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in with another caravel under Pedro de Quexos, gland. They planted a permanent settlement near and together they sailed up the coast to the mouth the present city of Charleston (1670) and develof the Cape Fear River, where they landed (June opment was rapid for the time. 30, 1521) and claimed the country in the name of Later another settlement was effected near the Ayllon and Spain. They also carried off many mouth of the Cape Fear River in what is now Indians into captivity to sell as slaves. Soon after North Carolina. These two separate settlements this Ayllon went to Spain and (June, 1523) pro- developed into two separate provinces under the cured authority for colonizing the country. He control of the Lords Proprietors. The people of sent out two caravels (1525) under Pedro de the province of South Carolina heid (1719) a Guexos for further exploration. On St. Helens convention and repudiated the government of the Day he discovered the eastern point of an island Lords Proprietors and petitioned the crown of protruding abruptly seaward and gave it the name England to take over control of the government. of Punta de Santa Elena, a name which has sur England promptly responded and established royal vived in English form to this day in the adjacent government in South Carolina. The British ParliaSt. Helena Sound and St. Helenas Parish. The ment bought (1729) the fee of the Lords Proprietors point itself is known today as Hilton Head on the in both provinces and established a royal governlower coast of South Carolina. The following year ment for North Carolina by taking the land to Ayllon headed an expedition to make a settlement the west of the Savannah River and east of the on the coast of what is now South Carolina. He Mississippi. planted his colony (Oct. 1526) about the bay The people of South Carolina in convention now known as Winyah. But after a fearful winter (1774) expressed their sympathy for the people of the survivors of the colony returned to Cuba. The Boston and the colony of Massachusetts Bay, deSpaniards made several later attempts to settle in nounced the conduct of the British Parliament and South Carolina, but all miscarried.
joined in the movement for the union of 13 AmeriA French Colony under Jean Ribaut built (1562) cans colonies or provinces to assert their rights as a little fort and left a garrison
of a captain and British
subjects. As those rights were not rapidly 28 men on what is now Parris Island, Port Royal forthcoming, South Carolina (March 26, 1776) set Harbor, but before he could return to them with up an independent government headed by a presisupplies they had built a small ship and attempted dent, vice-president, a set of State officers, a judito return to France. The Spaniards built (1566) ciary and a General Assembly. a considerable fort and planted a strong garrison South Carolina played an active part in achievon the same little island. Ten years later this ing the independence of the United States. Its garrison was driven out by Indians, but Spain sent representatives in the Continental Congress, para stronger garrison back the next year and built ticularly Charles Pinckney, were vigorous in their a stronger fort and for ten years more a presidio efforts to bring about the convention of 1787. which flourished on the little island. Sir Francis Drake framed the Constitution of the United States. on the front and hostile Indians in the rear caused Pinckney was one of the delegates to the ConstituSpain (1587) to abandon this colony in what is now tional Convention, one of the leaders in debate on South Carolina. England did not take immediate the proposed Constitution and the proposer of charge of its partial conquest, but Charles I. grant- more than 30 of the provisions adopted into the ed (1629) to his attorney-general, Sir Robert
Constitution. South Carolina was the eighth State Heath, all of the territory now embraced by the to join the Union. States of North and South Carolina, Tennessee, Seventy-two years later the people of South Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, but Sir Robert Carolina, in convention assembled, rescinded the was unsuccessful in securing a colony for his new
ordinance which they had adopted (MAY 1783) possession and eventually he was recorded as hav
and dissolved the bond which existed between this ing abandoned it and (1563) Charles II. granted it
State and the other States of the Union (Dec. 20, to eight of his followers among the nobility of En- 1860). That act led to the Civil War.
South Dakota Capital, Pierre-Coyote State-State Flower, The Pasque-Motto: Under God the People Rule
Area, 77,047 sq. mi.; rank, 14th-Population, 642,961; rank, 38th. South Dakota is bounded on the north by North the heads of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and Dakota, on the east by Minnesota and Iowa, on Theodore Roosevelt. the south by Nebraska, and on the west by
There are seven institutions for higher educaWyoming and Montana. Its climate is that of the tion in the state, including the University of temperate zone northern latitudes, cold in winter School of Mines in Rapid City and several normal
South Dakota in Vermillon, as well as a State and pleasant in summer. The state is divided into
schools and a teachers' college. two parts by the Missouri River. There are several
The Black Hills Region of South Dakota, in minor drainage basins, feeding the larger rivers, which Wind Cave National Park is situated, has a with a succession of fertile valleys, highly produc- fascinating story of earth-making to tell. The Bad tive. The standing forests include principally yel- Lands area tells through fossil remains a tale low pine and spruce.
of prehistoric alligators, rhinoceroses, three-toed The Black Hills are in the southwest. Harney horses, and other long-extinct animals and of Peak (7,240 feet) is the highest point east of the
a lofty "needle'' formation, which erosion has Rockies. The rest of the area is mostly rolling sculptured from masses of granite high up the
forest-clad slopes of the Black Hills. prairie, falling to lower levels in the northeast. Near the Black Hills in the southwest are the
Wind Cave lies in the great Pahasapa limestone
formation, which also contains several other large Bad Lands. Big Stone Lake (967_feet above sea
subterranean caverns. The facts about the dislevel) is the lowest point. South Dakota was ad
covery of the cave are little known, but it is genmitted to Statehood (1889) after 28 years as a
erally believed that it was discovered (1881) by part of the Dakota Territory.
Tom Bingham, a Black Hills pioneer, while huntHarney and Black Hills National Forests cover ing deer. He was attracted by a strange whistling 1,134,167 acres, nearly surrounding Custer State and after searching about in the undergrowth he Parly.
discovered that it was caused by wind escaping The chief crops are wheat, corn, oats, rye, through a small hole in some rocks. This hole, not barley, flaxseed and the hardier fruits.
more than 10 inches in diameter, is the only Manufacturing is confined chiefly to the making natural opening to the cave so far discovered. It is of butter and cheese, flour and grist milling. situated a few steps behind the present cave enThe State has large cattle and sheep ranches and
trance. sends about 600,000 hogs to market yearly.
The present cavern opening was made by digGold and silver are mined in quantities, in the
ging down about six feet to a long, winding fissure, Black Hills, and at Lead is one of the largest gold
or tunnel, leading into corridors and galleries deco
rated witn a variety of crystal formations. These producing mines in the United States. Lead, cop
formations differ radically from those found in per, clays, building stones of various sorts and
most caverns because stalactites and stalagmites lignite are also found.
are practically nonexistent in this cave. Here the South Dakota has a large area in Indian reserva- formations are of the unusual boxwork and frosttions-the Rosebud, Cheyenne River, Pine Ridge, work type. The boxwork is composed of delicately Crow Creek and the Lower Brule. The Indians colored crystals arranged in honeycomb pattern. engage in agriculture and livestock husbandry. Tiny white crystals, sometimes superimposed on a
Mount Rushmore, in the Black Hills, has an pink background, hang in clusters from ceilings altitude of 6,200 feet and a granite face (700 feet and ledges to form a frostwork decoration of rare in height) which is the site of a national me- beauty. The cavern is approximately ten miles in morial to be sculptured from solid rock featuring extent.
Tennessee Capital, Nashville-Volunteer State-State Flower, Iris-Motto: Agriculture, Commerce Area, 42,246
sq. mi.; rank, 34th-Population, 2,915,841; rank, 15th. Tennessee, in the East South Central group, is ville was the capital and continued so until 1807, bounded on the north by Kentucky and Virginia, when the Seventh General Assembly met in on the east by North Carolina, on the south by Kingston, but adjourned to Knoxville after the Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia, and on the first day. Knoxville remained the capital until 1812, west by Arkansas and Missouri.
when the Legislature met in Nashville for the The eastern parts are in the Great Smoky Moun- until 1817, when the session of that year was held
first time. Nashville continued to be the capital tains, the surface sloping toward the west, first to
in Knoxville. Murfreesboro was the capital (1819an elevated tableland, then to the bottoms of the 1825). Nashville has been the capital since the M 5sippi River, whic skirts the western border. second session of the 16th assembly (Oct. 26. 1826). It has the Tennessee River, which sweeps into Tennessee has at least three of the nation's outAlabama from the northeast and returns to flow standing wonders-Reelfoot Lake, the reservoir north through Tennessee and Kentucky into the basin of the Mississippi River formed by an earthOhio.
quake (1811); Lookout Mountain, a rock-faced The forests cover about 30,000 square miles, and promontory carved by the currents of the Tennesyield half a billion ft. of lumber-oak, yellow pine, see River and overlooking Moccasin Bend, at gum, yellow poplar, hemlock and chestnut.
Chattanooga; and the Great Smoky Mountains The chief mineral product is coal. Others are National Park which is about equally divided beIron-ore, copper, zinc, gold, silver, clay products, tween North Carolina and Tennessee. phosphate rock, sandstone, marble and limestone. Other points of tourist interest include the Fall
Agriculture is an important industry. The lead-Creek Falls with a water-drop of 256 ft. (highest ing crop is corn, followed by wheat, oats, hay, east of the Rockies); Rock House Creek Falls, 125 potatoes, sweet potatoes, peas, peanuts, cotton. The it.; and Cove Creek Falls, 85 ft.--all in the Fall climate and soil are such as to permit a great Creek Falls Recreational Area, 13 miles west of diversity of crops.
Pikeville. The main higher educational institutions are the Each year in November, Tellico Plains is the University of Chattanooga, University of Tennessee scene of one of America's most unusual sporting in Knoxville, Fisk University in Nashville (Negro); events. Here hunters gather with the hope of Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Cumberland bagging one of the wild Prussian boars that roam University, Lebanon; University of the South, the Tennessee Mountains in Cherokee National Sewanee; Maryville College, Maryville; George Forest. These ferocious tuskers are descendants of Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville, Carson- the wild boars from the Black Forest of northern Newman College, Jefferson City and Scarritt Col- Germany imported many years ago and now lege for Christian Workers.
greatly multiplied. Tennessee was a territory of the United States Norris Dam, 27 miles north of Knoxville on the (1790-1796). The capital of the territory was Clinch river, creates a large and beautiful lake located in Knoxville (1792). When Tennessee covering more than 80 square miles, with a shore became the 16th State of the Union (1796) Knox- line in excess of 800 miles.
THE STATE OF FRANKLIN North Carolina ceded to the United States and Greeneville chosen as the seat of government. (June, 1784) all of the territory which is now the Taxes were allowed to be paid in articles of comState of Tennessee. This cession was not to take
merce in general use, such as beaver skins, bacon, effect until Congress signified its intention of ac
sugar, etc. When the Governor of North Carolina cepting it within the space of two years. This done, he issued a manifesto, urging the people to
heard what the people of the Western Country had cession on the part of the mother State excited return to their allegiance to the State of North · great opposition on the part of the inhabitants of Carolina. Governor Sevier undertook to refute the the new territory. The grounds of opposition were arguments of the Governor, and urged the people that North Carolina had made no provision for to stand firmly by the new 'State. the government of her western territory and they The last session of the Franklin Legislature met feared that the United States would not do so. (Sept. 1787). The term of office of the legislators There was no proper judicial tribunal for the trial was about to expire and the authority of the State of felons, and there was no method for enforcing was so weak that no elections were held to fill their collection of taxes. Feeling that they were thrown places. Sevier's term of office was also near its close. upon their own resources, the people assumed the He was ineligible to re-election and there would be task of devising a government of their own. A no Legislature to elect his successor. Thus, after a convention was called to meet in Jonesboro (Aug. brief but stormy career of about three years, the 23. 1784). John Sevier was elected president, State of Franklin ceased to be. Like a wayward and Landon Carter, secretary, of this convention child, she returned to her mother and was forgiven
The State of Franklin (sometimes called Frank- and received back into the fold. The end came land) was the direct outgrowth of this movement. (March, 1788) with the expiration of Sevier's term A constitution was adopted which differed decidedly of office. from most of those then in existence in America. Sevier was arrested on a charge of treaAmong other strange provisions, neither lawyers, son, but was never brought to trial. The settledoctors, nor preachers were to be members of ments along the Cumberland river in what is now the Legislature. Sevier was elected Governor Middle Tennessee, had no part in the rise and and David Campbell Judge of the Superior Court, | fall of the State of Franklin.
Texas Capital, Austin-Lone Star State-State Flower, Bluebonnet-Motto: Friendship-Area, 267,339 sq. mi.;
rank, Ist-Population, 6,414,824; rank, 6th. Texas. of the West South Central group. is In the western part it is mountainous, the bounded on the north by New Mexico and Okla - "Staked Plains" lying in the northwest, a great homa, on the east by Oklahoma, Arkansas, Loui- prairie in the central portion, and a lower lying siana and the Gulf of Mexico, on the south by region nearer to the Gulf. Western Texas is mostly
without forestation, but in the east formerly there the Gulf and Mexico, and on the west by Mexico
was a large wooded area, now materially reduced and New Mexico. It is the largest State of the
The most southerly point in Texas is approxiwhole country.
mately in latitude 25° 51' N. and the most northerTexas, under the joint resolution of Congress for ly point in latitude 36° 31' N. This difference in its annexation (approved March 1, 1845) may sub- latitude is equivalent to approximately 735 miles. divide its area into any number not exceeding four The most easterly point in Texas is approximately additional states of convenient size having suffi- in longitude 93° 31' W., and the most westerly cient population, which shall be entitled to admis point is approximately 106° 39' W. This difference sion to the Union. This was approved by Texas and of longitude for latitude 31° 30' N., which is apthe State was admitted by joint resolution of Con- proximately the mean latitude of the extreme gress (approved Dec. 29, 1845).
points referred to, is equivalent to approximately The first flag to fly over Texas was the French 765 miles. under La Salle (1684) but after his murder (1687) The peach is the leading fruit; others are apples, the Spanish gradually assumed control over the cantaloups, citrus fruits, dates, figs, strawberries, territory. Mexico gained her independence from and blackberries. Spain (1821). Texas revolted from Mexico and Texas is easily the leading cotton-growing State. became a republic (1836). Independence Day Other large crops are corn, wheat, oats, sorghum, (March 2) in a state holiday.
potatoes, rice, tomatoes, peanuts, pecans, onions. The Texas cotton crop is the most valuable crop At the southern tip of the lower coastal belt of grown in a single political subdivision in the world. Texas is the "Magic Valley of the Lower Rio The value of the average Texas cotton crop is al- Grande, where a man-made Paradise has been most as much as the total value of the production created by the diversion of the waters of the Rio of the gold, silver, zinc, lead and copper mines of Grande on the fertile delta soil under the subthe United States. Approximately birty crops are tropical sun. Between 300,000 and 400,000 acres are produced in Texas on a commercial scale: cotton under intensive cultivation in two counties alone. represents about 53 per cent of the total crop
value A wide variety of winter and early spring vegeof the State. Cotton is produced in 223 Texas tables are grown, and some of the best citrus fruits counties, leaving 31 non-cotton producing. Nueces in the world are produced there. usually leads all other counties. The all-time The position, size and shape of Texas combine record is held by Williamson County, which pro- to give it a great diversity of weather conditions. duced 168,509 bales (1920). It has been estimated The average annual temperature in the extreme that 70 per cent of the population of Texas de- southern part is 74 degrees, and in the North Panpends, directly or indirectly, upon cotton for a handle it is 56 degrees, or a range from sub-tropical living
to middle temperature. The average temperature Cotton was growing wild in Texas, according to
for the middle of the State is 65 degrees. Rainfall Cabeza de Vaca. who was shipwrecked on the Gull also varies greatly in the different sections of the Coast (1528). It was grown to a limited extent
State, but the annual average is 31 inches. The around the old Spanish missions, but real produc- average annual snowfall in Romero, Texas, is 24 tion did not begin until the American colonists inches, while in the south, in Houston, the average began arriving.
is only 1 inch. Texas ranks as the leading State in the total The Panhandle" is the northern tip of Texas, number of head of domestic animals on farms and and is so called because it appears on the map to ranches, and high in the value of all live stock.
be the handle of a giant pan. Texas ranks first in the beef cattle industry, and
About 20 missions were built in Texas (1690first in the number of sheep and the average an
1791) by Spaniards, for the double purpose of nual production of wool, in the number of mules, converting the savages and holding the territory and is one of the leading States in the number for Spain. They were the first outposts of Euof horses.
ropean civilization, and contributed materially The petroleum output is huge, the State leading to the conversion of Texas from a wilderness to a in that respect, and there is an immense yield of civilized country. The last one (established in natural gas, coal and sulphur. Texas leads in pro
1791) was Refugio. The Alamo, San Jose, Conduction of hellum, Amarillo being the chief source condition, while only ruins are left of the others.
cepcion and LaBahia are also standing in good of that gas. There are also quantities of gypsum,
The sacred Alamo (founded in 1718) by the granite, sandstone, limestone, silver and potash.
Franciscan monks, stands in the heart of the Trees native to Texas are: ash, basswood, bay, City of San Antonio. Within the gray stone walls beech, birch, bois d'Arc, catalpa, cats'-claw, cedar, of the chapel (March 6, 1836), 187 heroes gave cherry, chinquapin, cork wood, cottonwood, china- their lives in defense of Texas liberty when they berry, cypress, dogwood, elm, fir, gum, gum elastic, made their stand against Santa Anna and his hackberry, hawthorn, hickory, holly, hop horn- 6.000 Mexicans, in a vain effort to prevent the bean, huckleberry, ironwood, locust, maple, mag- Mexicans from invading Texas. nolia, mesquite, mimosa, mulberry, oak (50 species), Among the institutions of higher learning, are pine (8 species), pecan (State tree), persimmon, the University of Texas in Austin; Agricultural planer tree (water elm), swamp privet, redbud, and Mechanical College, College Station: State sycamore, Texas ebony, walnut, wild China (soap- College for Women in Denton; Baylor University, berry), willow, youpon, Mexican or wild plum. Waco; Texas Christian University, Fort Worth: ,
Galveston, Houston, and Beaumont-Port Arthur Southern Methodist University, Dallas; Rice Inare leading ports.
stitute, Houston; and Texas Technological College, The tallest highway bridge in the South-The Lubbock. Port Arthur-Orange Bridgespans the Neches The most notable canyon is the Santa Helena River on State Highway 87, six miles north of on the Rio Grande in Brewster County. Its walls Port Arthur.
rise perpendicularly for 2,000 ft.
Utah Capital, Salt Lake City--Beehive State-State Flower, Sego Lily--Motto: Industry--Area, 84,916 sq. ml.;
rank, 10th- Population, 550,310; rank, 41st. Utah, of the Mountain group of the Far West, For coloring and unusual erosional formations is bounded on the north by Idaho and Wyoming,
the canyon country of southwestern Utah and on the east by Wyoming and Colorado, on the south northern Arizona has no equal. The canyons themby Arizona, and on the west by Nevada. It has selves are stupendous in size and formation, and of several mountain ranges, which attain about 12,000 Bryce Canyon National Parks and Cedar Breaks
brilliant hues. It is in this country that Zion and ft. elevation (the highest peak, Kings Mountain, National Monument are situated. Zion National 13,498 ft.), the greater part of the State being a Park was, prior to its reservation, a national plateau 6,000 ft. above sea level. The rivers are monument, called by the Indian name of the river, useful only for irrigation, more than 1,300,000 acres Mukuntuweap. The monument was enlarged being under water. The Great Salt Lake, salt being (March 18, 1918) by President Wilson and the 20% of the fluid content, is in the northwest part, priate, for since early days its principal accessible
name changed to Zion. The new name is approaltitude 4,218 ft., and has no known outlet. Its
feature has been called Zion Canyon by the Morarea is 2,360 square miles. The climate is dry, stim
mon settlers, who said the great mountains formulating and wholesome, warm in summer, rather ing the canyon walls were in truth temples of God. cold in winter, and the sky so clear that no cloud
Cliff ruins have been discovered in Zion Park specks it on 300 days a year.
and its vicinity, proving that long before Little The chief crop is sugar beets. Vegetables and Zion gave sanctuary to the Mormons it was the fruit are grown in profusion. Other crops are home of a prehistoric people. wheat, oats, potatoes, hay, alfalfa, corn, barley A large part of geologic history is revealed in the and rye. Utah is a sheep-grazing State, with canyon walls of Zion and Bryce Canyon National more than 2,200,000.
Parks. Just as Grand Canyon is the best known Utah has been a leading producer of silver and record of ancient geologic history, Zion Canyon copper and yields gold, lead, petroleum, sulphur, records most clearly the events of medieval geozinc, coal, and salt; also uranium, vanadium, semi- logical time, and Bryce reveals much of modern
geologic history. The story of Zion begins where precious stones, marble, and onyx.
The Latter Day Saints number three-fourths of that of Grand Canyon ends, and ends where Bryce all church membership
begins. The rocks exposed in these three national The Mormons reached
parks incorporate the records of a billion years. Utah (July 24, 1847) from the Midwest. being
The consolidated sedimentary rocks exposed driven out by persecution, and journeyed to the
within Zion and Bryce and in the region that lies territory when it was almost completely a wilder
between these national parks are assigned by the ness. Salt Lake City, the capital, has several structures periods of Mezozoic time ("middle age') and to the
geologists to the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous built by the church, among them the Tabernacle, Eocene period of Tertiary time. Rocks of Permian seating 12.000, and the Temple.
age underlie the Triassic near the southwest border The state University is in Salt Lake; Brigham Of Zion, and lavas, gravels, and lake beds overlie Young University in Provo; State Agricultural Col- the Tertiary in several places. A study
of these lege, in Logan.
rocks shows that the geography, the plant life, and The Great American Desert" lies in the north- the animal life of each of these periods were unlike western corner of Utah, reaching over into Nevada. those of previous periods or of later periods; that during the last 200,000,000 years the region com- ward to the great cliff faces of West Temple and prising the parks has witnessed many changes in the Watchman. In front of Zion Lodge a slope of landscape and climate.
weak shales leads upward to a cliff of resistant At times it was covered by the sea, at other times sandstone above which a slope of shale extends to broad rivers traversed its surface, and at still other the vertical wall of Lady Mountain. In Bryce Cantimes it was swept by desert winds. Most of the yon the rim road is on the highest tread of a giant rocks were laid down by water as gravel, sand, mud, rock stairway that, as viewed from Rainbow Point, and limy ooze. A long slope of shales, broken by leads downward in steps 30 to 400 ft. high to the many benches developed in hard beds, extends up- | flat lands 3,000 ft. below.
Vermont Capital, Montpelier-Green Mountain State-State Flower, Red Clover-Motto: Freedom and Unity
-Area, 9,609 sq. mi.; rank, 42nd-Population, 359,231; rank, 46th. Vermont, New England's only inland State, is ballot whether they want movies, lectures and bounded on the north by Canada, on the east by
concerts after 6 P.M. on the Sabbath, or baseball New Hampshire, on the south by Massachusetts,
after 2 P.M. on that day.
From the earliest days attention has been given and on the west by New York. The Green and
to primary education. The University of Vermont Taconic Mountains run north and south through
was chartered (1791). Other institutions for higher the State, Lake Champlain, which forms most of education (five) include Norwich University (1819). the western boundary, more than 100 miles long in Northfield, the oldest military college in the and in places 12 miles wide, is the largest body country next to the U. S. Military Academy at of fresh water east of the Great Lakes. The West Point; Bennington College, Bennington, and Green Mourtains run north and south through Middlebury College, Middlebury. There are also the State. The boundary on the east was officially three normal schools and a junior college. decided (1937) to run for 200 miles along the Vermont was claimed by both New York and New Connecticut River, the New Hampshire line ex- Hampshire and was called by some the New Hamptending to the original low water line on the west shire Grants. Considerable feeling was aroused bank.
among the settlers by this controversy and a conThe climate is cool and the atmosphere dry, vention to discuss it was held (1765) in the CataThe summer season, between frosts, is from 110 mount Tavern in Bennington. The Green Mounto 160 days, according to location and altitude. tain Boys, a force of milltia, had come into exis
In the State there are more than 900 peaks tence the previous year and the romantic history with an altitude of 2,000 feet or more above sea of the early days of the state hinges on its activi
ties. level, and from Mt. Mansfield (4,393 feet), the highest, is an excellent view of the Green Moun
When the Revolutionary War broke out and news
of Lexington and Concord was received, many of tain Range, with Lake Champlain (30 miles dis
these militiamen started at once and joined the tant) clearly seen for much of its expanse. On clear days Mount Royal at Montreal (100 miles
Colonial forces around Boston. Those who reaway) may be seen.
mained at home joined the forces of Ethan Allen There are more than 300 lakes in Vermont.
and (May 10, 1775) captured Fort Ticonderoga State Forests or Forest Parks cover about 56.000
- a most important victory to the army of the Col
onies. At a convention in Westminster (Jan. acres and the National Forest will contain about
1777) Vermont was declared an independent 500,000 acres. Hardly a town in the State is without its op- adopted.
State and the name of New Connecticut was
The following June the name was portunities for skiing, snowshoeing, tobogganing changed to Vermont. , The Green Mountain Boys and other winter sports.
took part in the conflicts of the Revolution, the Preeminently a dairy state, it is as well suited most notable battle being that at Bennington to diversified farming and fruit growing. Its ratio
(Aug. 16, 1777). Bennington Monument, the tallest of dairy cows per capita is among the highest in battle monument in the world (302 feet). comthe nation. Both in quantity and quality Vermont memorates the battle, the turning point of the leads the maple-production states (nine) with a Revolution. normal yield of about 40% of the production. The
Thomas Chittenden was elected Governor (March apple crop is of notable quality with more than 3, 1778) in the first election under the Constitu350.000 bearing trees in the orchards.
tion. The first session of the Legislature was held Marble and granite are the chief quarry prod- (March 12, 1778). The State existed under its own ucts, the State ranking first in their production government until its difficulties in regard to and second in the production of slate and talc; boundaries and sovereignty were solved. The State and is the leading producer of asbestos in the was admitted to the Union (March 4, 1791) being Union. Vermont repealed its blue laws (Feb. 14, 1939).
the first after the original thirteen. Montpelier
was chosen as the capital (1805), and the first Under the new law cities and towns may decide by session of legislature was held there (1808).
Virginia Capital, Richmond-Old Dominion-State Flower, American Dogwood-Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis
(Thus Always to Tyrants)-Area, 40,815 sq. mi.; rank, 33rd-Population, 2,677,773; rank, 19th. Virginia, one of the South Atlantic and one of Eastern Shore, which juts down from Maryland the Original Thirteen States, is bounded on the between the Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay north by West Virginia and Maryland, on the east
and consists of Accomac and Northampton counby Maryland and the Atlantic Ocean, on the South ties, an early potato-growing section. The other by North Carolina and Tennessee, and on the west Rappahannock, York and James Rivers; these are
three peninsulas are formed by the Potomac. by West Virginia and Kentucky. Its territory.
tidal streams to the head of navigation, which for which once included Illinois, Indiana and Ohio
the Potomac is Washington; for the Rappahanas well as Kentucky, was further reduced by the
nock, Fredericksburg; for the York, West Point: establishment of West Virginia (1863) in the
and for the James, Richmond. The peninsulas are Civil War.
seldom more than ten or 15 miles wide and together The topography is varied. The Coastal Plain, they give Virginia a shoreline of more than 1,000 known as the Tidewater, consists of low-lying miles. lands intersected by numerous tidal estuaries and Along the ocean front, Chesapeake Bay and the rivers. The central part is known as the Piedmont. rivers there are many quiet summer resorts. The which rises to the Blue Ridge Mountains. Between absence of rock along the coast and the shores of this range to the north and the Alleghenies lies the Chesapeake Bay has resulted in hundreds of miles Shenandoah Valley, one of the finest farming of sand beaches ideal for bathing. The fishing is regions in the country. South of the James River is generally excellent in Chesapeake Bay and the Southside Virginia, a tobacco and cotton-raising rivers flowing into it as well as in the ocean off the section. Extending far to the west of the body of Eastern Shore. Trout, spot, croaker, bass, rock, blue the state is Southwest Virginia, which includes fish and many other species are found, while the mountains 5,720 feet in height and many fertile channel bass fishing is fine. valleys in which herds of cattle graze. The climate At Virginia Beach, near Norfolk, which has varies, being generally warm in the Coastal Plain become a much-frequented and fashionable resort and much colder in the high lands of the west. with good hotels, there is surf bathing. At Ocean In eastern Virginia snow is seldom seen and the View and Buckroe Beach, on Chesapeake Bay, the winters are ordinarily mild.
bathing is sheltered. Colonial Beach on the PotoTidewater Virginia consists of four peninsulas mac River is another popular bathing resort while averaging 70 miles in length, One of them is the there are many minor ones. In addition to the regular resorts the state maintains two beach are Mount Vernon, Washington's home; Monticello parks at Cape Henry and on the Potomac River. (near Charlottesville) Jefferson's home; Arlington In the mountains are the Shenandoah National National Cemetery. Only less noted are Wakefield Park and several state parks. The Skyline Drive (Washington's birthplace); Stratford (Lee's birthalong the crest of the Blue Ridge is perhaps the place), and Kermore (at Fredericksburg). Nafinest scenic highway in the country. The Blue tional' Military Parks at Manassas, FredericksRidge Parkway extends the Skyline Drive south- burg, Petersburg and Appomattox tell the war westward toward the Great Smoky Mountain Na story to the interest of thousands of visitors. The tional Park in North Carolina.
Colonial National Historical Park, including YorkThe main farm crops are corn and tobacco but town, Jamestown Island and part of Williamsall of eastern Virginia is a trucking section. Cotton burg, is unique among American Historical parks. is raised along the southern border. Fruit-raising The restoration of Williamsburg as the colonial is a large and growing industry. Virginia is one capital of Virginia, by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., of the leading apple-producing states. Peanuts are ranks as one of the most notable in the world. extensively grown in the Southside, and Smith- The Civil War battlefields around Richmond field hams, from hogs fed on peanuts, are famous were acquired by the State (1932) to create the the world over. The livestock industry exists on first state park in Virginia. A bill passed Congress a large scale in Southwest Virginia, The Piedmont for making this area a national military park. is noted for thoroughbred horses, to be seen The Petersburg battlefield was dedicated (1933) everywhere in that fox-hunting and horse-raising as a national military park. President Franklin D. country which perpetuates the sporting tradition Roosevelt (July 3, 1936) dedicated the Shenandoah of Old Virginia.
National Park. Virginia produces much bituminous coal and The United States Government maintains a navy limestone as well as cement, clay, feldspar, gold, yard at Portsmouth, utilizing Hampton Roads and gypsum, lead, manganese, mica, pyrite, salt, sand James River for anchorage. Fortress Monroe, overand gravel, slate, soapstone, titanium minerals and looking the entrance to Chesapeake Bay. has zinc. Virginia is the leading producer of titanium strong modern fortifications. minerals and has huge deposits of soapstone.
Race meets and horse shows draw many visitors Manufactures are many and varied. Richmond to the state. Garden Week in April gives tourists is the largest cigarette-making center in the an opportunity to see many estates that are open world. At Hopewell and elsewhere are chemical to the public only at this season. The old houses plants. Furniture-making is carried on extensively are usually set in groves of ancient trees and in in the southern section. Lumbering is one of the some cases the great box sempervirens rise to a State's principal businesses. Cotton textile manu- height of 40 feet. factures are also extensive. At Newport News, at In higher educational institutions the State the mouth of James River, is one of the largest ranks high, having the University of Virginia shipbuilding plants in the country.
founded (1819) in Charlottesville by Jefferson; Virginia is proud of its history. At Jamestown Washington and Lee University in Lexington, once the first permanent English settlement in America presided over by Robert E. Lee; William and Mary was made (1607). At Yorktown the American College (1693) in Williamsburg; Virginia PolyRevolution really ended (1781) with the surrender technic Institute, in Blacksburg: Virginia Military of a British army. The state was the scene of Institute in Lexington; and four State colleges for many campaigns in the Civil War and the war teachers. Other colleges are Hampden-Sydney: closed with the surrender of Lee's army (April, Randolph-Macon and Randolph-Macon Woman's: 1865) at Appomattox Courthouse near Lynchburg. Richmond University and several smaller colleges.
Virginia has been the birthplace of eight presi- Hampton Normal School at Hampton, the first dents (including Harrison, Taylor and Wilson Negro school of high rating in the South, is also elected from other states). Its principal shrines noteworthy.
Capital, Olympia-Evergreen State, Chinook State--State Flower, Rhododendron-Motto: Al-ki
(By and By)-Area, 68,192 sq. mi.; rank, 19th-Population, 1,736,191; rank, 30th, Washington, of the Pacific group, is bounded on The geology is the same as that of Oregonthe north by British Columbia, on the east by arid and semi-arid lands in the east, interspersed Idaho, on the south by Oregon, and on the west with fertile portions, and west of the Cascades the by the Pacific Ocean. It has the Columbia River
rainfall ranges from 20 to 80 inches with a reas southern boundary line for 300 miles from the sultant profusion of vegetation. west, and many streams of importance, mostly
Mount Rainier was named after the British Adfor irrigation uses, with the Snake River in its
miral, Peter Rainier, who figured in the American eastern reaches. In the northwestern third of the
Revolution. The name was bestowed (1792) by State the great Puget Sound, with tortuous shores Capt. George Vancouver, English navigator and and innumerable harbors, on which Seattle, Ta
explorer Seen from Tacoma or Seattle, Mount Everett, Olympia
and coma, other
directly from cities are situated, is a great commercial center,
level, so insignificant seem the ridges about its It is the nearest American gateway to the ports of
base. Yet these ridges rise 3,000 to 4,000 ft. above Asia, handles the bulk of the shipping to and
the valleys that cut through them, and their crests from Alaska and has a heavy trade via the Panama
average 6,000 ft. in altitude. Thus, at the southCanal
west entrance of the park in the Nisqually Valley. Seattle is a leading port, through which much the elevation, as determined by accurate measuretrade with the Orient passes.
ment, is 2,003 ft., while Mount Wow (Goat Mounagriculture is the chief occupation of the people. tude of 6,030 it.
tain), immediately to the north, rises to an altiThe State leads by far in the production of apples. Other important crops are wheat, barley, oats, So colossal are the proportions of the great incorn, potatoes, pears, peaches, peas and hops. active volcano that it dwarfs even mountains of Huge herds of cattle and sheep graze throughout
this size and gives them the appearance of mere the State.
foothills. It is the third highest mountain in conWashington is rich in minerals. Coal is pro- tinental United States. Only Mount Whitne duced in large quantities. Gold, silver, lead, mer- (Calif.), elevation 14,925 ft. and Mount Elbe i cury and zinc are also mined, as well as clays, (Colo), elevation 14,431 ft., rise above the pirgranite, sandstone, marble, limestone and cement.
nacle of Mount Rainier. Mount Rainier, 14,408 ft. Also found are antimony, arsenic, tungsten and stands approximately 11,000 ft. above its immeplatinum.
diate base and covers 100 square miles of territory. The Cascade Mountains cut through the west- approximately one-fourth the area of the park. ern third of the State with a lower mountain In shape it is not a simple cone tapering to a range nearer to the ocean shores. A dozen peaks, slender-pointed summit like Fujiyama, the great snowcapped, rise in the west.
volcano of Japan. It is a broadly truncated mass Standing timber includes Douglas fir. yellow resembling an enormous tree stump with spreadpine, white pine, spruce, larch, cedar and many ing base and irregularly broken top. others. Normally. Washington leads all States in Its life history has been a varied one. Like all lumber output, shipping the product all over the volcanoes, Rainier has built up its cone with the world, much going to the North Atlantic States materials ejected by its own eruptions--with cindvia the Panama Canal and going by rail to the ers and steam-shredded particles and lumps of Central West.
lava and with occasional Rows of liquid lava that The Grand Coulee Dam, embracing a huge have solidified into layers of hard andesite rock. waterpower and irrigation project, is on the Co- At one time it may have attained an altitude of lumbia River. It began furnishing power (1941) 16,000 ft., if one may judge by the steep inclinatwo years ahead of schedule.
tion of the lava and cinder layers visible in its The Columbia River has also been harnessed at flanks. Then, it is thought, a great explosion fol. Wenatchee.
lowed that destroyed the top part of the mountain