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stamps may be used. All mail intended to be carried by airplane should be plainly marked in the space immediately below the stamps and above the address "Via air mail."

The postage on all air mail should be fully prepaid in order to expedite its handling. Any mailable matter, except that liable to damage from freezing, may be sent by air mail at the above rate of postage, including sealed parcels not exceeding 70 pounds in weight and not exceeding 100 inches in length and girth combined. The limitation as to possible damage by freezing does not apply to cut flowers or queen bees. Registry, Insurance, and C. O. D. services for airplane mail-Any domestic matter acceptable for transmission as registered, insured, or C. O. D. mail, may be sent by air mail service upon payment of the prescribed registry, insurance, or C. O. D. fee in addition to the required air mail postage. Foreign-For Canada, 6 cents per ounce or fraction; for other countries, inquire at post office. Special Delivery-The use of special delivery stamps in addition to the Air Mail postage will insure prompt delivery at office of address, and is recommended when arrival be due on week days after last carrier delivery or on Sundays and holidays. Any information concerning contract air mail routes may be obtained from the postmaster. Registered Mail-The registry fees on both domestic and foreign mail must be prepaid by stamps affixed in addition to the regular postage. The registry fees for domestic registered mail are -for registry indemnity not exceeding $5, 15 cents;

over $5 to $25, 18 cents; over $25 to $50, 20 cents; over $50 to $75, 25 cents; over $75 to $100, 30 cents; over $100 to $200, 40 cents; over $200 to $300, 50 cents; over $300 to $400, 60 cents; over $400 to $500, 70 cents; over $500 to $600, 80 cents; over $600 to $700, 85 cents; over $700 to $800, 90 cents; over $800 to $900, 95 cents; over $900 to $1,000, $1.00. Provided, That registered mail, having a declared value in excess of the maximum indemnity covered by the registry fee paid, shall be subject to surcharge, as follows: when the declared value exceeds the maximum indemnity covered by the registry fee paid by not more than $50, 1 cent; and so on up to 7 cents for $800.01 to $999.99, and if the excess of the declared value over the maximum indemnity covered by the registry fee paid is $1,000 or more. the additional fees for each $1,000 or part of $1,000. range from 8 to 13 cents, according to distance.

Mail matter without intrinsic value for which no indemnity is provided may be registered at the minimum fee of 15 cents.

Any mailable articles, except unsealed fourth class matter (parcel post) for domestic destinations, may be registered.

Mailable second and third class matter, valued at over $100, upon which a registry fee in excess of 30 cents is paid, must be sealed and first-class postage paid thereon.

Domestic parcels containing fourth-class matter may also be registered if sealed and the required fee, and postage at the first class rate, are paid.

A sender's return receipt may be obtained for a domestic registered article (except registered C. O. D. mail) upon payment at the time of mailing of a fee of 3 cents; after mailing, 5 cents; and at time of mailing to show address of delivery. 23 cents.

INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED AND DOMESTIC AND INSURED AND C. O. D. MAIL Letters, prints of all kinds, including raised print for the blind, single and reply-paid post cards, small packets, samples of merchandise and commercial papers may be registered to practically all foreign countries.

Parcel post mail may be registered to some, not all, foreign countries. In the case of a few foreign countries indemnity ranging from $9.65 to $100 is paid for the loss, rifling or damage of international parcel post articles. (Consult postmaster.)

The registration fee for all articles of whatever class addressed to foreign countries, is 15 cents. except registered parcel post packages for certain countries, concerning which consult postmaster. Limited indemnity is payable for the total loss (cover and contents) of Postal Union registered articles addressed to foreign countries, and for rifling or damage when responsibility rests with this country, or, when exchanged with Great Britain, except that, in the latter event, the contents must be so damaged while in the custody of the United States or British Postal Service as to destroy their value entirely (unless the damage arose from the fault of the sender or from causes beyond control).

A charge of 5 cents is collected from the sender in addition to the postage and registry fee, for a return receipt for a Postal Union registered article requested at the time of mailing, and 10 cents if requested after mailing. Consult postmaster as to fees chargeable for return receipts for registered international parcel post packages.

A charge of 10 cents shall be made for an inquiry or complaint in connection with registered cr insured mail addressed to a foreign country unless the sender has failed to receive a return receipt for which he paid the required fee, or is able to show that a prima facie loss or other irregularity has occurred through fault of the Postal Service. (Consult postmaster for further details.)

International Registered C. O. D. Mail-Parcel post packages, printed matter, eight-ounce packages of merchandise, and small packets may be sent as registered C. O. D. between any money order post office in the United States (including Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Tutuilla, and the Virgin Islands of the United States, but excluding the Canal Zone and Philippine Islands) and any money order post office in Mexico. The fees (including registeration) range from 30 cents to 60 cents, providing for a maximum C. O. D. collection or indemnity of $100. (For further particulars, consult postmaster.)

International Insured Mail-Insured parcel post service has been inaugurated between the United States and The Bahamas, Brunei, Canada, Ecuador, Federated Malay States, French Indo-China: Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland, Japan, Leeward Islands, Macao, Netherlands Indies, Newfoundland (including Labrador), New Zealand, Non-Federated Malay States, North Borneo (State of). Portugal (including Madeira and the Azores), Portuguese West Africa (Angola, Cape Verde Islands, Guinea, St. Thomas

Island and Prince's Island), Sarawak, Straits Settlements, Surinam, Switzerland, Western Samoa, and the Windward Islands, Argentina, Barbados, British Guiana, Colombia, Iceland, Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique).

Fees The insurance fees range from 5 cents to 55 cents, providing for indemnity, in the event of loss, rifling, or damage, in most cases, up to $100 However, the insurance fees on parcels exchanged between Continental United States (not including Alaska) and Great Britain and Northern Ireland range from 20 cents to $1.50, providing for indemnity, in the event of loss, rifling, or damage, up to $2,000. Also, the maximum indemnity payable for the loss, rifling, or damage of insured parcels addressed to Colombia is $165; Canada and Switzerland is $200; to Portuguese West Africa, $9.65; to Ecuador, $50, and to Portugal (including Madeira and the Azores), $50, except that in the case of Portugal, the indemnity payable is restricted to cases of loss (wrapper and contents) only.

Canada and Newfoundland-Printed matter, and 8-ounce packages of merchandise addressed to Canada or Newfoundland may also be insured subject to the same fees and under the same 'conditions, including payment of indemnity, insofar as applicable, as apply to mailable merchandise and printed matter designated as third or fourth class in the United States domestic mails, such matter. except parcel post, may also be registered. Packages of merchandise weighing up to 60 pounds may be registered when sealed and postage is paid at the letter rate of 3 cents an ounce or fraction of an ounce, but may not be insured. Merchandise transmitted to Newfoundland under the classification of "small packets" may be registered but not insured. There is no provision for the transmission of merchandise under the classification of "small packets" when addressed for delivery in Canada. The weight limit of parcel post packages addressed to Canada and Newfoundland is 15 pounds.

Senders' return receipts are not furnished for insured parcels addressed to Canada.

International Insured C. O. D. Mail-Insured C. O. D. parcel post service is in effect with Colombia. The C. O. D. fees, which provide limited indemnity, range from 30 cents to 70 cents. (Consult postmaster for further particulars.)

Return receipts for insured C. O. D. parcels sent to the country mentioned above will be furnished upon request therefor by the sender and upon payment of a fee of 5 cents for each receipt; 10 cents for each receipt requested after mailing.

Limited indemnity may be paid in respect of the loss, rifling, or damage of parcel post packages exchanged with certain countries under the Agreement of the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain (Consult postmaster.)

Domestic Insured Mail-Domestic third and fourth-class matter, mailed at or addressed to any post office in the United States or its possessions (except parcels mailed in the Philippine Islands). or on or to United States naval vessels, may (ex

cept when addressed to the Philippine Islands) be insured against loss, rifling or damage in an amount equivalent to its value or the cost of repairs, but not to exceed $5, upon payment of a fee of 5 cents, $25 for 10 cents, $50 for 15 cents. $100 for 25 cents, $150 for 30 cents, or $200 for 35 cents, in addition to the postage, both fee and postage to be prepaid. Fee for return receipt requested at time of mailing, 3 cents; after mailing, 5 cents; at time of mailing to show address of delivery, 23 cents.

There is no insurance service from the Philippine Islands to the United States and the limit for which domestic parcels addressed to the Philippine Islands may be insured is $100.

Domestic Unregistered C. O. D. Mail-Domestic third and fourth-class matter, and sealed domestic mail matter of any class bearing postage at the first-class rate, may be sent C. O. D. between money order offices of the United States and its possessions but not to or from the Philippines, the Canal Zone, or United States naval vessels. The maximum amount collectible on a single C. O. D. article is $200. The fees for C. O. D. collections are as follows: from $0.01 to $5, 12 cents; from $5.01 to $25, 17 cents; from $25.01 to $50, 22 cents: from $50.01 to $100, 32 cents; from $100.01 to $150, 40 cents, and from $150.01 to $200, 45 cents. Such parcels are insured against loss, rifling or damage in an amount equivalent to the actual value or the cost of repairs, but not to exceed $5, $25, $50, $100, $150 or $200, according to whether a 12, 17, 22, 32, 40 or 45-cent fee was paid.

Domestic Registered C. O. D. Mail-Sealed domestic C. O. D. mail of any class bearing postage at the first-class rate may be registered. The fees on domestic registered C. O. D mail range from 25 cents to $1.20 according to amount to be collected or amount of indemnity desired. Surcharges are collectible on registered collect-on-delivery mail as on regular registered mail. (Consult postmaster.) Restricted Delivery-An additional charge of 10 cents is made when domestic registered, insured,

or C. O. D. mail is restricted in delivery to addressee only, or to the addressee's order.

Money Orders-The maximum is $100, but there is no limit to the number that can be issued in one day to the same remitter. Original domestic money orders issued at and drawn on any post office in the continental United States, excepting Alaska, may be paid at any post office in the continental United States, excepting Alaska, if presented for payment before the expiration of the thirtieth day following the date of issue but an additional fee is charged unless paid at the office drawn on or repaid at the office of issue at either of which they may be cashed without such charge if presented within the period of validity which is one year from the last day of the month of issue. The fees for domestic orders are: $0.01 to $2.50. 6 cents; $2.51 to $5, 8 cents; $5.01 to $10, 11 cents; $10.01 to $20, 13 cents; $20.01 to $40, 15 cents: $40.01 to $60, 18 cents; $60.01 to $80, 20 cents; $80.01 to $100, 22 cents. International money orders cost 10 cents for $10.00 or less, and 10 cents extra on each additional $10 up to $1 for $100. Unmailable matter-Includes not only all legitimate matter not conforming to the rules as to legibility of address, size of package or certificates of inspection, but also pistols, revolvers, or other firearms that can be concealed on the person; and game, etc., killed out of season, poisons, explosive or inflammable articles, or bad smelling; all spirituous and malt liquors; all liquor advertisements to or from Prohibition localities, indecent matter, written or otherwise; dunning postals and lottery. endless chain and fraud matter.

For information as to the articles prohibited to foreign countries see Part II of the Official Postal Guide.

Postal Savings-One dollar will open an interestbearing account. Any person ten years old or over may start an account. A married woman may deposit in her own name. Any number of dollars may be deposited, and at any time, until the balance to the credit of a depositor amounts to $2,500.


Letters-3 cents per ounce or fraction thereof to any of the following countries-Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras (Repub. of), Mexico, Newfoundland (including Labrador), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, El Salvador, Spain, and Possessions. Uruguay, Venezuela.

For all other foreign destinations, 5 cents, first ounce; and 3 cents, each additional ounce or fraction. Maximum dimensions: Length, breadth, and thickness combined, 36 inches; greatest length, 24 inches. When sent in the form of a roll the length (the maximum of which is 32 inches) plus twice the diameter is limited to 40 inches. Minimum dimensions: It is recommended that articles measure not less than 4 inches in length and 234 inches in width.

Letter Packages-Merchandise may be sent at the letter rate to certain foreign destinations (see Part II of the Official Postal Guide), when an invoice or customs declaration is inclosed and a green label (which may be obtained from the post office) must be affixed to the outside of the envelope or wrapper.

Post Cards-2 cents to the countries named above; 3 cents to any country not in the list. Cards must not exceed 6 x 414 in., or be less than 4 x 234 in.

Printed matter (including second-class matter. except when mailed by publishers or registered news agents to certain countries, as explained in Note). -For all foreign destinations, 112 cents each 2 ounces or fraction. Limit of weight-4 pounds 6 ounces in general and 6 pounds 9 ounces for single volumes of printed books, except to the countries (other than Canada and Newfoundland) under the item "Letters" above, where the limit of weight for printed matter in general in some cases is 11 pounds-in others, 22 pounds, and for single volumes, 22 pounds. However, there is no limit of weight for single volumes to Cuba, Mexico, Panama, and El Salvador. To Canada and Newfoundland the weight limit for prints in general is 4 pounds, 6 ounces; single volumes, 11 pounds; dimensions-Same as for letters.

Note Daily newspapers issued and mailed as frequently as 6 times a week to bona fide subscribers in Canada and Newfoundland by publishers or registered news agents and all second-class matter mailed by publishers or registered news agents to the other countries mentioned under subheading Letters" are subject to the postage rates prescribed in paragraphs 1, 2, 4 and 6, of section 538, Pastal Laws and Regulations, 1940. Other secondclass matter mailed to Canada and Newfoundland


by publishers or registered news agents is subject to the postage rate of 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof.

There is no limit of weight for second-class matter sent to Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Newfoundland (including Labrador), and Panama by publishers or registered news agents.

Reduced Postage Rates on Books to Certain Countries The postage rate applicable to books which do not contain any publicity or advertising other than that appearing on the covers of flyleaves, is 5 cents per pound or fraction thereof, up to a weight limit of 22 pounds, when addressed to the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Gautemala, Haiti, Honduras Republic of, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Printed matter for the blind-For all foreign destinations, 1 cent each 2 pounds 3 ounces or fraction. Limit of weight-15 pounds, 6 ounces. Dimensions same as for letters.

Sample of merchandise-For all foreign destinations 112 cents each 2 ounces or fraction, with a minimum charge of 3 cents. Limit of weight18 ounces. Dimensions-same as for letters.

Commercial papers-To all foreign destinations. 12 cents for each 2 ounces or fraction, with a minimum charge of 5 cents. Limit of weight4 pounds, 6 ounces. Dimensions-same as for letters.

Small packets-Three cents for each 2 ounces, with a minimum charge of 15 cents per packet. Limit of weight-2 pounds 3 ounces. Dimensions -same as for letters. (See Part II of the Official Postal Guide, for list of countries which accept small packets.) Small packets must bear the green label (Form C1), Form 2976. They must also be accompanied by the paper form of customs declaration (Form 2976-A), properly completed by the sender and enclosed in the small packet. It is likewise permissible to enclose in small packet an open invoice reduced to its essential terms. Every small packet must be clearly marked on the wrapper by the sender with the words "small packet."


8-ounce merchandise packages-Packages merchandise weighing 8 ounces or less for the countries mentioned under "Letters", 2 cents for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof, except that when the contents consist of seeds, scions, plants. cuttings, bulbs, or roots, the rate is 112 cents for each 2 ounces or fraction. (This is not parcel post, must not have customs declarations attached and must not be sealed except when addressed for delivery in Canada, in which case such package should be marked "This may be opened for postal

Inspection if necessary." There is also an exception with respect to sealing in the case of C. O. D. 8-ounce merchandise packages for Mexico, which may be sealed.)

Special-Delivery (Exprès) Service-Is in force with the following foreign countries:

Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Belgium, Brazil, British Guiína, British Honduras (Belize only), Chile. China, Cuba, Cyprus, Canada, Danzig, Denmark, Dominican Rep., Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gold Coast Colony, Gibraltar, Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Guatemala, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and Italian colonies, Japan, Kenya and Uganda, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Mexico, Morocco (Spanish Zone). Netherlands, Newfoundland (including Labrador), Norway, Nyasaland Protectorate, Palestine, Panama, Poland, Portugal, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Sweden, Switzerland, Trans-Jordan, and Union of South Africa.

An article intended for special ("exprès") delivery in any of the countries mentioned above (except Canada where the US. domestic fees apply) must be prepaid 20 cents, in addition to

the regular postage, by United States specialdelivery or other stamps affixed to the cover. There should also be affixed one of the "exprès" labels (Form 2977) or the cover must be marked boldly in red ink "Exprès", directly below but never on the stamps. In some countries the service is limited to certain cities, lists of which appear under the country items in Part II of the Official Postal Guide. In Canada and Newfouudland the specialdelivery service applies only to letters (or articles prepaid at the letter rate). In the other countries of the above list, the "exprès" feature is applicable to ordinary and registered Postal Union articles (letters, post cards, commercial papers, printed matter, samples and small packets), but not to parcel-post packages.

Parcel post packages, which are acceptable for practically all foreign countries, are subject to the postage rate of 14 cents a pound or fraction of a pound plus transit charges or surcharges, in many cases. (Consult postmaster relative to limits of weight, maximum dimensions and other conditions applicable to parcel post packages for foreign countries.)

Postal Revenues and Expenditures

Source: Office of the Postmaster General
Paid as Com- Gross Gross Ex-
pensation of Revenue of penditure of
Postmasters Department Department

Extent of Post Routes

Ordinary Postage Stamps Issued



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1938 1939 1940

28.498 240,594
1,230,079 28,492 231,232
2,363,693 42,989 343,888
7,976,202 62,401 427,990
14,512,190 76,688 500,989
31,683,591- 59,580 447.998
74,932,540 52,638 433,668
110,356,970 50,957 464,269
146,531,671 49,063 503,410
146,081,411 48,733 528,571
144,598,458 48,159 537,544
122,373,367 47,642 536,679
111,366,632 46,507 536,775
126,662,913 45,687 514,128
142,047,943 45,233 517,864
149,973,450 44,877 519,844
153,526,214 44.667 526.254
156,575.067 44,400 553,981
161,184,553 44,095 541,514 49.238,362


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7,708,407 33,315,479




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52,850,087 705,484,098 803,667,219 16,268,856,071

639,281,648 17.386,555,506 656,463,383 802,484,840 15,559,164,487 588,171,923 793,684,323 14,650,790,133 587,631,365 700,006,257 11,917,442,423 586,733,166 630,732,934 12,525,716,839 630,795,302 696,503,235 13,610,497,410 665,343,356 753,616,212 13,835,399,920 726,201,110 772,743,145 15,108,639,409 728,634,051 772.445,609 14,912,092,916 745,955,075 784,549,842 15,073,745,772 766,948,627 807,629,180 16,381,427,297

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Dollars Dollars
49,563,485 41.241,378 14,692,104
8,234,742 6,032,429
65,478,107 56,078,907 17,757,085 14,739,734 12,099,496 9,425,034
71,984,458 60,655,018 20,144,561 16.139,232 12,725,965 10,921,774
74,448,651 61,895,230 20,432,011 17,164,354 13,659,064 11,066,859 10,782,077
77,159,777 61,855,162 20,102,552 17,268,742 12,961,654 10,904,542 11,085,663
78,708,423 61,673,993] 19,175,546 18,001,792 12,624,381 10,471,654 11,801,137
79,825.449 61,223,378 19,598,562 18,029,127 12,622,482 10,184,905 11,639,326
71,957,857 53,721,759 18,094,970 16,653,102 11,843,062 8,934,312 10,058,902
64,000,958 44,958,470 16.033.992 15,154,883 10,210,977
63,228,452 42,399,349 15,992,443 15,785,235 10,215,072
60,165,546 43,009,090 15,319,495 14,577,151 9,299,373
62,370,201 46,856,218 15,913,716 14,885,295
67,458,823 50,254,596 16,692,066 15,780,667
76,201,229 56,256,225 18,098,676
71,011,837 56,075,799 17,932,969

Dollars 11,171,916


Dollars Dollars












7,322,550 8,631,466


7,346,777 8,147,781




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8,754,412 7,832,653 9,871,839





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10,648,174 10,653,874 71,619,150 57,127,244 18,054,344 16,907,813 10,834,762 73,517,691 59.188.343 18,530,993 16,802,955 11,048,466

Los Angeles Postal Receipts: 1934, $8,898,482; 1935, $9.798,824; 1936, $10,641,757; 1937, $12,239,800; 1938, $12,579.857; 1939, $13,313,738; 1940, $13,771,456; 1941, $14,538,612.


1917. $131,954,6961922. $137,736,439|| 1927

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Highest and Lowest Altitudes in the U. S., by States

Source: United States Geological Survey. Sign - means below sea level

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4,860 Potomac R.... Jefferson. 1,940 Lake Michigan

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-280 2,500

New Hampshire. Mt. Washington..



New Jersey.

New Mexico.

New York..

North Carolina.

North Dakota.

Philippine Islands
Puerto Rico...
Rhode Island.

South Carolina..

South Dakota.





Virgin Islands.



West Virginia.

Wisconsin. Wyoming.

U. S. (ex. Alaska).

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The original Indian name for Mount McKinley was Denali ("Home of the Sun"). It is crowned by two peaks, the south pinnacle soaring to 20,300 feet; the north to approximately 20,000 feet.

For a list of the principal Adirondack and Catskill peaks, see article on New York State.

The chief peaks in the Great Smoky range in North Carolina-Tennessee, and in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, are listed in the 1938 Almanac.

806 Gulf of Mexico 1,772 St. Francis R.. Dunklin. 12,850 Kootenai R... Flathead 5,300 S.E. cor. State Richardson 13,145 Colorado R....Clark 6,288 Atlantic Ocean] 1,801 Atlantic Ocean 13,306 Red Bluff. 5,344 Atlantic Ocean 6,684 Atlantic Ocean 3,468 Pembina.. 1,550 Ohio R.. 4.978 Red R.

3,213 Delaware R.. 9,610 Pacific Ocean.

3,548 Atlantic Ocean]

7,242 Big Stone Lake Roberts. 6,642 Mississippi R.. Shelby

8,751 Gulf of Mexico

13.498 Beaverd'm Ck. Washingt'n

5.719 Atlantic Ocean

13,785 B. Fourche R. Crook. 14,495 Death Valley.. Inyo, Cal..

The highest peaks in Canada are Logan (19,850 ft.), and St. Elias (18,008 ft.), both in the Yukon and both on or near the Alaska border. Fairweather (15,287 ft.) is on the British ColumbiaAlaska boundary.

The highest point in the West Indies is in the Dominican Republic, Mount Tina (10,300 ft.). In Mexico, among the highest known and named peaks are Citaltepetl, also known as Orizaba (18,077 ft.); Popocatepetl (17,880 ft.); and Iztaccihuatl (17,670 ft.).

The Continental Divide

Source: United States Geographic Board

Continental Divide: watershed, created by mountain ranges or table-lands of the Rocky Mountains, from which the drainage is easterly or westerly; the easterly flowing waters reaching the Atlantic Ocean chiefly through the Gulf of Mexico, and the westerly flowing waters reaching the Pacific Ocean through the Columbia River, or through the Colorado River, which flows into the Gulf of California. The location and route of the Continental Divide across the United States may briefly be described as follows:

Beginning at the point of its crossing the United States-Mexican boundary, near long. 108° 45′ W., the Divide, in a northerly direction. crosses New Mexico along the western edge of the Rio Grande drainage basin, entering Colorado near long. 106° 35' W.

Thence by a very irregular route northerly across Colorado along the western summits of the Rio Grande and of the Arkansas, the South Platte, and the North Platte River basins, and across Rocky Mountain National Park, entering Wyoming near long. 106° 10' W.

Thence northwesterly across Wyoming along the western rims of the North Platte, Big Horn, and Yellowstone River basins, crossing the southwest corner of Yellowstone National Park.

Thence in a northwsterly direction, forming the common boundary of Idaho and Montana, to a point on said boundary near long. 114° 00' W.

Thence northeasterly and northwesterly through Montana and the Glacier National Park, entering Canada near long. 114° 04' W.

Highest and Lowest Continental Altitudes

Source: United States Geological Survey

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Approximate mean elevation (feet)-North America, 2,000; South America, 1,800; Europe, 980; Asia 3,000; Africa, 1,900; Australia, 1,000; Antarctic, 6,000.

The Globe's surface at the North Pole, according to the late Robert E. Peary, and as found by the
Russian expedition of 1937, is at sea level-just water, ice-covered much of the time.
The elevation at the South Pole, as noted by Scott, was 9,070 feet.

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Peak and Country

Cotopaxi, Ecuador

Feet Peak Country 20,950 Cotopaxi, Ecuador. 20,900 Cayambe, Ecuador. 20,702 Licancaur, Bolivia. 20,700 Antisana, Ecuador. 20,500 Chachcani, Peru. 20,269 Herveo, Colombia.. 20,260 Tolima, Colombia. 20.175 Hulla, Colombia 20,300 Aconquija, Arg.. 20,000 Altar, Ecuador. 19,947 Maipo, Arg..













Last Century

Source: American Museum of Natural History

Altitude Ft. Peak and Country Altitude Ft. Peak and Country Altitude Ft

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19,488 Llaima, Chile..

.19,423 Pico de Cano, Cape Verde..
17,464 Gede, Java.
16,515 Merapi, Sumatra.
15,918 Lonquimai, Chile..
14,683 Merapi, Java..

Clarence Peak, Fernando Po. 14,683 Ruapehu, New Zealand.

Cameroon, Africa.

Erebus, Antarctic.
Colima, Mexico.
Mauna Loa, Hawaff

Descabezado Grande, Chile..
Fuji, Japan.
Semeru, Java.
Luse, Sumatra.

Santa Maria. Guatemala.
Slamar, Java..
Irazu, Costa Rica.
Abong-Abong, Sumatra.

Raun, Java.

Etna, Sicily.

Marababu, Java.
Lassen, C. S.
Dempo, Sumatra..
Cerro Quemado, Guatemala.
Tjirmaj, Java

13,370 Shishaldin, Alaska.
13,300 Papandayang, Java.
13,092 Pacaya, Guatemala.

12,675 Beerenberg, Jan Mayen Isl
12,562 Santa Ana, Salvador.
12,395 Hualalai, Hawaii.
12,044 Asama, Japan..

12,000 Calaon, Philippines..
11.480 Mayon, Philippines.
11,250 Kugak, Alaska.

11,200 Ngauruhoe, New Zealand.
11,000 Katmal, Alaska..
10,820 Shirane, Japan.
10,740 Banajao, Philippines.
10,670 Osorno, Chile.
10.570 San Miguel, Salvador.
10,562 Ceboruco, Mexico.
10,436 Calbuco, Chile.
10,075 Skeidar-jokull. Iceland

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Duration of Sunshine on United States Territory

Source: United States Naval Observatory

The acquisition of Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands, and a portion of the Navigator or Samoan Group has very considerably affected the duration of continuous sunshine on territory of the United States. Anyone who desires to inform himself on this matter can do so by using a terrestrial globe having an artificial horizon attached to it, and complying with the following instructions: Place the globe so that the North Pole shall be directed toward the north, and elevate it 2312° above the horizon as indicated by the brass meridian. Assuming that the sun is in the zenith, this will be the position of the earth in reference to the sun at the Summer solstice, June 21. we turn the globe on its axis from west to east, the sun will be rising at all places on the western and setting at all places on the eastern horizon, and we shall find on turning the globe through an entire revolution that some portion or other of our territory-including the islands named abovewill always be above the horizon or will have continuous sunshine during the 24 hours.


If we now depress the North Pole 2312° below the horizon we shall have the relative position of things at the Winter solstice, December 21, and we shall find the opposite condition to prevail; that is to say, the sun will not now shine continuously on our territory, but some portion of it will always be involved in darkness or below the horizon.

Again, if we place the poles of the globe in the horizon, which is the relative position at the equinoxes, March 21 and September 21, and turn the globe through a complete revolution, we shall find that for a very short time during the 24 hours the whole of our territory will be below the horizon or in darkness.

As of June 17, 1938, the Naval Observatory says: "It may be worth while, to note that the United States has reserved rights to certain territory in the Antarctic regions, but the matter has never been made the subject of an international claim. If that territory should be taken into account, it could then be said that the sun never sets on American territory."

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