is a fact of history it has hitherto occupied not only in China but in that the countries of East Asia for the past hundred years or more have been compelled to observe the status quo under the Anglo-American policy of imperialistic exploitation and to sacrifice themselves to the prosperity of the two nations. The Japanese Government cannot tolerate the perpetuation of such a situation since it directly runs counter to Japan's fundamental policy to enable all nations to enjoy each its proper place in the world.
The stipulation proposed by the American Government relative to French Indo-China is a good policy. Thus the six countries-Japan, the United exemplification of the above-mentioned American States, Great Britain, the Netherlands, China, and Thailand-excepting France, should underintegrity and sovereignty of French Indo-China take among themselves to respect the territorial and equality of treatment in trade and commerce would be tantamount to placing the territory under the joint guarantee of the governments 01 those six countries. such a proposal totally ignores the position of Apart from the fact that France, it is unacceptable to the Japanese Govbe considered as an extension to French Indoernment in that such an arrangement cannot but China of a system similar to the Nine Power Treaty structure which is the chief factor responsible for the present predicament of East Asia.
5. All the items demanded of Japan by the American Government regarding China, such as wholesale evacuation of troops or unconditional application of the principle of non-discrimination in international commerce, ignored the actual conJapan's position as the stabilizing factor of East ditions of China, and are calculated to destroy in demanding Japan not to support militarily. Asia. The attitude of the American Government politically or economically any regime other than the regime at Chungking, disregarding thereby the existence of the Nanking Government, shatters the very basis of the present negotiation. This demand of the American Government, falling, as it does, in line with its above-mentioned refusal to cease from aiding the Chungking regime, demonstrates clearly the intention of the American Government to obstruct the restoration of normal relations between Japan and China and the return of peace to East Asia.
6. In brief, the American proposal contains certain acceptable items, such as those concerning agreement, mutual removal of the freezing recommerce, including the conclusion of a trade strictions, and stabilization of yen and dollar exchange, or the abolition of extraterritorial rights proposal in question ignores Japan's sacrifices in in China. On the other hand, however, the the four years of the China affair, menaces the empire's existence itself and disparages its honor and prestige. Therefore, viewed in its entirety, the Japanese Government regrets that it cannot accept the proposal as a basis of negotiation.
7. The Japanese Government, in its desire for simultaneously with the conclusion of the Japanan early conclusion of the negotiation, proposed, ese-American negotiation, agreements to be signed with Great Britain and other interested countries. The proposal was accepted by the American Government. However, since the American Government has made the proposal of Nov. 26 as a result of frequent consultation with Great Britain. presumably by catering to the wishes of the Australia, the Netherlands and Chungking, and Chungking regime in the questions of China, i must be concluded that all these countries are at
one with the United States in ignoring Japan's | present negotiation. Thus, the earnest hope of position.
8. Obviously, it is the intention of the American Government to conspire with Great Britain and other countries to obstruct Japan's efforts toward the establishment of peace through the creation of a new order in East Asia, and especially to preserve Anglo-American rights and interests by keeping Japan and China at war. This intention has been revealed clearly during the course of the
the Japanese Government to adjust JapaneseAmerican relations and to preserve and promote the peace of the Pacific through cooperation with the American Government has finally been lost. The Japanese Government regrets to have to notify hereby the American Government that in view of the attitude of the American Government it cannot but consider that it is impossible to reach an agreement through further negotiations.
SECRETARY HULL'S REPLY TO JAPAN'S ANSWER On Nov. 26 the Secretary of State handed to the Japanese representatives a document which stated the principles governing the policies of the government of the United States toward the situation in the Far East and setting out suggestions for a comprehensive peaceful settlement covering the entire Pacific area.
so huge that I never imagined until today that any government on this planet was capable of uttering them.
At 1 p.m. today (Dec. 7) the Japanese Ambassador asked for an appointment for the Japanese representatives to see the Secretary of State. The appointment was made for 1:45 p.m. The Japanese representatives arrived at the office of the Secretary of State at 2:05 p.m. They were received by -infamous falsehoods and distortions on a scale
the Secretary at 2:20 p.m. The Japanese Ambassador handed to the Secretary of State what was understood to be a reply to the document handed to him by the Secretary of State on Nov. 26.
I must say that in all my conversations with you (the Japanese Ambassador) during the last nine months I have never uttered one word of untruth. This is borne out absolutely by the record. In all my fifty years of public service I have never seen a document that was more crowded with infamous falsehoods and distortions
War Message of President Roosevelt on Japan
Yesterday, December 7, 1941-A date which wlil, pine Islands. live in infamy-the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.
The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.
Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing Oahu, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.
It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese Government has delbierately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.
The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.
Yesterday the Japanese Government launched an attack against Malaya.
Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
Last night the Japanese attacked Wake Island. This morning the Japanese attacked Midway Island.
Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.
As Commander in Chief of the army and navy I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense.
Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us.
No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through the absolute victory.
I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.
Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger.
With confidence in our armed forces-with the unbounding determination of our people-we will gain the inevitable triumph-so help us God.
I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
United States Declaration of War Against Japan
Whereas the Imperial Japanese Government | has committed unprovoked acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America: Therefore, be it
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial Japanese Government which has thus been thrust upon the
United States is hereby formally declared; and the President is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial Japanese Government; and, to bring the conflict to a successful termination, all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.
Axis War Message of President Roosevelt
On the morning of Dec. 11 the government of Germany, pursuing its course of world conquest, declared war against the United States.
The long-known and the long-expected has thus taken place. The forces endeavoring to enslave the entire world now are moving toward this hemisphere.
Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty and civilization.
Delay invites great danger. Rapid and united effort by all of the peoples of the world who are
determined to remain free will insure a world victory of the forces of justice and of righteousness over the forces of savagery and of barbarism. Italy also has declared war against the United States.
I therefore request the Congress to recognize a state of war between the United States and Germany and between the United States and Italy. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
A declaration of war followed.
Japanese Cabinet of Premier Hideki Tojo
Premier, War Minister, Home Minister-Hideki
Foreign Minister-Shigenori Togo.
Railways and Communications-Vice Admiral Ken
Finance Okinobu Kaya.
Commerce and Industry-Shinsuke Kishi.
Minister Without Portfolio-Maj. Gen. Teiichi Suzuki.
FOREIGN AFFAIRS-WAR IN EUROPE
The war in Europe swept into its third year
The countries directly affected by the war as it entered the third year were lined up as follows: Axis-Area controlled, 4,000,000 square milesGermany, Italy, Rumania, Hungary, Croatia, Slovakia and Finland, active belligerents. The Axis had conquered or occupied these nations: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France (in part), Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia. Before the outbreak of the war Germany had absorbed Czecho-Slovakia, Memel and the Free Port of Danzig, while Italy had helped herself to Albania and Ethiopia. Japan and its puppet State, Manchukuo, were active against China. As the war in Europe turned into its third year, Japan was maintaining sufficient diplomatic tension in the Far East to force Great Britain and the United States to maintain strong naval detachments in the Pacific for the protection of strategic bases there and as a guard against a possible thrust at Singapore, the British Far Eastern naval base, and Siberia while Russia was occupied in the fighting with Germany. [Later Japan declared war against the United States]. Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania, annexed by the U. S. S. R., had been regained by Germany in the fighting with Russia. Luxemburg also flew the swastika as an occupied country. Allies-Area controlled, 25,000,000 square milesGreat Britain and its Empire, Free France and Russia, Egypt, though nominally neutral, is listed with the Allies because there has been fighting within her borders between the British and the Italian and German forces. Iran, Iraq and Syria were occupted by the British and Free French. Also lined up with the Allies were the NetherBelgium, Czecholands, Norway, Luxemburg, Slovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Greece and Ethiopia. Iceland is not listed as a belligerent for it has not been the scene of actual fighting, although the United States has established an armed outpost there to guard supply shipments to England and Russia, and it has earned the title of the "Gibraltar of the North."
Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey remained neutral as the war entered its third year. In estimating that four-fifths of the population of the world (computed as 2,145,200,000) had become involved in the war, authorities said that the everyday lives of more than 1,700,000,000 persons had been conditioned to participation in the fighting. Revolt flared in many of the occupied countries and the Nazis resorted to reprisal execution of hostages in large numbers in an attempt to halt the attacks against leaders and the sabotage of war industries.
The British Empire and Russia, fighting as
At the outbreak of the war Germany was re-
of hundreds of thousands of men, new troops were
Chancellor Hitler, in a New Year's speech,
The scene of war activities shifted early in 1941
In Libya Mussolini was suffering another reverse
British and German agents had been active of Rumania abdicated in favor of his son, Michael, throughout the Winter in the Balkans. King Carol and fled the country. Britain broke off relations with Bulgaria because of the entry of German troops into that kingdom. A few days later German the Bulgarian capital, and German-Russian relastaff officers appeared in civilian clothes in Sofia, tions began to cool. Turkey and Greece hastened construction on their frontier fortifications and Russia informed Bulgaria that Moscow did not approve of German occupation of the Balkan country. Great Britain broke with Bulgaria (March 5) and the next day Hitler informed an uneasy terest and well-being" of that State, which had Turkey that Germany wished to protect the "ina mutual assistance pact with Great Britain. At the same time Nazi diplomats were working on Yugoslavia, ringed in by Germany and Italy on Russia gave Turkey a pledge of mutual assistance all sides except the Greek frontier to the South. (March 24). Yugoslavs were aware that Russia Yugoslav leaders joined the Axis the following day. hoped they would resist Axis encroachment, but Germany hailed the action but shouted too early for a Serbian coup d'etat (March 27) turned out the Axis committed Government and enthroned the 17-year-old Peter. The United States and Great Britain pledged help to Yugoslavia if the country decided to fight. The Nazi press charged that Germans were being beaten in Yugoslavia and German forces struck (April 6), not only against with this warning the Serbs began mobilizing. Yugoslavia, but also Greece where British forces over in less than a month. The Yugoslav oxenhad been landed some weeks before. It was all drawn army was cut to pieces and capitulated in 12 days but guerrillas continued fighting against their country's conquerors. In three days more, German tanks had smashed through Grecian Thrace to the Agean Sea. The small British Army fled to the Greek Island of Crete. The German been finished. High Command announced that the campaign had
At almost the same time the Germans launched a surprise stroke in Libya-a drive to the Suez Canal and incidentally the rescue of what was left of Mussolini's Army. The British were driven back to the Egyptian border-slightly across it but a small garrison held to Tobruk. The British renewed the campaign in Libya in late November, 1941.
Italy received parts of Yugoslavia and Greece as its share of the Axis loot in the Balkans: Croati was set up as a separate Italian Kingdom with a Italy had lost her African colonial Empire to th Italian Duke as king. But against these gain British and the Free French, with the exceptio of Libya.
The Germans and the Italians occupied th Greek Islands off the Turkish coast to continu their pressure on Turkey and the British Middl