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about 9:25 A. M. At the Pearl Harbor Naval --Berlin said that Japanese troops had advanced Base several hundred sallors at the barracks were half way across Thailand in an advance on the killed by bombs from planes.
Burma Road, and had begun an air attack on -Secretary of the Navy Knox reported, after a that link communication between the Pacific
trip to Hawail, that navy casualties were 91 Ocean and Chiang Kai-shek's Chinese governofficers and 2,638 men killed and 20 officers and ment at Chungking. In Thailand, the capital, 636 men wounded. The Army put its losses at
Bangkok, was occupied by Japanese forces. 168 officers and men, bringing the aggregate -In Malaya, the Japanese landed at Kota Bharu, service losses to 2,897. Secretary Knox listed the
fought to land at Kuantan, and made further destroyed vessels as the battleship Arizona, landings on the Isthmus of Kra, destroyers Cassin, Downes and Shaw, mine layer-In the Philippines, false air raid alarms, due to Oglala and training ship Utah. He said the a Fifth Column plot, enabled Japanese planes battleship, Oklahoma had capsized and an un
to see military targets with lights on the ground. announced number of ships had been damaged.
consequence the constabulary reported He added that all remaining effective units "are
Japanese troops had made two landings on the at sea seeking contact with the enemy."
island of Luzon, on which Manila and the
island's chief defense centers are located. -Guam was raided by planes, also Davao on Mindanao, Camp John Hay in Luzon. Japanese
Tokio asserted that its warships had shelled parachute troops were landed in the Philippines.
Midway and set hangars and oil stores afire, -Japanese submarines, ranging out over the
while planes had been shot down by the Japanese
in attacks on Wake. The seizure of Guam had Pacific, sank an American transport carrying
been announced. Tokio claimed, also, that its lumber 1,300 miles from San Francisco, and
forces had captured more than 200 merchant distress signals were heard from a freighter 700 miles from that city.
ships of enemy nationalities along the China
coast and in the Whangpoo River, A news Dec. 8-9-Congress passed (Dec. 8) a joint reso- coast and in the Whangpoo River.
lution declaring war on Japan. The Senate vote -The ofrcial Japanese communique said: "At was 82 to 0; the House, 388 to 1. The dissenter
dawn of Dec. 8, Japanese troops occupied the was Jeannette Rankin (R.-Mont.). She had
foreign concessions (in China) and seized the voted against war in 1917. President Roosevelt
property of nationals belonging to countries was cheered in his five-minute "call to arms" hostile to Japan. They entered the British conaddress preceding the vote.
cessions at Tientsin and Chiwangtao without -There was cheering also in Parliament when meeting any resistance. By midday, occupation
Prime Minister Churchill announced Britain's of the International Concession (Settlement) at declaration of war against Japan.
Shanghai and all the British concessions in South -The Japanese communique, broadcast from China had been effected."
Berlin, said that "North American naval and Dec. 10-11-Germany and Italy (Dec. 11) declared air bases on Hawaii had been successfully at- war against the United States. In response to tacked In Shanghai, Japanese forces captured a war message of President Roosevelt, the Conone American gunboat and sank one British. gress of the United States in joint session passed Also, air attacks on Singapore were carried out & resolution declaring a state of war existed with success. Further raids were directed on between the United States and Germany and the Davao, on the Philippine Island of Mindanao, United States and Italy. The vote in the Senate in the Northern Pacific, as well as Guam, east on the German resolution was 88 to 0; on the of the Philippines. Both American bases were Italian resolution 90 to 0. In the House the successfully attacked. Japanese Army and Naval vote on the German resolution was 393 to 0, forces carried out surprise landing operations on Representative Jeannette Rankin (R.-Mont.) British Malaya this morning. The operation de- voting present; on the resolution against Italy veloped successfully. The attack against Hong
the vote was 399 to 0, Representative Rankin Kong also was started. Shanghai was occupied. again voting present. -There were extensive air attacks in the Philip- -In Washington the German Charge d'Affaires pines.
handed to the State Department notification -Tokio reported that both Guam and Wake had
that & state of war existed between the United been put under the Japanese flag.
States and Germany. -The U. 8. Consulate in Shanghai was closed by
-Chancellor Hitler told the Reichstag in Berlin the Japanese, who also disarmed the small de
that Germany had power and foresight to take tachments of U. S. marines at Tientsin and
all necessary measures for the world conflict. Peiping and detained them.
"We will always strike first," he said. "We will -Thailand (Siam) capitulated to Japanese forces.
always deal the first blow."
-- Germany, Italy and Japan, Hitler announced in -Tokio reported sinking of the U. S. Battleships
Berlin, have bound themselves in an alliance to West Virginia and Pennsylvania at Pearl Harbor.
carry on to final victory the war against Great -Japan assured the United States, Brit:in and
Britain and the United States with "every conCanada their nationals would receive treatment
ceivable means''; not to conchude a separate in accordance with international law
peace or armistice; to continue the closest colDee. 9-10-President Roosevelt in a Worldwide laboration and to establish a new and lasting
radio broadcast from the White House (Dec. 9) order along the lines of the tripartite agreement; declared that "the sudden criminal attacks to effectivate the past immediately. perpetrated by the Japanese in the Pacific provide -A United States communique, dated Dec. 10, the climax of a decade of international im- said the Japanese had made landings along the morality. Powerful and resourceful gangsters northern coast of Luzon, but were driven away have banded together to make war upon the from he west coast, north of San Fernando whole human race. Their challenge has now with heavy losses. Military objectives near been flung at the United States of America. The Manila were bombed by the enemy. Japanese have treacherously violated the long- -The Japanese battleship Haruna, 29,000 tons, standing peace between us. Many American sol- was sunk off the northern coast of Luzon by diers and sailors have been killed by enemy United States Army bombers, Secretary Stimson action. American ships have been sunk: Ameri- announced. can airplanes have been destroyed. We are now Dec. 11-12--The Japanese said officially they had in the midst of & war, not for conquest, not for lost (Dec. 10) 829,000 ton battleship of the vengeance, but for a world in which this nation, Haruna class off Northern Luzon. It was hit and all that this nation represents, will be safe by aerial torpedoes from U. S. planes, which for our children. We expect to eliminate the destroyed, also, & submarine chaser. Another danger from Japan, but it would serve us 111 Japanese battleship was damaged by aerial torif we accomplished that and found that the
pedoes, and a cruiser and destroyer were sunk, rest of the world was dominated by Hitler and Washington announced. It was further stated Mussolini. So, we are going to win the war and that "continued attempts by strong Japanese we are going to win the peace that follows."
forces to establish themselves along the north-Japan announced that its air force, off the east ern coast of Luzon were reported. Determined
coast of the Malay Peninsula, had sunk the resistance has confined this action to the attack 35,000-ton British battleship Prince of Wales. in the vicinity of Aparri, at the extreme northern and the 32,000-ton British cruiser, Repulse, The tip of Luzon, where the Japanese attempted to former, which was launched in 1939, was one of
establish a beach head yesterday. Air activity the Royal Navy's newest vessels and went to
continued in the vicinity of Manila, with inter
mittent attacks on air fields at Cavite and Singapore shortly before Japan declared war
Nichols Field throughout the day.' on Great Britain and the United States. The
-Tokio claimed occupation of the capital of Guam Repulse was launched in 1916. Admiral Sir Tom
and capture of 300 Americans, including the S. V. Phillips was among the 595 officers and men Governor, Capt. G. G. McMillin. Tokio asserted misaing (as of Dec. 11) from the two ships; 130 also that Japanese forces had landed on Wake, oficers and 2.200 men were rescued by destroyers. and on the coast of Southern Luzon.
U. S. Proposals Rejected by Japan (Secretary of State Cordell Hull made public Dec. 7 the proposals which the United States made to Japan Nov. 26, and which were rejected by Japan Dec. 7, in a note to Secretary Hull). Steps to be taken by the Government of the United | territorial rights in China, including rights and
States and by the Government of Japan interests in and with regard to international The Government of the United States and the settlements and concessions, and rights under the Government of Japan propose to take steps as Boxer Protocol of 1901. follows:
Both governments will endeavor to obtain the 1. The Government of the United States and the agreement of the British and other governments Government of Japan will endeavor to conclude to give up extraterritorial rights in China, ina multilateral nonaggression pact among the cluding rights in international settlements and in British Empire, China, Japan, the Netherlands, concessions and under the Boxer Protocol of 1901. the Soviet Union, Thailand and the United States. 6. The Government of the United States and
2. Both governments will endeavor to conclude the Government of Japan will enter into negotiaamong the American, British, Chinese, Japanese, tions for the conclusion between the United States the Netherland and Thai Governments an agree- and Japan of a trade agreement, based upon rement whereunder each of the governments would ciprocal most-favored-nation treatment and repledge itself to respect the territorial integrity of duction of trade barriers by both countries, French Indo-China and, in the event that there including an undertaking by the United States to should develop a threat to the territorial integrity bind raw silk on the free list. of Indo-China, to enter into immediate consulta- 7. The Government of the United States and tion with a view to taking such measures as may the Government of Japan will, respectively, rebe deemed necessary and advisable to meet the move the freezing restrictions on Japanese funds threat in question. Such agreement would pro- in the United States and on American funds in vide also that each of the governments party to
Japan. the agreement would not seek or accept prefer
8. Both governments will agee upon a plan for ential treatment in its trade or economic relations the stabilization of the dollar-yen rate, with the with Indo-China and would use its influence to
allocation of funds adequate for this purpose, half obtain for each of the signatories equality of to be supplied by Japan and half by the United treatment in trade and commerce with French
9. Both governments will agree that no agree. 3. The Government of Japan will withdraw all ment which either has concluded with any third military, naval, air and police forces from China power or powers shall be interpreted by it in such and from Indo-China.
a way as to conflict with the fundamental purpose 4. The Government of the United States and of this agreement, the establishment and preservathe Government of Japan will not support--- tion of peace throughout the Pacific area. militarily, politically. economically--any govern. 10. Both governments will use their influence ment or regime in China other than the National to cause other governments to adhere to and to Government of the Republic of China, with capital give practical application to the basic, political temporarily at Chunkging.
and economic principles set forth in this agree5. Both governments will give up all extra- ment.
JAPAN'S REJECTION OF UNITED STATES PROPOSALS 1. The Government of Japan, prompted by a Premier of Japan proposed, in August last, to meet genuine desire to come to an amicable understand- the President of the United States for a discussion ing with the Government of the United States in of important problems between the two countries order that the two countries by their joint efforts covering the entire Pacific area. However, the may secure the peace of the Pacific area and American Government, while accepting in principle thereby contribute toward the realization of world the Japanese proposal, insisted that the meeting peace, has continued negotiations with the utmost should take place after an agreement of view sincerity since April last with the Government of had been reached on fundamental and essential the United States regarding the adjustment and questions. advancement of Japanese-American relations and
3. Subsequently, on Sept. 25, the Japanese the stabilization of the Pacific area.
Government submitted a proposal based on the The Japanese Government has the honor to formula proposed by the American Government, state frankly its views concerning the claims the taking fully into consideration past American American Government has persistently maintained
claims and also incorporating Japanese views. as well as the measures the United States and Repeated discussions proved of no avail in proGreat Britain have taken toward Japan during ducing readily an agreement of view. The present these eight months.
Cabinet, therefore, submitted a revised proposal, 2. It is the immutable policy of the Japanese moderating still further the Japanese claims reGovernment to insure the stability of East Asia garding the principal points of difficulty in the and to promote world peace and thereby to enable negotiation and endeavored strenuously to reach a all nations to find each its proper place in the settlement. But the American Government, adworld.
hering steadfastly to its original assertions, failed Ever since the China affair broke out owing to to display in the slightest degree a spirit of conthe failure on the part of China to comprehend ciliation. The negotiation made no progress. Japan's true intentions, the Japanese Government Therefore, the Japanese Government, with a has striven for rest tion of peace and it view to doing its utmost for averting a crisis in has consistently exerted its best efforts to prevent Japanese-American relations, submitted on Nov. the extension of warlike disturbances. It was also 20 still another proposal in order to arrive at an to that end that in September last year Japan equitable solution of the more essential and urgent concluded the Tripartite pact with Germany and questions which simplifying its previous proposal, Italy.
stipulated the following points: However, both the United States and Great (1) The Governments of Japan and the United Britain have resorted to every possible measure to States undertake not to dispatch armed forces assist the Chungking regime so as to obstruct the into any of the regions, excepting French Indoestablishment of a general peace between Japan China, in the Southeastern Asia and the Southern and China, interfering with Japan's constructive Pacífic area. endeavors toward the stabilization of East Asia. (2) Both governments shall cooperate with the Exerting pressure on the Netherlands Indies, or view to securing the acquisition in the Netherlands menacing French Indo-China, they have attempted East Indies of those goods and commodities of to frustrate Japan's aspiration to the ideal of which the two countries are in need. common prosperity in cooperation
(3) Both governments mutually undertake to regions. Furthermore, when Japan in accordance restore commercial relations to those prevailing with its protocol with France took measures of prior to the freezing of assets. joint defense of French Indo-China, both the The Government of the United States shall American and British Governments, willfully mis- supply Japan the required quantity of oil. interpreting it as a threat to their own possessions, (4) The Government of the United States underand inducing the Netherlands Government to fol- takes not to resort to measures and actions prejulow suit, they enforced the assets freezing order. dicial to the endeavors for the restoration of thus severing economic relations with Japan. While general peace between Japan and China. manifesting thus an obviously hostile attitude, (5) The Japanese Government undertakes to these countries have strengthened their military withdraw troops now stationed in French Indopreparations perfecting an encirclement of Japan, China upon either the restoration of peace beand have brought about a situation which en- tween Japan and China or the establishment of dangers the very existence of the empire. Never- an equitable peace in the Pacific area; and it is theless, to facilitate & speedy settlement, the prepared to remove the Japanese troops in the southern part of French Indo-China to the north- The American Government, obsessed with its ern part upon the conclusion of the present own views and opinions,
may be said to be schem-. agreement,
ing for the extension of the war. While it seeks, As regards China, the Japanese Government, on the one hand, to secure its rear by stabilizing while expressing its readiness to accept the offer the Pacific area, it is engaged, on the other hand, of the President of the United States to act as in aiding Great Britain and preparing to attack, "Introducer of peace between Japan and China in the name of self-defense, Germany and Italy, as was previously suggested, asked for an under- two powers that are_striving to establish a New taking on the part of the United States to do Order in Europe. Such a policy is totally at nothing prejudicial to the restoration of Sino- variance with the many principles upon which Japanese peace when the two parties have com- American Government proposes to found the stamenced direct negotiations.
bility of the Pacific area through peaceful means. The American Government not only rejected the 3. Whereas the American Government, under above-mentioned new proposal, but made known the principles it rigidly upholds, objects to settle its intention to continue its aid to Chiang Kai- international issues through military pressure, it shek; and in spite of its suggestion mentioned is exercising in and upon other nations pressure above, withdrew the offer of the President to act by economic power. Recourse to such pressure as as so-called "introducer" of peace between Japan a means of dealing with international relations and China, pleading that time was not yet ripe should be condemned, as it is at times more infor it. Finally, on Nov. 26, in an attitude to impose humane than military pressure. upon the Japanese Government those principles it 4. It is impossible not to reach the conclusion has persistently maintained, the American Gov- that the American Government desires to mainernment made a proposal totally ignoring Japanese tain and strengthen, in coalition with Great claims, which is & source of profound regret to the Britain and other powers, its dominant position Japanese Government.
it has hitherto occupied not only in China but in 4. From the beginning of the present negotiation other areas of East Asia. It is a fact of history the Japanese Government has always maintained that the countries of East Asia for the past hunan attitude of fairness and moderation, and did its dred years or more have been compelled to observe best to reach a settlement, for which it made, all the status quo under the Anglo-American policy possible concessions often in spite of great diffi- of imperialistic exploitation and to sacrifice themculties. As for the China question which consti- selves to the prosperity of the two nations. The tutes an important subject of the negotiation, the Japanese Government cannot tolerate the perpetuJapanese Government showed a most conciliatory ation of such a situation since it directly runs attitude. As for the principle of non-discrimina
counter to Japan's fundamental policy to enable tion in international commerce, advocated by the
all nations to enjoy each its proper place in the American Government, the Japanese Government world. expressed its desire to see the said principle applied The stipulation proposed by the American Govthroughout the world, and declared that along
ernment relative to French Indo-China is a good with the actual practice of this principle in the exemplification of the above-mentioned American world, the Japanese Government would endeavor
policy. Thus the six countries-Japan, the United to apply the same in the Pacific area including states, Great Britain, the Netherlands, China, China, and made it clear that Japan had no in
and Thailand- excepting France, should undertention of excluding from China economic activi
take among themselves to respect the territorial ties of third powers pursued on an equitable basis.
integrity and sovereignty of French Indo-China Furthermore, as regards the question of with
and equality of treatment in trade and commerce drawing troops from French Indo-China,
would be tantamount to placing the territory Japanese Government even volunteered, as men
under the joint guarantee of the governments of tioned above, to carry out an immediate evacuation
those six countries. Apart from the fact that of troops from Southern French Indo-China as a
such a proposal totally ignores the position of measure of easing the situation.
France, it is unacceptable to the Japanese GovIt is presumed that the spirit of conciliation
ernment in that such an arrangement cannot but exhibited to the utmost degree by the Japanese be considered as an extension to French IndoGovernment in all these matters is fully ap- China of a system similar to the Nine Power preciated by the American Government.
Treaty structure which is the chief factor responOn the other hand, the American Government,
sible for the present predicament of East Asia. always holding fast to theories in disregard of
5. All the items demanded of Japan by the realities, and refusing to yield an inch on its
American Government regarding China, such as
wholesale evacuation of troops or unconditional impractical principles, caused undue delay in the negotiations. It is difficult to understand this
application of the principle of non-discrimination attitude of the American Government and the
in international commerce, ignored the actual conJapanese Government desires to call the attention
ditions of China, and are calculated to destroy of the American Government especially to the Japan's position as the stabilizing factor of East following points:
Asia. The attitude of the American Government 1. The American Government advocates in the
in demanding Japan not to support militarily. name of world peace those principles favorable to
politically or economically any regime other than it and urges upon the Japanese Government the
the regime at Chungking, disregarding thereby acceptance thereof. The peace of the world may
the existence of the Nanking Government, shatters be brought about only by discovering a mutually the very basis of the present negotiation. This acceptable formula through recognition of the
demand of the American Government, falling, as reality of the situation and mutual appreciation of it does, in line with its above-mentioned refusal
to one another's position. An attitude such as ignores cease
from aiding the Chungking regime, realities and imposes one's selfish views upon demonstrates clearly the intention of the American others will scarcely serve the purpose of facilitating Government to obstruct the restoration of normal the consummation of negotiations.
relations between Japan and China and the return of the various principles put forward by the of peace to East Asia. American Government as a basis of the Japanese- 6. In brief, the American proposal contains cerAmerican agreement, there are some which the tain acceptable items, such as those concerning Japanese Government is ready to accept in prin- commerce, including the conclusion of a trade ciple, but in view of the world's actual condition agreement, mutual removal of the freezing re1t seems only a Utopian ideal on the part of the strictions, and stabilization of yen and dollar exAmerican Government to attempt to force their change, or the abolition of extraterritorial rights immediate adoption.
in China. On the other hand, however, the Again, the proposal to conclude a multilateral proposal in question ignores Japan's sacrifices in non-aggression pact between Japan, the United the four years of the China affair, menaces the States, Great Britain, China, the Soviet Union, empire's existence itself and disparages its honor the Netherlands and Thailand, which is patterned and prestige.
Therefore, viewed in its entirety, after the old concept of collective security, is far the Japanese Government regrets that it cannot removed from the realities of East Asia.
accept the proposal as a basis of negotiation. 2. The American proposal contained a stipula- 7. The Japanese Government, in its desire for tion which states--Both governments will agree an early conclusion of the negotiation, proposed, that no agreement, which either has concluded simultaneously with the conclusion of the Japanwith any third power or powers, shall be inter- ese-American negotiation, agreements to be signed preted by it in such a way as to conflict with the with Great Britain and other interested countries. fundamental purpose of this agreement, the estab- The proposal was accepted by the American Govlishment and preservation of peace throughout the ernment. However, since the American GovernPacific area." It is presumed that the above pro- ment has made the proposal of Nov. 26 as a result vision has been proposed with & view to restrain of frequent consultation with Great Britain, Japan from fulmiling its obligation under the Australia, the Netherlands and Chungking, and tripartite pact when the United States participates presumably by catering to the wishes of the in the war in Europe, and, as such, it cannot be Chungking regime in the questions of China, it accepted by the Japanese Government.
must be concluded that all these countries are a
one with the United States in ignoring Japan's present negotiation. Thus, the earnest hope of position.
the Japanese Government to adjust Japanese8. Obviously, it is the intention of the American American relations and to preserve and promote Government to conspire with Great Britain and the peace of the Pacific through cooperation with other countries to obstruct Japan's efforts toward the American Government has finally been lost. the establishment of peace through the creation The Japanese Government regrets to have to of a new order in East Asia, and especially to notify hereby the American Government that in preserve Anglo-American rights and interests by view of the attitude of the American Government keeping Japan and China at war. This intention it cannot but consider that it is impossible to has been revealed clearly during the course of the reach an agreement through further negotiations.
SECRETARY HULL'S REPLY TO JAPAN'S ANSWER On Nov. 26 the Secretary of State handed to so huge that I never imagined until today that the Japanese representatives a document which any government on this planet was capable of stated the principles governing the policies of the uttering them. government of the United States toward the situ- the Secretary at 2:20 p.m. The Japanese Ambasation in the Far East and setting out suggestions sador handed to the Secretary of State what was for a comprehensive peaceful settlement covering understood to be a reply to the document handed the entire Pacific area.
to him by the Secretary of State on Nov. 26. At 1 p.m. today (Dec. 7) the Japanese Am- I must say that in all my conversations with bassador asked for an appointment for the Japanese you (the Japanese Ambassador) during the last representatives to see the Secretary of State. The nine months I have never uttered one word of appointment was made for 1:45 p.m. The Japanese untruth, This is borne out absolutely by the representatives arrived at the office of the Secre- record. In all my fifty years of public service I tary of State at 2:05 p.m. They were received by have never seen a document that was more -infamous falsehoods and distortions on a scale crowded with infamous falsehoods and distortions
War Message of President Roosevelt on Japan
Yesterday, December 7, 1941-A date which wlil, pine Islands. live in infamy--the United States of America was Last night the Japanese attacked Wake Island. suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and This morning the Japanese attacked Midway air forces of the Empire of Japan.
Island. The United States was at peace with that Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. in conversation with its Government and its The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace people of the United States have already formed in the Pacific.
their opinions and well understand the implicaIndeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons tions to the very life and safety of our nation. had commenced bombing Oahu, the Japanese Am
As Commander in Chief of the army and navy bassador to the United States and his colleague I have directed that all measures be taken for delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply our defense. to a recent American message. While this reply Always will we remember the character of the stated that it seemed useless to continue the onslaught against us. existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no No matter how long it may take us to overcome threat or hint of war or armed attack.
this premeditated invasion, the American people It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii in their righteous might will win through the from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was absolute victory. deliberately planned many days or even weeks I believe I interpret the will of the Congress ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese and of the people when I assert that we will not Government has delbierately sought to deceive the only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will United States by false statements and expressions make very certain that this form of treachery of ope for continued peace.
shall never endanger us again The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the has caused severe damage to American naval and fact that our people, our territory and our inmilitary forces. Very many American lives have terests are in grave danger. been lost. In addition, American ships have been With confidence in our armed forces with the reported torpedoed on the high seas between San unbounding determination of our people-we will Francisco and Honolulu.
gain the inevitable triumph-50 help us God. Yesterday the Japanese Government also I ask that the Congress declare that since the launched an attack against Malaya.
unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. Sunday, December 7, a state of war has existed beLast night Japanese forces attacked Guam. tween the United States and the Japanese Empire. Last night Japanese forces attacked the Philip
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
FOREIGN AFFAIRS—WAR IN EUROPE
The war in Europe swept into its third year of hundreds of thousands of men, new troops were (Sept. 1, 1941) with four-fifths of the population hurled into the conflict. It was 'at this time that of the world involved in the conflict. Hostilities the Axis junior partners were called on for reand preparations for war girdled the globe and
placements. the conflict assumed the dimensions and stature
Chancellor Hitler, in a New Year's speech, of a world war. There was fighting in the second
promised the German people in 1941 "the greatest year in Europe and Africa; there had been a navaltained in the second year of the war. In five major
victory in our history, but it had not been atclash off the shores of South America; in the Far land campaigns covering only 246 of the 730 war East in Asia, Japan, a member of the Axis was days, the German Wehrmacht had crushed Poland, fighting China, which had received material aid Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, from Great Britain and the United States. There Luxemburg, France, Yugoslavia and Greece and also had been fighting in the Near East, in Iraq. had taken a large slice of Russia. The Wehrmacht Iran and Syria.
had conquered an area of more than 600,000 square The countries directly affected by the war as it miles with a population exceeding 106,000,000 in entered the third year were lined up as follows: its first four campaigns. Europe was under the
Axis-Area controlled, 4,000,000 square miles- control of Hitler, Berlin boasted. The Wehrmacht Germany, Italy, Rumania, Hungary, Croatia, Slo
with its allies had conquered another 500,000 square vakia and Finland, active belligerents. The Axis miles in the Russian campaign and continued the had conquered or occupied these nations: Belgium,
drive eastward and southeastward into the supply Bulgaria, Denmark,
France (in part), Greece, the bases of the Soviet Republic.
solini had boasted once more, this time that he Danzig, while Italy had helped herself to Albania would "break the back of Greece" and invaded and Ethiopia. Japan and its puppet State, Man- that country. His army was tossed back into chukuo, were active against China. As the war
Albania by the numerically inferior but tougher in Europe turned into its third year, Japan Greeks and he had to call on Hitler for German was maintaining sufficient diplomatic tension in
planes to extricate himself. the Far East to force Great Britain and the United In Libya Mussolini was suffering another reverse States to maintain strong naval detachments in
for his forces there were smashed by the British the Pacific for the protection of strategic bases and again the call went to Hitler for help. there and as a guard against a possible thrust at
British and German agents had been active Singapore, the British Far Eastern naval base, and throughout the Winter in the Balkans. King Carol Siberia while Russia was occupied in the fighting
of Rumania abdicated in favor of his son, Michael, with Germany. (Later Japan declared war against and fled the country. Britain broke off relations the United States). Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania,
with Bulgaria because of the entry of German annexed by the U. S. S. R., had been regained by troops into that kingdom. A few days later German Germany in the fighting with Russia. Luxemburg staff officers appeared in civilian clothes in Sofia, also flew the swastika as an occupied country, the Bulgarian capital, and German-Russian relaAllies-Area controlled, 25,000,000 square miles
tions began to cool. Turkey and Greece hastened Great Britain and its Empire, Free France and
construction on their frontier fortifications and Russia, Egypt, though nominally neutral, is listed
Russia informed Bulgaria that Moscow did not with the Allies because there has been fighting approve of German occupation of the Balkan within her borders between the British and the country. Great Britain broke with Bulgaria (March Italian and German forces. Iran, Iraq and Syria
5) and the next day Hitler informed an uneasy were occupted by the British and Free French. Turkey that Germany wished to protect the "inAlso lined up with the Allies were the Nether
terest and well-being of that state, which had lands, Norway. Luxemburg, Belgium, Czecho
a mutual assistance pact with Great Britain. At Slovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Greece and Ethiopia.
the same time Nazi diplomats were working on Iceland is not listed as a belligerent for it has Yugoslavia, ringed in by Germany and Italy on not been the scene of actual fighting, although the
all sides except the Greek frontier to the South. United States has established an armed outpost Russia gave Turkey a pledge of mutual assistance there to guard supply shipments to England and
(March 24). Yugoslavs were aware that Russia Russia, and it has earned the title of the hoped they would resist Axis encroachment, but "Gibraltar of the North."
Yugoslav leaders joined the Axis the following day, Spain, Portugal, Sweden Switzerland and Turkey Germany hailed the action but shouted too early remained neutral as the war entered its third year. for a Serbian coup d'etat (March 27) turned out
In estimating that four-fifths of the population the Axis committed Government and enthroned the of the world (computed as 2,145,200.000) had be- 17-year-old Peter. The United States and Great come involved in the war, authorities said that the Britain pledged help to Yugoslavia if the country everyday lives of more than 1,700,000,000 persons decided to fight. The Nazi press charged that had been conditioned to participation in the fight- Germans were being beaten in Yugoslavia and ing Revolt flared in many of the occupied
with this warning the Serbs began mobilizing. countries and the Nazis resorted to reprisal execu
German forces struck (April 6), not only against tion of hostages in large numbers in an attempt Yugoslavia, but also Greece where British forces to halt the attacks against leaders and the
had been landed some weeks before. It was all sabotage of war industries.
over in less than a month. The Yugoslav oxenThe British Empire and Russia, fighting as drawn army was cut to pieces and capitulated in Allies, had thrown more than 625.000.000 persons 12 days but guerrillas continued fighting against into their war efforts with probably 30,000,000 as their country's conquerors. In three days more, actual combatants or under military training, German tanks had smashed through Grecian Russia in all likelihood had equalled or surpassed Thrace to the Agean Sea. The small British Army
fied to the Greek Island of Crete. The German the 12,000,000 army mobilized in the 1914-1917 World War. The British, according to late reports, High Command announced that the campaign had had close to 6.000.000 men-including Home Guards been finished ready to defend the British Isles, and at least At almost the same time the Germans launched another 2,000,000 in Africa, the Middle and the a surprise stroke in Libya--a drive to the Suez
Canal and incidentally the rescue of what was left Far East to guard supply sources and lines.
At the outbreak of the war Germany was re- of Mussolini's Army. The British were driven back ported to have had available in its armed forces to the Egyptian border-slightly across it-but a 6,000,000 men. Mussolini boasted 9.000.000 small garrison held to Tobruk. The British re
bayonets." It has not been determined how newed the campaign in Libya in late November